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ICKENS'S 


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ICTIONARY 


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•  •• 


1555 


AeiitLAN&e9 


Victorian 
914.22 
D555d 
1885 


Joseph  Earl  and 
Genevieve  Thornton 

Arlington 

Collection  of  19th 
Century  Americana 

Brigham  Young  University  Library 


BRIGHAM  YOUNG  UNIVERSITY 


3  1197  22882  8213 


TO  ALL  LEAVING   HOME   FOR  A  CHANGE. 

What  every  Travelling  Trunk  and  Household  in  the  World  ought  to  contain — 

A  BOTTLE  OF 

ENO'S   FRUIT  SALT 

Without  such  a  simple  precaution  the  JEOPARDY  of  LIFE  is 
immensely  increased. 

A  SONG  OF  GRATITUDE. 

{By  an  F.S.A.  of  '80  years  flfage). 
These  words  a  wise  physician  said  : 
"STOMACH'S  a  master  all  should  dread." 
Oppose  his  laws — for  Death  prepare  ! 
Obey  them— health  will  triumph  the»e  ! 
With  grateful  thanks  I  hail  thy  name, 
ENO  !  and  strive  to  give  it  fame, 
Your  SALT  OF  FRUIT  can  give  me  ease  ! 
And  give  me  comfort  when  I  please  ; 
By  true  aperient,  strong  or  mild, 
To  calm  a  man  or  soothe  a  child  ; 
Aid  Nature  without  force  or  strain  ; 
Strengthen  heart,  liver,  lung,  and  brain  ; 
Make  the  pulse  neither  fast  nor  slow, 
The  blood  heat  not  too  high  nor  low. 
So  bringing  health  at  little  cost, 
Restoring  what  neglect  had  lost  I 
To  ENO'S  SALT  1  owe  a  debt 
The  grateful  mind  may  not  forget ; 
With  rhyme  that  debt  in  part  1  pay, 
Expeiience  teaching  what  to  say. 

As  a  natural  product  of  Nature,  use  ENO'S 
FRUIT  SALT,  prepared  from  Sound  Ripe  Fruit. 
You  cannot  overstate  its  great  value  in  keeping  the 
BLOOD  PURE.  As  a  means  of  keeping  the  sys- 
tem clear,  and  thus  taking  away  the  ground-work 
of  Malarious  Diseases,  BLOOD  POISONS,  and  all 
Liver  Complaints,  or  as  a  HEALTH-GIVING. 
REFRESHING.  COOLING,  and  INVIGORA- 
TING SUMMER  BEVERAGE,  or  as  a  gentle 
Laxative  or  Tonic  in  the  various  forms  of  Indigestion. 
TMPORTANT  to  PARENTS.-Should  a 
•*•  parent  have  nothing  to  bestow  on  a  child  but  a 
narrow  education,  still  he  will  bless  you  if  you  form 
his  body  to  health  and  strength  and  activity,  ' 
whether  he  earns  his  simple  meal  by  labour  at  the 
XTT7r,__^_,.   ,;  '  .  „  plough,  anvil,  or  axe.      On  the  contrary,  if  you 

JN-bC-LECI  his  health  and  strength,  and  leave  him  adebritated  wretch,  he  would  curse  you  though 
a  millionaire.  ENO'S  FRUIT  SALT  is  an  INDISPENSABLE  REQUISITE  in  the  PRESER- 
VATION  of  CHILDREN'S  HEALTH. 

OTIMULANTS  and  insufficient  amount  of  exercise  frequently  derange  the  liver.  ENO'S 
**■*•  FRUIT  SALT  is  peculiarly  adapted  for  any  constitutional  weakness  of  the  livtr.  A  world  of 
roV™?^ rdJ°y  th,OSe  who  kc.ep  and  use  ENO'S  FRUIT  SALT.—"  All  our  customers  for  ENO'S 
bRUll  SALT  would  not  be  without  it  upon  any  consideration,  they  having  received  so  much  benefit 
from  it.—  Wood  Brothers.  Chemists,  Jersey,  1878." 

TP NO'S  FRUIT  SALT.—"  After  suffering  for  nearly  two  and  a  half  years  from  severe  headache 
and  disordered  stomach,  and  after  trying  almost  everything,  and  spending  much  money  without 
finding  any  benefit,  I  was  recommended  by  a  friend  to  try  your  FRUIT  SALT,  and  before  I  had 
finished  one  bottle  I  found  it  doing  me  a  great  de^I  of  good,  and  now  I  am  restored  to  my  usual  health  ; 
and  others  I  know  that  have  tried  it  have  not  enjoyed  such  good  health  for  \  ears.— Yours  most  truly, 
Robert  Humphreys,  Post  Office,  Barrasford." 

C  AU£?-9  m—.Examine  e<wk  Bottle  and  see  that  the  Cafisule  is  marked"  ENO'S  FR  UIT  SALT." 
Without  it,  you  have  been  imposed  upon  by  a  worthless  imitation.    Sold  by  all  Chemists. 

PREPARED  ONLY  AT  ENO'S  FRUIT  SALT  WORKS,  HATCHAM,  LONDON,  S.E.,  by J.C  enospatent. 


~«v  ui  ADroad,  I  never  Travel  without 
LAMPLOUGH'S 

ETIO    SALINE. 


It  gives  instant  relief  in  Head- 
ache, Indigestion,  Lassitude, 
Constipation,  Sea  or  Bilious 
Sickness,  and  quickly  cures  the 
worst  form   of  Typhus,    Scarlet, 

The  eminent  and  learned  Doctors  MORGAN,  TURLEY,  SPARKS,  GIBBON, 
STEVENS,  and  many  others,  have  given  unqualified  testimony  in  praise  of  this  Great 
Remedy,  as  possessing  most  important  elements  calculated  to  restore  and  maintain  health, 
with  perfect  vigour  of  body  and  mind. 

May  be  obtained  of  all  Chemists,  in  Bottles,  2/6,  4/6,  11/-,  and  21/-. 


Jungle/ and  other  Fevers,  Prickly 
Heat,  Small-Pox,  Eruptive  or 
Skin  Complaints,  and  various 
other  altered  conditions  of  the 
Blood. 


LAMPLOUGH'S   CONCENTRATED    LIME   JUICE    SYRUP. 

A  perfect  luxury.  Forms,  with  the  addition  of  Pyretic  Saline,  a  most  delicious  and  invigorating  beverage. 
Sold  by  all  Chemists,  in  Patent  Glass-stoppered  Bottles,  at  2/-  and  4/6  each. 


H,    LAKFLOVGE,     113,    EOLBOBN,     LONDON,     E.G. 


ROYAL   FOREST    HOTEL, 

CHINGFORD  (adjoining  Queen  Elizabeth's  Lodge), 

EPPING  FOREST. 

The  Elizabethan  Banqueting  Rocm 
— The  Masonic  Room — The  Hotel 
Coffee  Room— The  Tea  Room— The 
Series  of  elegantly- furnished  Private 
Sitting  or  Dining  Rooms — The  Grand 
Pavilion— are  all  available  for  Visitors 
who  may  require  the  comforts  of  a 
high-class  Residential  Hotel,  or 
accommodation  for  Large  or  Small 
Parties,  and  Banquets,  Festivals, - 
Wedding  Breakiasts,  or  Evening 
Parties.  Sixty  Rooms  (including: 
a  Series  of  Bedrooms  overlooking: 
delightful  scenery).  THE  ROYAL 
FORES V  HOTEL  is  the  centre 
irom  which  to  approach  the  finest  of 
the  Woodland  and  Glade  and  the 
chief  attractions  of  the  Forest.  It  is  close  to  Chingford  Station,  and  is  reached  by  the  New  Road 
and  the  Green  Ride,  and  is  near  the  Boating  ?nd  Skating  Lakes  known  as  the  "  Connaught  Waters." 

A  Daily  Table  d'Hote  Dinner  from  4  to  8. 

BREAKFASTS,    LUNCHEONS,    AND    COLD    COLLATIONS. 

EXTENSIVE    STABLING.    CARRIAGES    AND    SADDLE    HORSES    FOR    HIRE. 

Constant  Trains  to  Chingford  from  Liverpool  Street  City  (Gt.  Eastern  Ry.). 


TO  ALL   LEAVING   HOME   FOR  A  CHANGE. 

What  every  Travelling  Trunk  and  Household  in  the  World  ought  to  contain— 

A  BOTTLE  OP 

EN  OS   FRUIT  SALT 

Without  such  a  simple  precaution  the  JEOPARDY  of  LIFE  is 
immensely  increased. 

A  SONG  OF  GRATITUDE. 

{By  an  F.S.A.  of  %o  years  of  age). 
These  words  a  wise  physician  said  : 
"STOMACH'S  a  master  all  should  dread." 
Oppose  his  laws — for  Death  prepare  ! 
Obey  them— health  will  triumph  there  ! 
With  grateful  thanks  I  hail  thy  name, 
ENO  !  and  strive  to  give  it  fame, 
Your  SALT  OF  FRUIT  can  give  me  ease  ! 
And  give  me  comfort  when  I  please  ; 
By  true  aperient,  strong  or  mild, 
To  calm  a  man  or  soothe  a  child  ; 
Aid  Nature  without  force  or  strain  ; 
Strengthen  heart,  liver,  lung,  and  brain  ; 
Make  the  pulse  neither  fast  nor  slow, 
The  blood  heat  not  too  high  nor  low. 
So  bringing  health  at  little  cost, 
Restoring  what  neglect  had  lost  ! 
To  ENO'S  SALT  1  owe  a  debt 
The  grateful  mind  may  not  forget ; 
With  rhyme  that  debt  in  part  1  pay, 
Experience  teaching  what  to  say. 

As  a  natural  product  of  Nature,  use  ENO'S 
FRUIT  SALT,  prepared  from  Sound  Ripe  Fruit. 
You  cannot  overstate  its  great  value  in  keeping  the 
BLOOD  PURE.  As  a  means  of  keeping  the  sys- 
tem clear,  and  thus  taking  away  the  ground-work 
of  Malarious  Diseases,  BLOOD  POISONS,  and  all 
Liver  Complaints,  or  as  a  HEALTH-GIVING, 
REFRESHING.  COOLING,  and  INVIGORA- 
TING  SUMMER  BEVERAGE,  or  as  a  gentle 
Laxative  or  Tonic  in  the  various  forms  of  Indigestion. 

IMPORTANT  to  PARENTS.-Should  a 
parent  have  nothing  to  bestow  on  a  child  but  a 
narrow  education,  still  he  will  bless  you  if  you  form 
his  body  to  health  and  strength  and  activity, 
whether  he  earns  his  simple  meal  by  labour  at  the 
plough,  anvil,  or  axe.  On  the  contrary,  if  you 
NEGLECT  his  health  and  strength,  and  leave  him  adebi'itated  wretch,  he  would  curse  you  though 
a  millionaire.  ENO'S  FRUIT  SALT  is  an  INDISPENSABLE  REQUISITE  in  the  PRESER- 
VATION of  CHILDREN'S  HEALTH. 

STIMULANTS  and  insufficient  amount  of  exercise  frequently  derange  the  liver.  ENO'S 
FRUIT  SALT  is  peculiarly  adapted  for  any  constitutional  weakness  of  the  livtr.  A  world  of 
woe  is  avoided  by  those  who  keep  and  use  ENO'S  FRUIT  SALT.—"  All  our  customers  for  ENO'S 
FRUIT  SALT  would  not  be  without  it  upon  any  consideration,  they  having  received  so  much  benefit 
from  it.— Wood  Brothers,  Chemists,  Jersey,  1878." 

TpNO'S  FRUIT  SALT.—"  After  suffering  for  nearly  two  and  a  half  years  from  severe  headache 
■*— * m  and  disordered  stomach,  and  after  trying  almost  everything,  and  spending'  much  money  without 
finding  any  benefit,  I  was  recommended  by  a  friend  to  try  your  FRUIT  SALT,  and  before  I  had 
finished  one  bottle  I  found  it  doing  me  a  great  de^l  of  good,  and  now  I  am  restored  to  my  usual  health  ; 
and  others  I  know  that  have  tried  it  have  not  enjoyed  such  good  health  for  j  ears.— Yours  most  truly, 
Robert  Humphreys,  Post  Office.  Barrasford." 

CAUTION.— Examine  each  Bottle  and  see  that  the  Caf>su?e  is  marked  "ENO'S  FR  UIT SALT." 
Without  it,  you  have  been  imposed  upon  by  a  worthless  imitation.    Sold  by  all  Chemists. 

PREPARED  ONLY  AT  ENO'S  FRUIT  SALT  WORKS,  HATCHAM,  LONDON,  S.E.,  BY  J.  C  EN0S PATENT. 


DR.  BROWNE  discovered  the  Medicine, 


*  °-~  «  3,c  a  2  g  h  s  s  * E  H 

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And  invented  the  word  "Chlorodyne"  in 

1856. 


DICKENS'S  r:,, 

Wf  I  I  iVl  n  A  ■  ■  "i#  II I U  If 

DICTIONARY 

Q^;  0    8' i 

OF 

THE  THAMES, 

)HOT    HOULU    3'flIO 

FROM     ITS     SOURCE     TO    THE    NORE. 


1885. — - 


AN   UNCONVENTIONAL   HANDBOOK. 


'-    S 


fe      ■  ' 


- 

gC.ottb.crn : 
MACMILLAN    &    CO.,    BEDFORD    STREET,   STRAND. 


BOATING  and  PICNIO  PARTIES 

SHOULD    USE 

MOIR'S  ARMY  RATIONS 

An  Excellent  Dish  for  Luncheon  or  Dinner. 

MOIR'S    COCOA    AND    MILK. 
MOIR'S    CHOCOLATE    AND    MILK. 
MOIR'S    POTTED    MEATS. 
MOIR'S    LUNCH    HAM. 
MOIR'S    LUNCH    TONGUE. 
MOIR'S    SOUPS    IN    TINS. 


GOLD    MEDAL,    CALCUTTA    EXHIBITION,     1884. 

IE1  H  IT'S 

CELEBRATED 

CHOCOLATE. 

Fry's  Chocolate  for  Eating— Ghocolate  Creams, 

Chocolate  Caramel— Chocolate  Nougat— Chocolate  Almonds 

ARE    DELICIOUS    SWEETMEATS. 

For  a  thin  Beverage,  try  "Fry's  Cocoa  Extract"— Guaranteed  Pure. 


UPB 


f. 


33fl3fl3  J}3*lQf 


::Z 


PREFACE, 


- 


THE  objects  aimed  at  in  this  book,  which  follows  naturally  on  the 
original  Dictionary  of  London,  have  been  to  give  practical  informa- 
tion to  oarsmen,  anglers,  yachtsmen,  and  others  directly  interested 
in  the  river ;  to  serve  as  a  guide  to  the  numerous  strangers  who 
annually  visit  the  principal  places  on  its  banks  ;  to  furnish  a  book  of 
reference  for  residents ;  as  well  as  to  provide  in  a  concise  form  a 
useful  handbook  for  those  connected  with  the  port  of  London  and 
its  trade. 

A  Dictionary  of  the  Thames  which  should  include  a  Dictionary 
of  London  was  obviously  incompatible  with  the  space  at  my  disposal. 
From  Kew  to  Woolwich,  therefore,  it  has  been  necessary  to  omit  all 
matters  not  immediately  connected  with  the  river  itself. 

The  favourite  excursion  from  Oxford  to  London  will  be  found  fully 
dealt  with  under  the  head,  "  Trip  from  Oxford,"  which  includes  full 
descriptions  of  locks,  etc.,  and  distances  from  place  to  place.  The 
numerous  maps  already  in  existence  vary  so  much  as  to  the  latter 
point,  that  I  have  thought  it  best  to  adopt  the  measurements  kindly 
given  to  me  by  the  Thames  Conservancy,  which  are  sufficiently 
accurate  for  all  practical  purposes.  For  convenience  pf  reference  the 
guide  to  Oxford  is  divided  into  two  parts,  Oxford  City  and  Oxford 
University.  Under  the  latter  head  will  be  found  descriptions  of  the 
University  buildings. 

Since  the  book  was  first  published,  the  trip  from  Ciicklade  to 
Oxford  and  a  description  of  the  principal  places  on  the  Thames 
above  Oxford  have  also  been  added  to  its  contents. 

In  conclusion,  it  is  my  pleasant  duty  to  express  my  grateful  thanks 
for  the  courteous  readiness  with  which  my  applications  for  informa- 
tion and  assistance  have  been  responded  to,  both  by  the  authorities 
of  the  Trinity  House  and  Thames  Conservancy,  as  well  as  by  the 
very  numerous  correspondents  who  have  afforded  me  valuable 
assistance. 

CHARLES   DICKENS. 


ROPER  FRERES&C0  s 


CHA 


AGNES. 


ROPER  FRERES'  First  Quality 
Extra  Dry  or  Medium  Dry. 

ROPER   FRERES'  Vin  Brut  or 
Natural  Champagne. 

KOPEK  FKEKES  &  Co.'s  Champagnes  are  most 

stiitable  for  Yachting  Matches,  Boating  Parties, 

Kegattas,  Picnics,  &o,  and  can  be  obtained  of 

all  Wine  Merchants  and  at  all  Hotels. 


THURSTONS 


.Established   1814. 


mm 


BILLIARD 


By  Appointment 

to  H.M.  The  Queen 

and  H.R.H.  The 

Prince  of  Wales. 


■ 


TABLES 


First  Class  Prize  Medal,  London,  1851;  Honourable  Mention,  London,  1862;  Prize 
Medal,  Sydney,  1879,  " First  Award";  First  Class  Certificate  and  Silver  Medal, 
Calcutta,  1883;     Diploma  of  Honour,   " Highest  Award,"  London,  1884. 

Sole  Makers  of  the  "  PERFECT"  BILLIARD  CUSHIONS  as  used  by  JOHN  ROBERTS,  Jun., 
and  approved  by  the  LEADING  PROFESSIONAL  PLAYERS  (vide  Testimonials),  also  of 
ROBERTS'   CHAMPION   CUE  (registered). 


The  HEW  ELECTRIC  CLOTH  can  only  be  obtained  of 

THURSTON    &    CO., 

16,  CATHERINE  STREET,  STRAND,  LONDON,  W.C. 


DICKENS'S 


DICTIONARY  OF  THE   THAMES. 


Abingdon,  Berkshire,  on  the  right 
bank,  from  London  103J  miles,  from 
Oxford  7!  miles.  A  station  on  the  Great 
Western  Railway,  from  Paddington  60 
miles.  The  time  occupied  by  the  trains 
varies  from  one  hour  and  three-quarters 
upwards  ;  the  station  is  about  twelve 
minutes'  walk  from  the  river.  Population, 
6,506.  Soil,  gravel.  Abingdon  is  situated 
at  the  j unction  of  the  Ock  with  the  Thames, 
and  can  boast  very  considerable  antiquity. 
It  appears  to  have  grown  up  round  a 
great  abbey  which  was  founded  here  so 
far  back  as  the  7th  century,  but  it  is  pro- 
bable that  much  of  the  early  history  of 
Abingdon  is  entirely  of  a  legendary  kind, 
and  that  little  is  known  about  it  with 
absolute  certainty  until  the  time  of  the 
Conquest.  The  evidence  of  Domesday 
Book  goes  to  show  that  the  abbey  at  that 
time  was  rich  in  landed  property.  Des- 
perate quarrels  occurred  between  the 
monks  and  the  citizens,  and  in  1327  a 
great  part  of  the  abbey  was  burnt  in  a 
riot,  in  which  the  Mayor  of  Oxford  and 
certain  disorderly  students  of  that  Uni- 
versity took  the  part  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Abingdon.  The  town  gradually  grew 
into  importance,  principally  through  its 
extensive  cloth  trade,  but  received  a 
severe  blow  when  the  abbey  was  abolished 
in  1538  and  its  large  revenues  diverted 
into  other  channels.  Another  reason  for 
the  importance  of  the  town  in  ancient 
days  was  the  building  of  its  bridge  by 


John  Huchyns  and  Geoffrey  Barbur  in 
1416.  In  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary,  1557, 
a  Charter  of  Incorporation  was  granted 
to  the  town  at  the  instigation  of  Sir  John 
Mason,  an  influential  inhabitant,  and  it 
has  ever  since  been  represented  in#  Parlia- 
ment, the  original  number  of  two  members 
being  now  reduced  to  one.  The  borough 
is  now  represented  by  Mr.  John  C.  Clarke, 
a  Liberal.  The  number  of  voters  on  the 
register  in  1878  was  890.  The  town  is 
governed  by  a  mayor,  four  aldermen, 
and  twelve  councillors.  The  principal 
business  centre  is  the  Market-place,  with 
High-street,  Stert-street,  East  St.  Helen's- 
street,  The  Square,  and  Ock-street.  It  is 
a  clean,  quiet  little  place — quiet  even  to 
the  point  of  dulness — with  many  good 
houses  both  modern  and  ancient.  Among 
the  latter  may  be  instanced  an  excellent 
example  of  old  timbering  in  a  house  in 
Stert-street.  Notwithstanding  its  apparent 
quiet  a  fair  amount  of  trade  is  carried  on 
in  Abingdon,  and  one  of  its  principal 
industries  is  that  of  the  manufacture  of 
ready-made  clothing,  thus,  oddly  enough, 
carrying  out  the  old  traditions  of  the  place, 
which,  as  Leland  says,  at  one  time, 
"  stood  by  clothing."  The  market-house 
stands  on  an  open  arcade  of  stone  pillars 
with  a  timbered  roof,  and  is  the  work  of 
Inigo  Jones.  Built  in  1667,  it  was  re- 
stored in  1853,  and  stands  on  the  site  of 
the  famous  old  market  cross  which  was 
destroyed  by  the  Parliamentary  General 


ABI-ABI 


Waller  in  1644.  A  curious  picture  of  the 
cross  is  on  the  outside  of  the  south  wall 
of  Christ's  Hospital,  facing  the  river.  The 
abbey  gateway  still  stands  to  the  eastward 
of  the  market-place,  and  a  little  beyond 
it,  on  the  right,  are  some  very  interesting 
remains  of  the  old  abbey  itself,  now  in  the 
occupation  of  a  brewer,  but  readily  acces- 
sible to  visitors.  Here,  at  the  extreme 
end  of  the  yard,  some  crumbling  steps 
with  a  time-worn  wooden  balustrade  at 
the  top  lead  to  the  abbot's  apartments, 
now  used  as  lofts,  in  which  are  the  remains 
of  a  fine  fireplace,  said  to  be  of  the  time 
of  Henry  III.,  with  a  capacious  chimney, 
some  good  windows,  and  well-preserved 
pointed  arches  to  the  doorways.  The 
roofs  are  lofty  and  the  walls  of  immense 
thickness.  Underneath  this  room  is  a 
remarkable  crypt,  also  unusually  lofty, 
which  is  at  present  used  for  the  storage 
of  bitter  ale.  The  entrance  to  the  crypt 
is  close  to  the  backwater  of  the  Thames, 
and  is  shaded  by  some  splendid  chestnuts 
— for  which  indeed  Abingdon  is  remark- 
able. The  upper  windows  facing  the  river 
at  this  point  are  in  good  preservation, 
and,  from  a  lane  between  the  brewery  and 
the  abbey,  gateway,  is  a  very  picturesque 
view  of  the  great  chimney  above  men- 
tioned. 

The  church  of  St.  Nicholas  adjoins  the 
abbey  gateway,  and  will  well  repay  a 
visit.  It  contains  a  painted  mural  monu- 
ment, with  a  carved  stone  base,  reaching 
from  the  floor  almost  to  the  ceiling,  dedi- 
cated to  the  memory  of  John  Blacknall 
and  Jane  his  wife,  "who  both  of  them 
finished  an  happy  course  upon  earth,  and 
ended  their  days  in  peace  on  the  21st  day 
of  August,  1625."  They  are  represented 
by  two  figures  in  black  kneeling  on  red 
and  gilt  cushions,  she  with  her  two  child- 
ren praying  behind  her  ;  and  the  epitaph 
runs  as  follows  : 


When  once  the  liv'd  on  earth  one  bed  did  hold 
Their  bodies,  which  one    minute    turned    to 

mould, 
Being  dead,  one  grave  is  trusted  with  that 

prize, 
Until  the  trump  doth  sound,  and  all  must  rise; 
Here  deaths  stroke,  even,  did  not  part  this  pair, 
But  by  this  stroke  they  more  vniteel  were  : 
And  what  left  they  behind  you  plainly  see, 
One  only  davghter,  and  their  charity. 
What  thovgh  the  first  by  death's  command  did 

leave  us, 
The  second,  we  are  sure,  will  ne'er  deceive  us. 


Blacknall  was  a  great  benefactor  to  the 
town,  and  among  his  charities  is  a  dole 
of  forty-seven  loaves  of  bread,  which  are 
distributed  from  his  tomb  every  Sunday. 
There  is  a  small  brass  with  an  inscription 
to  the  Bostock  family  (1669),  some  curious 
old  stained  glass  panes  with  an  almost 
undecipherable  inscription,  and  an  old 
carved  stone  font.  The  registers  date 
back  to  1558,  are  in  splendid  order,  and 
most  carefully  bound  and  preserved,  and 
contain  many  curious  entries ;  among 
others,  the  records  of  several  civil  mar- 
riages, after  publication  of  the  names 
three  times  in  the  market,  attested  by 
John  Bolton  and  others,  mayors  of  the 
town  in  1657.  The  church  has  a  tower 
with  a  singular  square  turret  attached, 
and  a  good  Norman  doorway. 

A  much  finer  church  is  St.  Helen's, 
close  to  the  river,  the  spire  of  which,  with 
its  flying  buttresses,  is  a  landmark  to  this 
portion  of  the  Thames.  This  really 
handsome  church  has  a  nave  and  chancel 
of  equal  breadth,  and  side  aisles,  with 
timbered  roof,  good  throughout  and  in 
the  nave  and  chancel  very  elaborate.  In 
the  north  aisle  the  roof  is  still  decorated 
with  curious  paintings,  many  of  which 
are  gradually  but  surely  fading.  There 
is  a  new  carved  marble  font  and  modern 
oak  rood-screen,  both  of  considerable 
beauty.  Among  the  monuments  is  the 
stone  memorial  in  the  north  aisle  to  John 
Roysse,  the  founder  of  the  Abtagdon 
Grammar  School,  who  died  in  1571, 
leaving  express  orders  that  the  great 
stone  in  his  arbour  in  his  London  garden 
should  be  the  upper  stone  of  his  tomb  at 
Abingdon,  round  about  which  four-and- 
twenty  pensioners  should  for  ever  kneel 
on  Sundays  to  receive  alms  ;  and  with 
further  careful  provision  that  lf  twelve 
pence  in  white  bread,  being  good,  sweet, 
and  seasonable,"  should  be  distributed 
every  Sunday  at  his  tomb,  to  twelve  old 
widows,  "women  or  men,"  of  whom 
every  one  at  the  receipt  thereof  should 
say,  "The  blessed  Trinity  upon  John 
Roysse's  soul  have  mercy !  Another 
stone  monument,  in  the  west  of  the  north 
aisle,  bears  the  following  inscription  : 
"This  tombe  is  honord  with  the  bones 
of  our  pious  benefactour,  Richard  Curtaine, 
gent. ,  a  principall  magistrate  of  this  Corpa, 
hee  was  buried  July  ye  18,  Ano  Dominy 
1643  ; "  and  elsewhere  on  the  tomb  are 
these  lines,  which  at  the  time  were  no 


doubt  considered  to  embody  a  quaint 
conceit : 

Our  Cvrtaine  in  this  lower  press, 
Rests  folded  vp  in  natvre's  dress. 

At  the  foot  of  this  tomb  is  a  brass,  with  a 
half-length  figure  in  action  of  prayer, 
Galfridus  Barbur,  1417  ;  and  behind  the 
organ  is  another  brass,  nearly  obliterated, 
displaying  a  full-length  female  figure. 
In  the  east  of  the  south  aisle  is  a  curious 
painting  of  the  genealogical  tree  of  W.  Lee, 
1637.  Mr.  Lee  was  five  times  Mayor  of 
Abingdon,  and  "  had  in  his  lifetime  issue 
from  his  loins  two  hundred  lacking  but 
three."  The  organ  displays  a  quaint 
wood-carving  of  King  David,  with  gilded 
harp  and  crown.  The  tomb  of  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  Hawkins,  1780,  is  a  capital 
example  of  what  should  be  avoided  in  the 
way  of  monumental  sculpture.  It  is 
crowded  with  busts  of  fat  naked  children, 
weeping  tears  of  colossal  size,  and  all  the 
usual  devices  and  properties  of  the  most 
conventional  stonemason.  The  perpe- 
trator of  this  work  of  genius  was,  it 
appears,  one  Hickey,  who  was  fortunate 
enough  to  receive  for  it  ^400  under  the 
deceased  lady's  will. 

In  the  churchyard  of  St.  Helen's  is  a 
row  of  almshouses  in  memory  of  Charles 
Twitty,  1707,  who  gave  ^1,700  for  build- 
ing and  endowing  "an  hospital  for 
maintayning  in  meate,  drinke,  and 
apparrel,  and  all  other  necessarys  of  life 
3  poor  aged  men,  and  the  like  number  of 
poor  aged  women."  Abutting  on  the 
churchyard  also  are  the  cloistered  build- 
ings of  the  charity  of  Christ's  Hospital, 
which  was  refounded  in  1553 — having 
been  dissolved  by  Henry  VIII. — at  the 
instance  of  Sir  John  Mason,  who  pro- 
cured for  it  a  charter  from  Edward  VI. 
Over  the  central  porch  of  the  hospital 
are  some  curious  old  paintings,  repre- 
senting such  subjects  as  the  giving  of 
alms,  the  story  of  the  Good  Samaritan, 
and  other  Scripture  subjects,  as  well  as  a 
portrait  of  Edward  VI.  The  picture  of 
the  old  market  cross  has  already  been 
jioticed.  .  The  oak-panelled  hall,  which 
3s  lighted  by  a  lofty  lantern,  has  several 
odd  pictures,  among  them  one  repre- 
senting the  building  of  Abingdon  Bridge, 
in  memory  of  "  Jefforye  Barbur  and  John 
Howchion."  On  the  frame  is  inscribed  : 
"  Frauncis  Little,  one  of  ye  governors  of 
this  hospital,  gave  this  table,  An.  Dni. 


AB1— AB. 

1607,"  and  underneath  the  picture  stands 
.  the  table  in  question,  a  fine  one  of  oak, 
with  curiously  carved  legs.  A  portrait  of 
Edward  VI.  hangs,  with  several  others, 
in  the  hall  ;  and  there  is  also  preserved 
the  original  charter,  which  shows  con- 
siderable signs  of  age.  The  later  portion 
of  the  hospital  buildings,  which  runs 
parallel  to  the  river,  dates  from  1718,  and 
it  is  just  below  this  point  that  the  waters 
of  the  Ock  and  of  the  Wilts  and  Berks 
Canal  join  the  Thames. 

At  the  north  side  of  the  town  is  the 
Albert  Park,  presented  to  the  town  by 
the  trustees  of  Christ's  Hospital  in  1864. 
It  is  well  laid  out  and  planted,  and  in  it 
stands  a  monument  to   the  late  Prince 
Consort,  with  his  statue  in  the  robes  of 
the  Garter.     Adjoining  the  park  are  the 
new  buildings   of  the  grammar  school, 
founded  by  John  Roysse  in  1563.     The 
profligacy  of  John  Roysse' s  son  was  the 
immediate   cause   of   the  foundation   of 
Abingdon  Grammar  School.     It  is  said 
that  nothing  but  the  universal  estimation 
in  which  men  held  his  father,    "as  well 
in  the  west  country  as  also  in   Kent  or 
otherwise,"  saved  the  criminal  from  the 
penalties  of  the  law.     Roysse  disinherited 
him,  and,  after  providing  for  his  grand-       > 
son  and  making  certain  other  bequests, 
bequeathed  the  residue  of  his  fortune,  di- 
recting that  as  it  was  endowed  a.d.  1563, 
and  in  the  63rd  year  of  its  founder's  life,  it 
should  educate  63  boys  for  ever.  Thomas 
Teesdale,  the  first  scholar  admitted  into 
this  school,  endowed  an  ushership  in  the 
school,    and    left   funds  for  purchasing 
lands  for  the  maintenance  of  fellows  and 
scholars  from  Abingdon  school  at  Balliol 
College,  Oxford.     His  trustees,  however, 
combined   with    Richard   Wightwick   to 
found  Pembroke  College,  Oxford,  at  which 
college  the  school  possesses  five  of  the  in- 
corporated scholarships.     Of  these  one  is 
filled  up  annually,  and  two  boys  who  have 
been  educated  at  the  school  for  two  years 
are    nominated    as    candidates.       Each 
scholarship  is  of  the  value  of  ^50  per 
annum,  with  rooms  rent  free,  and  is  ten- 
able for  five  years.    The  fees  for  boarders 
under  the  age  of  13  are  £$7 1  over  13,  £63. 
Hard  by  Roysse's  school  is  Sir  Gilbert 
Scott's  church  of  St.  Michael,  which  serves 
as  a  chapel-of-ease  to  St.  Helen's.     The 
street  leading  to  the  park  from  Ock-street 
is  by  the  side  of  the  almshouses  founded 
by  Benjamin  Tompkins  in  1733. 


ABI— AMA 

The  angler  should  not  be  afraid  of  fish- 
ing near  the  town,  as  there  are  some  excel- 
lent swims  close  by.  In  Blake's  Lock- 
pool  there  are  barbel,  chub,  perch,  &c, 
and  on  the  tow-path  side,  opposite  Thrup, 
just  past  the  overfall,  there  is  a  swim  of 
considerable  length,  and  full  six  feet  deep, 
reachable  from  the  bank. 

Banks.—  Gillett  &  Co.,  The  Square; 
London  and  County,  Market-place. 

Fairs. — First  Monday  in  Lent,  May  6, 
June  20,  July  1,  September  19  and  30, 
December  11. 

Fire  Engine.— Abbey-gateway. 

Hotels.  — "  Crown  and  Thistle"  (land- 
ing-stage at  the  ■ '  Nag's  Head  " ) ;  "  Lion, " 
High-street;  "Queen's,"  Market-place 
(landing-stage  at  the  "Anchor"). 

Market  Day. — Monday. 

Places  of  Worship. — St.  Helen's, 
St.  Michael's,  and  St.  Nicholas  ;  and  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church  of  Our  Lady  and 
St.  Edmund.  There  are  also  Baptist, 
Independent,  Primitive  Methodist,  and 
Wesleyan  Chapels  in  the  town. 

Police.  —  Borough,  Abbey-gateway  ; 
County,  Bridge  -  street,  close  to  the 
bridge. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  Market-place.  Mails 
from  London,  7, 10,  and  11.30  a.m.,  5  p.m. ; 
Sunday,  7  a.m.  Mails  for  London,  n.  10 
a.m.,  1.55,  4.5,  and  10  p.m. ;  Sunday,  10 
p.m. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Ferry,  Lock,  and 
Railway  Station,  Abingdon.  Nearest 
Bridges,  up,  Oxford,  7§  miles  ;  down, 
Sutton,  2  miles.  Locks,  up,  Sandford,  5 
miles ;  down,  Culham,  2  miles. 

Fares  to  Paddington  :  1st,  10/10, 18/3; 
2nd,  8/2,  13/9 ;  3rd,  5/1. 

Albert  Bridge,  a  handsome  new  sus- 
pension bridge,  crossing  the  river  from 
Albert-road,  which  skirts  the  west  side  of 
Battersea  Park  to  Cadogan  Pier,  and  the 
Chelsea  Embankment.  It  affords  the 
nearest  means  of  communication  between 
the  district  about  Clapham  and  South 
Kensington. 

Albert  Bridge,  Windsor  Home  Park. 

—An  iron  bridge  of  elegant  design.  Con- 


nects Berkshire  and  Buckinghamshire, 
crossing  the  river  to  the  south  of  the  park, 
about  half  a  mile  below  Datchet. 

Albert  Embankment.— The  Albert 
Embankment,  London,  S.E.,  on  the  right 
bank,  from  a  point  a  little  below  Vauxhali 
Bridge  to  Westminster  Bridge.  The 
carriage  way  diverges  to  the  right  after 
leaving  Lambeth  Palace,  and  enters  West- 
minster Bridge-road  at  the  corner  of  Stan- 
gate  ;  St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  and  a  walk 
for  foot  passengers  only,  occupying  the 
river  frontage  at  this  point. 

Nearest  Railway  Stations,  Vauxhali 
and  Westminster  Bridge ;  Omnibus  Route, 
Westminster  Bridge-road ;  Steamboat 
Pier,  Lambeth. 

Alexandra  Yacht  Club,  Southend- 
on-Sea.  Club-house,  Public  Hall,  South- 
end.— Election  by  ballot ;  five  members 
form  a  quorum ;  one  black  ball  in  five 
excludes.  Entrance  fee  for  yacht  owners, 
£1  is. ;  non-yacht  owners,  £2,  is. ;  sub- 
scription, £2,  2s.  Members  residing  be- 
yond two  miles  from  the  club  pay  only 
^1  is.  Officers:  Commodore,  vice-com- 
modore, rear  commodore,  hon.  secretary. 
The  committee  consists  of  the  officers  and 
12  members,  three  to  form  a  quorum. 
Red  ensign ;  burgee  blue,  with  the  arms 
of  the  county  of  Essex. 

Amateur  Qualification.— At  a  meet- 
ing of  the  Stewards  and  Committee  of 
Henley  Regatta  in  April,  1879,  the  follow- 
ing definition  of  what  constitutes  an 
amateur  was  adopted:  No  person  shall 
be  considered  an  amateur  oarsman  or 
sculler — First,  who  has  ever  competed  in 
any  open  competition  for  a  stake,  money,  or 
entrance  fee ;  secondly,  who  has  ever  com- 
peted with  or  against  a  professional  for 
any  prize ;  thirdly,  who  has  ever  taught, 
pursued,  or  assisted  in  the  practice  of 
athletic  exercises  of  any  kind  as  a  means 
of  gaining  a  livelihood  ;  fourthly,  who  has 
been  employed  in  or  about  boats  for 
money  or  wages ;  fifthly,  who  is  or  has 
been,  by  trade  or  employment  for  wages, 
a  mechanic,  artisan,  or  labourer. 

At  a  subsequent  meeting  it  was  re- 
solved :  That  the  entry  of  any  crew  out 
of  the  United  Kingdom  must  be  accom- 
panied by  a  declaration,  made  before  a 
notary  public,  with  regard  to  the  pro- 
fession of  each  member  of  the  crew,  and 


to  the  effect  that  he  is  a  member  of  a 
club  duly  established  at  least  one  year 
before  the  day  of  entry  ;  and  that  he  has 
never  competed  with  or  against  a  pro- 
fessional for  any  prize  ;  has  never  taught, 
pursued,  nor  assisted  in  the  practice  of 
athletic  exercises  of  any  kind  as  a  means 
of  gaining  a  livelihood  ;  has  never  been 
employed  in  or  about  boats  for  money  or 
wages  ;  and  is  not,  nor  ever  has  been,  by 
trade  or  employment  for  wages,  a  me- 
chanic, artisan,  or  labourer  :  and  such 
declaration  must  be  certified  by  the 
British  Consul,  or  the  mayor,  or  the  chief 
authority  of  the  locality. 

Anglers'  Tickets.— (See  Great  Wes- 
tern Railway  a?id  London  and 
South  Western  Railway.) 

Anglian  Boat  Club. -Established 
1878.  Subscriptions,  rowing  members, 
^1  10s. ;  coxswains,  10s. ;  honorary  mem- 
bers, £1  is.  Entrance  fee  of  £1  is.  may 
be  remitted  in  certain  cases.  Election  by 
ballot  in  general  meeting  ;  one  black  ball 
in  six  excludes.  Colours,  marone,  black, 
and  light  blue.  Boathouse,  MaynarcTs, 
Chiswick. 

Angling  Clubs.— The  following  list  of 
London  Angling  Clubs  has  been  kindly 
furnished  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Brougham, 
Secretary  of  the  Thames  Anglkg  Preserva- 
tion Society. 

East  Central  Association  of  United 
London  Anglers,  "Bald-Faced  Stag," 
Worship-square,  Finsbury. — Secretary,  Mr. 
R.  Ghurney.  Meet  on  the  first  Monday  in 
each  month. 

West  Central  Association  of  London  and 
Provincial  Angling  Societies,  "  Portman 
Arms,"  Great  Quebec-street,  Baker-street. — 
Secretary,  Mr.  Tibbatts.  Meet  on  the  third 
Friday  in  each  month  at  9  o'clock. 

Central  Association  of  London  Angling 
Clubs,  "Star  and  Garter  Hotel,"  St. 
Martin's-lane,  Charing-cross.  —  Secretary, 
Mr.  S.  Fitch,  jun.  Meet  on  the  second 
Friday  in  each  month  at  9  o'clock. 

Anglers'  Benevolent  Society,  New 
Foresters'  Hall,  Clerkenwell-road,  E.C.— 
Secretary,  Mr.  R.  Ghurney. 

Acme,  "Weavers'  Arms,"  Drj^sdale-street, 
Kingsland-road. 

Act  on  the  Square,  "The  Ferry  Boat," 
Tottenham. 

Acton,  "George  and  Dragon,"  High-street, 
Acton. 

Admiral  Brothers,  "Admiral  Hotel," 
Francis-street,  Woolwich. 


AMA-ANG 

Albert,  "The  Crown Coffee-House," Coronet- 
street,  Old-street. 

Albert  Edward,  "The  Tile  Kiln,"  Tullerie- 
street,  Hackney-road. 

Alliance,  "  Clerkenwell  Tavern,"  Farringdon- 
road. 

Alexandra,  "  Crown  and  Anchor,"  Cheshire- 
street,  Bethnal  Green. 

Amicable  Brothers,  "  Bald-Faced  Stag," 
Worship-square,  Finsbury. 

MICABLE      WALTOIS 

Fawn-street,  City. 
Anglers'  Pride,  "  Five  Bells,"  Bermondsey- 

square,  S.E. 
Anchor  and  Hope,  "William  the  Fourth," 

Canal  Bridge,  Old  Kent-road. 
Barbican,    "  White    Bear,"  St.    John-street, 

Clerkenwell. 
Battersea  Friendly  Anglers,    "  Queen's 

Hotel,"  Queen's-road. 
Battersea  Piscatorial,  "  Queen's  Head," 

York-road,  Battersea. 
Beresford,  "  Grove   House  Tavern,"  Cam- 

berwell  Grove. 
Bermondsey     Brothers,     "Alscot    Arms," 

Alscot-road,  George-road,  Bermondsey. 
Bloomsbury  Brothers,  "  Rose  and  Crown," 

Broad-street,  Bloomsbury. 
Bostonian,  "  Dalby  Tavern,"  Dalby-street, 

Prince  of  Wa^s-road,  Kentish  Town. 
Bow  Bells,  "  Bow  Bells,"  Bow-road,  E. 
Brothers  Well  Met,   "  Berkeley   Castle," 

Rahere-street,  Goswell-road. 
Bridgewater     Brothers,    "Three    Tuns, 

Bridgewater-gardens,  Barbican. 
Brentford,    "Seven      Stars,"    The     Butts 

Brentford. 
Brunswick,    "  Brunswick  Arms,"  Stamford- 
street,  Blackfriars. 
Buckland  Angling    Society,   "Middlesex 

Arms,"  Clerkenwell-green. 
Burdett,  "Joiners' Arms,"  118,  Hackney-rd. 
Cambridge   Friendly,    "  Rent  Day,"  Cam- 
bridge-street, Hyde  Park-square. 
Cadogan,  "Prince  of  Wales,"  Exeter-street, 

Sloane-street,  S.W. 
Carlisle,  Hall  of  Science  Club  and  Institute, 

Old-street. 
Canonbury,    "  Monmouth     Arms,"    Haber- 
dasher-street, Hoxton. 
Cavendish,  "Duke  of  York,"  Wenlock-street, 

City-road. 
City  of  London,  Codger's  Hall,  Bride-lane, 

Fleet-street,  E.C. 
Clapham     Junction,     "Lord     Ranelagh," 

Verona-street. 
Clerkenwell     Amateurs,     "George    and 

Dragon,"  St.  John-street,  Clerkenwell. 
Clerkenwell    Piscatorial,    "Horseshoe," 

Clerkenwell-close. 
Convivial,    "  Bull    and    Bell,"    Ropemaker- 

street,  Moorfields,  City. 
Cobden,     Cobden     Club,     Landseer-terrace, 

Westbourne-park. 
Critchfield,  "  Myddleton  Arms,"  Queen's- 
road,  Dais  ton. 
Crescent,    "Giraffe    Tavern,"    Kensington- 
crescent,  Kensington  Park-road,  W. 


ANG—APiU 


10 


Crown,     "  Crown     and     Sceptre     Tavern," 

Friendly-street,  Deptford. 
Crown     Piscatorial,     "  Crown     Tavern," 

Clerkenwell -green. 
Dalston,  "  Hope,"  Holly-street,Dalston-lane. 
De   Beauvoir,  "  Lord   Raglan,"    Southgate- 

road,  Islington. 
Duke  of  Norfolk,  "Ledbury  Arms,"  Led- 

bury-road,  Bayswater. 
Duke  of  Cornwall,  "  Duke  of  Cornwall/*' 

Dissmore-circus,  Haverstock-hill. 
Ealing    Dean    Convivial,    ''Green   Man," 

Ealing  Dean. 
East  London,  "  The  Bell."  Gracechurch-st. 
Eden    _  Piscatorials,      "  Queen's      Head," 

Amelia-street,  Walworth -road. 
Edmonton   and  Tottenham,    "  Fountain/'" 

West  Green-bne,  Tottenham. 
Eustonian.  "King's  Head,"  Swinton-street, 

Gray's  Inn-road. 
Excelsior,  "Lord  Palmerston,"  Well-street, 

Hackney. 
Foxley  Anglers,    "  Foxley  Aims  Tavern," 

Elliott-road,  Brixton. 
Friendly  Anglers,  "Albion  Tavern,"  Albion  - 

street,  Hyde  Park. 
Friendly  Anglers,   "Jacob's  Well,"   New 

Inn-yard,  Shoreditch. 
Globe,   "  George  the  Third,"   in,   Fonthill- 

road,  Seven  Sisters'-road. 
Golden    Barbel,    V  York    Minster,"   Foley- 

street,  Portland-road. 
Golden  Tench,  "  Somer's  Town,"  Ossulton- 

street,  Euston-road. 
Good  Intent,  "The  Crown,"  Church-street, 

Shoreditch. 
Grafton,  "King's  Arms,"  Strutton-ground, 

Westminster. 
Grange,    "  Earl    of    Derby,"    Grange-road, 

Bermondsey. 
Great  Northern  Brothers,  "Robin  Hood," 

Southampton-street,  Pentonville. 
Gresham,  "Mason's  Hall  Tavern,"  Basinghall- 

street,  E.C. 
Hampstead,  "  Cock  and  Crown,"  High-street, 

Hampstead. 
Hammersmith  Club,  "Grove  House,"  Ham- 
mersmith Broadway. 
Hammersmith   United,   "Builders'  Arms," 

Bridge-road. 
Hand-in-Hand,     "  Queen's     Head,"     Great 

Garden- street,  Whitechapel,  E. 
Hearts  of  Oak,   "The  Dolphin,"  Church- 
street,  Shoreditch. 
Highbury,  "  Plimsoll  Arms,"  St. Thomas-road, 

Finsbury-park. 
Hoxton   Brothers,  "Cherry  Tree,"  Kings- 
land-road. 
Independent  Jovial  Anglers,  "Waterman's 

Arms,"  Richmond. 
Isledon  Piscatokials,  "Crown  and  Anchor," 

Cross-street,  Islington. 
Izaak   Walton,  "Old  King  John's  Head," 

Mansfield-road,  Kingsland-road. 
Jolly   Piscatorials,  "  Sugar  Loaf,"  Great 

Queen-street,  W. 
Jovial,    "Jolly    Anglers,"    Whitecross-row, 

Richmond. 


Junior  Piscatorials,  "Duke  of  Cornwall/' 

South  Island-place,  Clapham-road. 
Kenningtonians,  "  Durham  Arms,"  Hazle- 

ford-road,  Kennington  Oval. 
Kentish  Brothers,  "George  and  Dragon," 

Blackheath-hill. 
Kentish  Perseverance,  "  Corner  Pin,"  Cold 

Bath,  Greenwich. 
Kenton,    "Lord    Palmerston,"    Well-street, 

Hackney. 
Kingfishers,  "  Oliver  Arms,"   Westbourne- 

terrace,  Harrow-road. 
Kingsland   Brothers,    "Mortimer   Arms," 

Mortimer-road,   De  Beauvoir-town,  N. 
Knights      of      Knightsbridge,      "Grove 

Tavern,"  Grove-place,  Brompton,  S.W. 
Larkhall,    "  The  Larkhall,"  Larkhall-lane, 

Clapham. 
Limehouse  Brothers,  "  Dunlop  Lodge,"  70, 

Samuel-street,  Limehouse. 
Little     Independent,     "  Russell     Arms," 

Bedford-street,  Ampthill-square. 
London    and    South-Western    Railway, 

"Brunswick  House,"  Nine  Elms. 
Marylebone,    "  Prince    Albert,"    Sherborne- 

street,  Blandford-square. 
Metropolitan,  "Rose  Inn,"  Old  Bailey. 
Mortlake  Piscatorial,  "  Queen's  Head," 

Mortlake. 
Nautilus,  "British  Lion,"  Central-street,  St. 

Luke's. 
Never  Frets,  "  Crown  and  Shuttle,"  High- 
street,  Shoreditch. 
Nelson,    Nelson   Working   Men's   Club,   90, 

Dean-street,  Soho. 
New    Globe,    "The    Albion,"    Bridge-road, 

Stratford. 
New  Walton  and  Cotton,  "  Drapers'  Arms," 

Upper  iWnsbury-street,  N. 
Nil  Desperaneum,  "Pitt's  Head,"  Tyssen- 

street,  BethnaJ  Green-road. 
Norfolk,  "  Norfolk  Arms,"  Burwood-place, 

Edgware-road. 
North-Eastern,    "  Shepherd    and    Flock," 

Little  Bell  alley,  Moorgate-street. 
North  London,  "Prince  Albert,"  Hollings- 

worth-street,  Holloway. 
North-Western,      "Lord      Southampton/" 

Southampton-road,  Haverstock-hill. 
Norton  Folgate,  "Rose  and  Crown,"  Fort- 
street,  Spitalfields. 
Odds-and-Evens,  "The  Albion,"  East-road, 

Hoxton. 
Old  Artillery  Ground,  "  Alfred's  Head," 

Brushfleld-street,  Bishopsgate. 
Original  Alexandra,  "  Duke  of  Wellington," 

Three  Colt-lane,  Bethnal  Green. 
Original      Clerkenwell      Piscatorials, 

"White   Hart,"  Aylesbury-street,   Clerken- 
well. 
Pence,     "  Lord     Palmerston,"     Maple-road, 

Penge. 
Peckham  Brothers,  "  Prince  Albert,"  East 

Surrey-grove,  Peckham. 
Peckham    Perseverance,    "  Eagles,"    118, 

Trafalgar-road,  Camber  well. 
Perseverance,  "The  Perseverance,"  Pritch- 

ard's-row,  Hackney-road. 


ANG— ARE 


Phcenix,  "Tavistock  Arms," Wellington-street, 
Oakley-square. 

Piscatorial,  The,  "  Ashley's  Hotel,"  Hen- 
rietta-street, Covent  Garden. 

Pictorial,  "King's  Arms," Tottenham  Court- 
road. 

Pike  and  Anchor,  "  Pike  and  Anchor  Tavern," 
Ponder's-end. 

Prince    of    Wales,   "Victory,"   Newnham- 
street,  John-street,  Edg ware-road. 

Prince  of  Hesse,  "  The  Prince  of  Hesse," 
Field  Gate-street,  Whitechapel,  E. 

Princess  of  Wales,  "  Westmoreland  Arms," 
George-street,  Manchester-square. 

Queen's,     "Black      Bull,"     Silchester-road, 
Notting-hill. 

Reform,  "Jolly  Coopers,"  Clerkenwell-close. 

Richmond    Piscatorial,    "  Station    Hotel," 
Richmond,  Surrey. 

Rodney  Piscatorials,  "  The  Albion,"  Rod- 
ney-road, Walworth. 

Royal  George,  "  Hope  Tavern,"  Tottenham 
Court-road. 

Savoy  Brothers,  "Green  Man," St.  Martin's- 
lane,  Charing  Cross. 

Second  Surrey,  "Queen's  Head,"  Brandon- 
street,  Walworth. 

Silver  Trout,  "  Star  and  Garter,"  St.  Martin's- 
lane,  Charing-cross. 

Sir  Hugh  Myddelton,  "Empress  of  Russia," 
St.  John-street-road,  Clerkenwell. 

Society  of  Caxtonians,  "Falcon  Tavern," 
Gough-square. 

Sociable  Brothers,    "The  Princess,"  237, 
Cambridge-road,  Mile  End. 

Social  Brothers,  "Prince  Regent,"  Dulwich- 
road,  Herne-hill. 

Sons  of  the  Thames,  "Green  Man,  "Berwick- 
street,  Oxford-street. 

South   Belgravia,  "Telegraph,"  Regency- 
street,  Westminster. 

South-Eastern,    "The    George,"    George- 
street,  Blackfriars-road,  S.E. 

South    Kensington    Piscatorial,    "  Cole- 
herne  Hotel,"  Richmond-rd.,  S.  Kensington. 

South  London,  "  George  and  Dragon,"  235, 
Camberwell-road. 

South  Essex,  "The  Elms,"  Leytonstone. 

South  Essex  Piscatorial,  "Victoria  Dock 
Tavern,"  Canning  Town. 

South  Hackney,  "The  Lamb,"  Wick-road 
Kackney  Wick. 

Sportsman,  "Lady  Owen's  Arms,"  Goswell 
road. 

St.  Alban's,   "Royal  George,"  Great   New 
street,  Kennington-road. 

St.  John,  "  Fox  and  French  Horn,"  Clerken 
well-square. 

St.  John's   Wood,  "British   Stores,"   New 
street,  St.  John's  Wood. 

St.  Pancras  Club,  2.  Crescent-place,  Burton 
crescent. 

Stanley    Anglers,    "The    Lord    Stanley,' 
^  Camden  Park-road. 

Star,  "Champion  Arms,"  Garnalt-place,  near 
Sadler's  Wells. 

Stoke    Newington,    "  Myddelton    Arms," 
Mansfield-street,  Kingsland. 


Stepney,  •'  Beehive,"  Rhodeswell-road, 
Stepney. 

Suffolk,  "Suffolk  Arms,"  Boston-street, 
Hackney-road. 

Surrey  Piscatorials,  "  St.  Paul's,"  West- 
moreland-road, Walworth. 

Sussex,  "  Sussex  Arms,"  Grove-road,  Hollo- 
way. 

Three  Pigeons,  "  Locomotive,"  Richmond. 

True  Waltonians,  "  White  Horse,"  80, 
Liverpool-road,  Islington. 

United  Essex,  "  Dorset  Arms,"  Ley  ton-road, 
Stratford  New  Town. 

United  Marlbro'  Brothers,  "  Hercules 
Pillar,"  Greek-street,  Soho. 

United  Society  of  Anglers,  "  Wellington," 
Shoreditch. 

United  Brothers,  "  Druid's  Head  Tavern," 
Broadway,  Deptford. 

Walthamstow,  "  Common  Gate,"  Mark 
House-lane,  Walthamstow. 

Walton  and  Cotton,  "  Crown  and  Wool- 
pack,"  St.  John-street,  Clerkenwell. 

Waltonian,  "Jew's  Harp,"  Redhill-street, 
Regent's  Park. 

Walworth  Waltonians,  "St.  Paul's 
Tavern,"  Westmoreland-road,  Walworth. 

Wellington,  "  Prince  Regent,"  Beresford- 
street,  Walworth. 

West  Ham  Brothers,  "Queen's  Head," 
West  Ham-lane,  Stratford. 

West  Central,  "  Cross  Keys,"  Theobald's- 
road,  High  Holborn. 

West  Green,  "The  Fountain,"  West  Green- 
road,  Tottenham. 

West  London,  "  Windsor  Castle,"  King- 
street,  Hammersmith. 

Westbourne  Park  Piscatorial,  "Pelican," 
All  Saints'-road,  Westbourne-park. 

Woolwich  Brothers,  *'  Prince  Regent," 
King-street,  Woolwich. 

Woolwich  Invicta,  "Golden  Marine," 
Frances-street,  Woolwich. 

Woolwich  Piscatorials,  "Cricketers'  Arms," 
Sand-street,  Woolwich. 

"  Aretlmsa  "    and     "  Chichester," 

Office,  25,  Great  Queen-street,  W.C. 
Two  retired  men-of-war,  moored  off 
Greenhithe  ;  are  lent  by  the  Government 
to  the  Committee  of  the  National  Refuges 
for  homeless  and  destitute  children,  the 
President  of  which  is  the  Earl  of  Shaftes- 
bury. The  Chichester  was  opened  in 
1866,  and  the  Arethusa  in  1874.  The 
two  ships  are  fitted  to  accommodate  to- 
gether 400  boys,  who  are  entered  from 
fourteen  to  seventeen  years  of  age,  and 
to  train  them  for  a  sea  life  either  in  the 
Royal  Navy  or  merchant  service.  The 
ships  are  entirely  supported  by  voluntary 
contributions,  and  a  visit  to  either  of 
them  will  afford  ample  proof  that  the 
funds  are  administered  carefully,  and 
with  emment1y  satisfactory  results. 


ARI— ART 


12 


Ariadne  Boat  Club,  Hammersmith. 
> — Election  by  ballot  in  committee,  one 
black  ball  in  six  excludes.  Entrance  fee, 
io.r.  ;  subscription,  active  members, 
£ i  ios.  ;  honorary  members,  10s.  6d. 
Boathouse,  Biffen's,  The  Mall,  Hammer- 
smith. Motto,  Per  ardua  stabilis. 
Colours,  purple  and  white. 

Art  and  the  Thames.— Rivers  have 
always  been  dear  to  the  painters.  From 
remote  times  intimate  relations  have  sub- 
sisted between  the  Thames  and  the  fine 
arts  ;  portrayers  and  illustrators  of  vari- 
ous kinds  have  long  employed  themselves 
in  studying,  transcribing,  and  picturing 
it,  now  from  its  banks,  now  while  floating 
upon  its  waters.  To  Wenzel  or  Wences- 
laus  Hollar,  that  "Bohemian  of  gentle 
birth,"  who,  abandoning  law  for  engrav- 
ing, acquired  fame  as  the  most  accurate 
delineator  and  technically  perfect  etcher 
of  his  time,  we  owe  certain  of  the  earliest 
and  most  precious  representations  of  our 
old  city  and  its  river.  Hollar  is  the 
Pepys  of  etchers.  His  simple  fidelity,  zeal- 
ous painstaking,  and  keen  observation 
have  preserved  for  us  invaluable  records 
and  presentments  of  the  past  ;  in  his 
plates  London  of  two  centuries  ago,  with 
its  streets  and  buildings,  manners  and 
customs,  costumes  and  characters,  comes 
vividly  to  life  again.  It  was  in  1637  that 
Hollar  was  first  brought  to  England  by 
his  patron,  the  art-loving  Earl  of  Arundel. 
Filling  some  indistinct  office  in  his  lord- 
ship's household,  Hollar  had  liberty  to 
work  for  the  London  publishers,  who 
paid  him  but  poor  prices  for  his  labours, 
however.  His  first  view  of  the  Thames 
appears  in  his  panoramic  view  of  Green- 
wich, which  he  accomplished  in  the  year 
of  his  arrival  in  England,  for  Stent  the 
publisher,  for  the  small  sum  of  thirty 
shillings.  For  other  of  his  performances 
he  is  said  to  have  been  paid  by  time,  at 
the  miserable  rate  of  4^.  per  hour  ;  yet 
so  conscientious  was  he  in  this  matter, 
that  he  "carefully  accounted  for  the 
shortest  interruptions,  and  deducted  the 
time  so  wasted."  The  Great  Fire  of 
1666  brought  him  employment.  He  pro- 
duced plans  and  views  of  London,  show- 
ing the  ravaged  condition  of  the  city. 
Among  his  plates  connected  with  the 
Thames  may  be  mentioned  his  view  of 
London  from  the  top  of  Arundel  House  ; 
his  views  of  London  Bridge,  the  Tower, 
Whitehall,    Lambeth,    Richmond,    and 


Windsor.  The  industrious  artist  exe- 
cuted nearly  three  thousand  plates  in  all. 
But  he  earned  only  a  poor  subsistence  : 
his  arduous  labours  were  wretchedly 
remunerated.  During  his  last  illness  the 
bailiffs  took  possession  of  his  house  and 
furniture.  The  dying  man  had  to  beg  of 
them  as  a  favour  that  they  would  wait 
until  he  was  dead  before  they  took  away 
the  bed  on  which  he  was  lying.  He  was 
buried  in  St.  Margaret's,  Westminster, 
March  28th,  1677.  His  engravings  are, 
of  course,  of  various  sizes.  His  Birdseye 
View  of  London  before  the  Fire,  a  work 
of  the  year  1647,  measures  when  put  to- 
gether over  eight  feet  in  length,  and  is 
certainly  one  of  the  largest  works  of  its 
class  in  existence. 

Hollar's  view  of  London  Bridge  and 
the  Thames  is  of  the  time  of  Charles 
I.  ;  but  there  is  extant  an  earlier 
treatment  of  the  subject  by  John  Nor- 
den,  with  a  representation  of  the  Lord 
Mayor's  procession  of  boats  in  1603. 
Norden  was  patronised  by  Lord  Bur- 
leigh and  his  son,  Lord  Salisbury, 
was  a  surveyor  of  the  king's  lands  in 
1614,  and  published  an  historical  and 
chorographical  description  of  Middlesex 
and  Hertfordshire,  with  a  frontispiece 
and  maps.  Other  pictures  of  London 
Bridge  and  the  Thames  are  by  Vertue  in 
1747-8  ;  by  Boydell  in  1751  ;  and  by  Wil- 
liam James  about  1756,  in  the  royal  col- 
lection at  Hampton  Court.  James  was  the 
pupil  or  assistant  of  Canaletto.  Hogarth 
has  introduced  a  glimpse  of  the  tumble- 
down houses  on  Old  London  Bridge 
in  the  first  scene  of  his  picture  drama  of 
Marriage  a  la  Mode.  And  Hogarth  is 
otherwise  associated  with  the  Thames. 
Copies  were  first  printed  in  1782,  on  nine 
folio  pages,  of  the  tour  or  five  days' pere- 
grination accomplished  by  Hogarth  and 
his  four  friends,  Tothall,  Scott,  Thornhill, 
and  Forrest,  in  the  year  1732.  The 
accompanying  drawings  were  by  Hogarth 
himself,  by  his  brother-in-law  Thornhill, 
and  by  Samuel  Scott,  a  landscape  and 
marine  painter  of  some  eminence,  who 
had  produced  views  of  London  Bridge, 
the  Custom  House  Quay,  &c,  and  was 
judged  by  Horace  Walpole  to  be  second 
only  to  Vandevelde  in  sea-pieces,  while 
excelling  him  in  variety  of  subjects  and  in 
the  treatment  of  buildings.  The  tour  of 
the  five  friends  was  from  Billingsgate  to 
Gravesend  by  boat,  and  then  upon  foot 


to  Rochester  and  Chatham.  The  excur- 
sionists afterwards  proceeded  to  Upnor, 
Sheerness,  and  Queenborough.  Return- 
ing by  water  to  Billingsgate,  they  quitted 
their  boat  for  a  wherry  which  carried  them 
through  bridge,  and  landed  them  at 
Somerset  Water  Gate,  "whence,"  they 
relate,  "we  walked  altogether,  and 
arrived  at  the  'Bedford  Arms,'  Covent 
Garden,  in  the  same  good  humour  we 
left  it  to  set  out  on  this  very  pleasant 
expedition."  Nor  is  this  the  only  trace 
of  the  Thames  to  be  found  in  Hogarth's 
productions.  Two  memorable  points  of 
the  river  obtain  illustration  in  one  of  the 
series  of  twelve  plates  called,  The  Effects 
of  Industry  and  Idleness.  For  the  warn- 
ing of  Tom  Idle,  and  as  a  hint  at  the  ' 
likely  end  of  his  profligate  career,  the 
Thames  waterman  points  out  Execution- 
dock  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Thames  at 
Wapping  in  the  East,  with  tha  dead 
pirate  hanging  in  chains.  By  way  of 
retort  the  idle  apprentice,  with  significant 
gestures,  invites  the  waterman's  attention 
to  Cuckold's  Point,  formerly  known  as 
Cuckold's  Haven.  Hogarth  was  interred 
in  Chiswick  churchyard,  upon  the  river 
bank.  Close  by  is  the  grave  of  Louther- 
bourg,  scene-painter  and  Royal  Academi- 
cian, for  some  years  resident  upon  The 
Mall,  Hammersmith. 

Antonio  Canal,  better  known  as  Canal- 
etto,  and  often  erroneously  called  Canal- 
etti,  came  to  England  in  1746,  when  he 
was  about  fifty,  obtained  much  patronage 
here  and  executed  various  views  of  Lon- 
don and  the  Thames.  He  had  practised 
scene-painting,  and  was  encouraged  to 
visit  England  by  the  success  of  his  country- 
man, Amiconi ;  "but  I  think  he  did  not 
stay  above  two  years,"  writes  Walpole. 
Mr.  Ruskin  reckons  Canaletto  "a  little 
and  a  bad  painter ;"  his  works,  however, 
have  always  been  popular,  perhaps  be- 
cause of  his  frank  literalness,  his  clear 
colouring,  his  firm  design,  his  thorough 
intelligibility.  Among  his  best  pictures 
may  be  considered  his  large  views  of  the 
Thames  in  the  royal  collection  at  Windsor, 
lent  by  Her  Majesty  for  Exhibition  at 
Burlington  House  in  1878.  The  one 
picture  looks  down  stream  towards  St. 
Paul's,  with  the  Temple  Gardens  on 
the  left,  and  London  Bridge  in  the  dis- 
tance. The  other  picture  looks  up  stream 
towards  Westminster,  the  Abbey  and  old 
Westminster  Bridge  visible  in  the  centre, 


13  ART— ART 

and  the  gardens  of  Northumberland 
House  in  the  foreground.  These  are 
very  interesting  records  of  the  aspect  of 
the  Thames  in  the  last  century.  In  the 
British  Museum  is  preserved  a  valuable 
drawing  by  Canaletto  of  York  Stairs  and 
surrounding  buildings  in  1745.  The  water 
gate  by  Inigo  Jones,  at  the  end  of  Buck- 
ingham-street, now  buried  to  the  waist 
in  the  Embankment-garden,  is  here  shewn 
at  the  river's  edge,  a  genuine  aid  io  em- 
barking and  disembarking.  The  tall 
wooden  tower,  once  belonging  to  the  York 
Buildings  Water  Company,  is  also  pre- 
sented, with  the  large  mansion  at  the 
south-west  corner  of  Buckingham-street 
inhabited  by  Pepys,  wherein  during  his 
presidency  of  the  Royal  Society  he  enter- 
tained its  members.  In  the  house  at  the 
opposite  corner  sojourned  Peter  the  Great 
when  he  visited  England  for  instruction 
in  shipbuilding. 

At  the  top  of  the  house  replacing  Pepys' 
mansion  dwelt  Etty  the  painter  for  many 
years  ;  he  had  previously  occupied  a  studio 
in  Stangate-walk,  Lambeth.  He  was 
wont  to  call  his  Buckingham-street  cham- 
bers the  York  Hotel,  for  upon  the  site 
had  once  stood  York  House  or  Palace  ; 
moreover,  the  painter  was  a  native  of 
York,  and  was  often  visited  by  friends  and 
relatives  from  that  city.  He  was  chiefly 
occupied  in  limning  nude  figures,  S '  dances 
of  nymphs  in  [and  out  of]  red  and  yellow 
shawls  ; "  but  he  exhibited  a  view  of  the 
Thames  at  Chelsea,  at  the  British  Institu- 
tion in  1843,  and  often  expressed  warmly 
his  sense  of  the  beauty  and  picturesque- 
ness  of  the  river.  He  wrote  of  his  corner 
house  overlooking  the  Thames  :  "  It  is  a 
peaceful  spot  to  be  so  near  the  middle  of 
the  metropolis — quiet  as  the  country  with- 
out its  distance."  He  wrote  from  Italy 
that  he  "could  not  bear  to  desert  old 
father  Thames  ;  that  he  had  an  affection 
for  him."  He  records  Turner's  judgment 
that  there  is  "finer  scenery  on  its  banks 
than  on  any  river  in  Italy."  Etty  con- 
tinues :  "  I  love  to  watch  its  ebb  and  flow. 
It  has  associations  connected  with  life  not 
unedifying.  I  like  it;  too,  on  another 
score.  Looking  from  Lambeth  to  West- 
minster Abbey  it  is  not  unlike  Venice." 
On  Tuesdays  Etty  kept  open  house  in 
Buckingham-street,  regaling  his  friends 
with  tea,  mufBns,  and  toast,  "with  per- 
haps a  petit  verre  of  maraschino  "  to  finish 
the  evening.    He  saw  more  than  one  gene- 


ART- ART  14 

ration  of  artists  assemblein  his  rooms  over- 
looking the  river.  To  Fuseli(  Flaxman, 
Stothard,  Constable,  Hilton,  succeeded 
Maclise,  Dyce,  Herbert,  &c. ,  with  Turner 
as  the  connecting  link  between  the  two 
eras.  "I  remember,"  writes  Mr.  Charles 
Collins,  "  his  asking  all  of  us  students  of 
the  Life  school  in'  St.  Martin's-lane  to  tea 
and  supper.  The  impression  of  his  rooms 
looking  out  over  the  river  was  delightful. 
We  enjoyed  ourselves  exceedingly,  ex- 
amining his  sketches  and  studies,  and 
were  made  very  welcome.  This  was  very 
good-natured  of  him."  And  Etty  avowed 
that  he  loved  "every  stick,  hole,  and 
corner"  of  London,  and  that  he  had 
enjoyed  a  quarter  of  a  century's  happiness 
and  peace  in  the  house  at  the  south-west 
corner  of  Buckingham -street. 

The  name  of  Turner  is  specially  con- 
nected with  the  Thames.  His  first  pic- 
ture exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1790  was  a  "View  of  the  Archbishop's 
Palace,  Lambeth."  A  few  years  later, 
his  address  being  Hand-court,  Maiden- 
lane,  his  father's  barber's-shop,  he  ex- 
hibited "Moonlight;  a  study  at  Mill- 
bank."  "  On  the  banks  of  the  Thames,' 
writes  his  biographer,  "Turner  began  his 
art,  on  the  banks  of  the  Thames  he  lay 
down  to  die."  It  was  probably  Girtin 
who  taught  him  to  love  the  river  :  Girtin 
whose  earlier  studies  had  been  upon  the 
picturesque  shores  of  Lambeth  and  West- 
minster, and  of  whom  Turner  exclaimed, 
*'  If  Tom  Girtin  had  lived,  I  should  have 
starved. "  Turner's  most  famous  and  poetic 
picture  connected  with  the  Thames  is  his 
"Fighting  Temeraire" —  the  grand  old 
line-of-battle  ship  tugged  by  a  diminutive 
steamer  to  her  last  moorings  at  Deptford. 
But  his  studies,  drawings,  and  paintings 
of  the  river  are  very  numerous,  such  as 
"Flounder-fishing  near  Battersea,"  and 
"The  Thames  near  Kingston,"  unpub- 
lished plates  of  the  Liber  Studiorum  ; 
The  Tower  of  London,  Old  London 
Bridge,  Westminster  Bridge,  The  Thames 
at  Mortlake,  Richmond-hill  on  the  Prince 
Regent's  Birthday,  Hampton  CoUrt,  Ab- 
ingdon from  the  Thames,  &c.  He  died 
on  the  19th  December,  1851,  aged  79,  at 
the  humble  little  house  at  Chelsea,  front- 
ing the  river,  and  within  a  few  yards  of 
Cremorne  Pier,  to  which  he  had  some 
time  before  retreated,  morbidly  conceal- 
ing his  movements,  almost  his  existence, 
from  his  friends,   and  even   assuming  a 


fictitious  name.  By  the  street-boys  of 
Chelsea  he  was  called  " Puggy  Booth;" 
more  respectable  neighbours  believed  him 
to  be  a  retired  admiral  in  reduced  circum- 
stances. He  was  the  most  famous  painter 
of  his  age ;  he  acquired  a  fortune  of 
£140,000,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Paul's ; 
but  he  chose  to  die  away  from  his  friends, 
the  occupant  of  a  mean,  ill-furnished 
garret  in  the  house  of  a  stranger,  He 
found  genuine  pleasure  during  his  closing 
days  in  climbing  to  the  flat  roof  of  the 
little  Chelsea  cottage,  and  watching  the 
movement  of  the  river,  the  glories  of  the 
sky,  the  rising  and  setting  of  the  sun. 
Even  to  his  last  illness  he  was  wont  to 
quit  his  bed  at  daybreak,  wrapped  in  a 
dressing-gown  or  blanket,  to  gaze  at  the 
beauty  of  dawn,  the  flushing  and  paling 
of  the  morning  sky.  Pleasure,  too,  he 
founH  at  night  in  contemplating  from  the 
same  jpofvit  of  view  the  firework  displays 
of  VauxhaB  Gardens.  Looking  east  at 
the  scenery  c*  the  river  he  called  it  the 
Dutch  view  ;  looking  up-stream,  to  the 
west,  he  called  it  the  English  view  of  the 
Thames.  The  weather  was  cloudy  and 
dark  during  the  last  days  of  his  last  illness, 
and  he  pined  to  see  the  sun  again.  A 
little  before  his  death,  he  was  found  pros- 
trate on  the  floor  ;  he  had  tried  to  creep 
to  the  window,  but  his  strength  had  com- 
pletely failed  him.  The  sun  shone  forth 
at  last,  filling  the  chamber  of  death  with  a 
glory  of  light.  Mr.  Thornbury  writes  : 
"The  day  he  died,  nay,  I  believe  the  very 
hour  almost  that  he  died,  his  landlady 
wheeled  Turner's  chair  to  the  window 
that  he  might  see  the  sunshine  he  had 
loved  so  much,  mantling  the  river,  and 
glowing  on  the  sails  of  the  passing  boats." 
Mr.  Trimmer,  the  many  years'  friend  of 
the  dead  painter,  relates  how  he  had 
often  enjoyed  long  drives  with  Turner 
upon  the  banks  of  the  Thames,  and  had 
watched  him  happily  sketching  the  river 
from  various  points  of  view. 

At  Somerset  House  in  1807,  "Morning, 
a  view  near  Millbank,"  and  "A  scene 
near  Millbank,"  were  the  first  pictures 
ever  exhibited  by  William  Collins,  R.A., 
a  delightful  artist,  famous  for  his  render- 
ing of  natural  effects,  silvery  lights,  far 
horizons,  and  long  stretches  of  sandy 
shore.  Millbank  was  a  more  picturesque 
spot  early  in  the  century  than  it  appears 
at  present.  Another  Royal'  Academician 
who   has    painted    the    Thames    is    Sir 


LUgustus  Wall  Callcott.  It  was  one  of 
Jallcott's  finest  views  of  the  Thames — he 
had  priced  the  picture  at  ^200  only — 
that  Turner  observed  in  the  presence  of 
several  patrons  of  the  fine  arts  :  ' '  Had  I 
been  deputed  to  set  a  value  upon  that 
picture,  I  should  have  awarded  a  thousand 
guineas."  To  the  Royal  Academicians 
and  scene-painters,  Stanfield  and  Roberts, 
the  Thames  presented  assured  attractions. 
One  of  Stanfield' s  best  pictures  is  his  view 
of  "Tilbury  Fort,  Wind  against  Tide," 
painted  in  1849  for  R.  Stephenson,  M.  P. , 
and  engraved  for  the  Art  Union  of  Lon- 
don. Stanfield  had  been  a  sailor ;  he  had 
served  in  the  same  ship  with  Douglas 
Jerrold  during  the  midshipman  days  of 
that  dramatist  and  satirist,  and  his  early 
apprenticeship  to  the  sea  induced  the 
accuracy  of  detail,  and  the  characteristic 
fidelity  of  his  illustrations  of  nautical  life, 
his  studies  of  wind  and  wave  and  cloud. 
From  1861  to  1863,  David  Roberts  was 
much  employed  in  picturing  the  Thames. 
He  had  projected,  indeed,  a  series  of 
illustrations  of  London  viewed  from  the 
river,  but  he  did  not  live  to  complete  his 
plan.  He  executed,  however,  very  vigor- 
ous paintings  of  St.  Paul's  and  the 
Houses  of  Parliament,  &c.  In  later 
years  another  excellent  scenic  artist,  Mr. 
O'Connor,  has  exhibited  certain  interest- 
ing studies  of  the  river,  its  bridges,  and  the 
buildings  upon  its  bank,  notably  of  York 
Gate  as  it  appeared  before  it  was  sacri- 
ficed to  the  needs  of  the  Embankment. 
Other  modern  painters  of  the  London 
aspects  of  the  Thames  are  Mr.  Wyllie  and 
Mr.  Arthur  Severn.  Mention  should  be 
made  also  of  a  representative  of  the 
famous  Norwich  school  of  art,  George 
Vincent,  whose  "  View  of  the  Thames  " 
reappeared  in  London  at  the  exhibition 
of  works  of  the  old  masters,  Burlington 
House,  1878.  George  Chambers  must 
also  be  numbered  among  the  scene- 
painters  who  have  portrayed  the  Thames. 
Like  Stanfield,  Chambers  had  been  ap- 
prenticed to  the  sea ;  he  served  upon  a 
brig  trading  in  the  Mediterranean  and 
Baltic  Seas.  Afterwards  he  painted 
scenes  at  the  Pavilion  Theatre,  and 
assisted  in  producing  the  once  famous 
great  panorama  of  London  at  the  now 
departed  Colosseum  in  the  Regent's  Park. 
The  Thames  tempts  the  painters  now 
by  its  rural  aspects  above  the  London 
and  suburban  bridges,  and  now  by  the 


ART— ATH 

picturesqueness  of  its  Pool,  crowded 
with  shipping,  a  very  quickset  hedge  oi 
masts  and  rigging,  with  ragged  buildings 
upon  the  shore,  overhanging  tavern  bay- 
windows,  ship-builders'  yards,  steaming 
factories,  smoking  chimneys,  soaring 
warehouses,  &c.  If  the  river  has  sug- 
gested to  Mr.  Whistler  certain  so-called 
"nocturnes"  not  easily  understood  of 
the  multitude,  or  "  harmonies  of  colour," 
with  ghostly  suspension  bridges  looming 
through  fogs  of  blue-gray  paint,  it  is  to 
the  river's  influence  upon  the  same  artist 
we  owe  many  most  admirable  works  of 
the  etching  needle  illustrative  of  Thames 
life,  scenery,  and  character,  at  Wapping, 
Putney,  &c.  Mr.  Seymour  Haden  and 
Mr.  Propert  have  also  accomplished  ex- 
quisite etchings  of  the  Thames,  its  busy 
shores,  and  crowded  vessels  below  bridge ; 
and  M.  Tissot,  with  a  Frenchman's  keen 
appreciation  of  the  picturesquely  quaint* 
has  also  found  excellent  occasions  for  his 
genre  painting  in  the  Thames  and  the 
boats  and  buildings  upon  its  banks : 
especially  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Green- 
wich and  Gravesend,  where  whitebait 
dinners  are  eaten,  and  open  windows 
and  balconies  command  grand  views  of 
the  water  and  of  nautical  life.  In  its 
more  rural  aspects,  when  its  banks  nar- 
row, and  it  runs  through  meadow  and 
woodland,  the  Thames  has  been  an  ob- 
ject of  study  to  numberless  painters. 
The  sketchers  and  portrayers  of  Windsor 
and  Eton,  Henley  and  Maidenhead,  may 
not  be  counted.  For  Cookham  and  its 
neighbourhood  the  late  Frederick  Walker 
and  his  followers  may  be  said  to  have 
rendered  pictorial  services  such  as  Hook 
has  accomplished  on  behalf  of  the  coast 
of  North  Devon.  Certain  of  the  best 
pictures  of  Mr.  George  Leslie  owe  much 
Of  their  charm  to  their  backgrounds — 
thoughtful  and  artistic  studies  of  Thames 
scenery,  and  the  artist,  in  1881,  published 
a  handsome  illustrated  volume,  called 
"Our  River."  Mr.  Vicat  Cole  and  Mr. 
Keeley  Halswelle  are  also  conspicuous 
amongst  the  best  of  the  painters  who 
have  sought  much  of  their  inspiration 
in  the  pleasant  reaches  of  the  upper 
Thames,  and  perhaps  the  varying  beauties 
of  the  river,  in  storm  as  well  as  in  calm, 
have  never  been  more  successfully  caught 
than  by  the  last-named  artist. 

Athens,— A  bathing-place  of  the  Eton 
boys,  rather  more  than  half-a-mile  below 


ATH— BAR  16 

Boveney  Lock,  railed  off  and  provided 
with  ladders,  &c.  The  high  ground  is 
known  as  Acropolis,  and  is  used  for  the 
purpose  of  taking  running  headers,  in 
which  the  Eton  boys  excel. 

Ballastage.-  The  ballastage  and  last- 
age  of  the  .river,  and  all  the  profits  they 
produced,  belonged  originally  to  the  Lord 
High  Admiral  of  England  ;  and  the  mono- 
poly, as  is  the  nature  of  monopolies, 
simply  resulted  in  the  acquisition  by  its 
fortunate  proprietor  of  as  much  money 
as  possible,  and  so  long  as  sufficient  bal- 
last could  be  economically  and  easily 
dredged,  the  effect  upon  the  channels  of 
the  river  was  but  little  regarded.  In  1594 
Lord  High  Admiral  Lord  Howard  sur- 
rendered the  privilege,  stipulating  that 
the  business  should  be  entrusted  to  the 
Trinity  House,  and  by  an  Act  of  Eliza- 
beth that  Corporation  acquired  the  ex- 
clusive right  of  ballasting  vessels  in  the 
Thames  from  London  Bridge  to  the  sea, 
and  were  empowered  to  devote  the  profits 
to  such  purposes  as  they  might  deem  fit. 
Subsequent  Acts  confirmed  the  Trinity 
House  in  their  position  with  regard  to 
ballastage ;  but  in  1853,  when  the  Mer- 
chant Shipping  Act  was  passed,  the  bal- 
lastage revenues  became  part  of  the  Mer- 
cantile Marine  Fund.  At  that  time,  at 
the  instance  of  the  late  Prince  Consort, 
then  Master  of  the  Corporation,  the  work 
of  ballast-heaving  was  entrusted  to  it,  and 
a  heaver's  office  was  established  for  the 
benefit  of  the  men,  where  they  could 
attend  for  employment,  and  where  they 
could  receive  their  wages  without  the  in- 
tervention of  the  middle  men  by  whom 
they  had  been  previously  robbed.  Tbe 
Ballast  Act  expired  in  1866,  and  the 
privilege  of  raising  ballast  ceased  to  be 
the  exclusive  right  of  the  Trinity  House. 
The  brethren,  however,  empowered  by 
their  various  royal  grants,  still  raise  and 
supply  it,  and  at  present  the  supply 
of  the  river  remains  to  a  great  extent  in 
their  hands.  The  surplus  revenue  is 
funded  for  charitable  purposes. 

Barbel  (The),  is  so  named  from  the 
barbs  or  feelers  which  hang  about  its 
mouth,  although  there  are  other  fish — 
notably  the  gudgeon — which  have  these 
appendages.  Barbel  fishing  is  a  special 
sport  with  many  anglers,  who  go  in  pur- 
suit of  no  other  kind  of  fish  ;  it  is  a  power- 
ful quarry  to  have  at  the  end  of  fine  tackle 


in  a  rapid  stream,  and  to  ensure  success 
great  pains  and  previous  preparation  are 
employed  to  ensnare  it.  The  swims  it 
frequents  are  baited  with  quantities  of 
worms,  greaves,  carrion  gentles,  bran, 
and  bread,  sunk  with  clay  for  some  days, 
nay,  weeks  previously ;  and  then,  when 
they  have  been  drawn  together,  a  punt  is 
moored  near  the  swim,  and  they  are 
mostly  angled  for  with  the  leger,  the  bar- 
bel being  a  grovelling  bottom  frequenter. 
They  are  very  capricious  in  their  feeding  : 
sometimes  a  whole  season  or  seasons  will 
pass  and  very  few  be  taken  ;  at  others  it 
is  not  unusual  for  a  single  rod  in  a  day  to 
capture  one  hundredweight  or  more, 
amongst  which  may  be  individual  fish  up 
to  11  and  13  lbs.  They  are  occasionally 
caught  while  fishing  for  roach,  and  if 
so,  they  try  the  patience  and  skill  of  the 
angler  to  the  utmost,  often  an  hour  or 
more  being  employed  in  playing  them 
before  they  succumb  sufficiently  to  be 
reached  and  secured  by  the  landing-net. 
The  most  simple  mode  of  taking  barbel 
is  with  the  leger.  This  consists  of  a  yard 
of  salmon  gut,  having  four  inches  of  gimp 
between  it  and  the  running  line,  on  which 
is  placed  a  perforated  bullet  or  heavy 
flat  piece  of  lead,  kept  from  slipping  down 
by  a  fixed  shot.  The  hook  used  should 
be  a  No.  1  to  3,  with  a  long  shank ;  the 
bait,  a  well-scoured  lob-worm  ;  the  hook 
being  entered  at  the  head  of  the  worm 
and  threaded  all  the  way  down,  care  being 
taken  not  to  pierce  or  break  the  skin. 
Throw  the  bait  out  somewhat  beyond 
where  your  ground  bait  has  been  deposited , 
and  draw  it  gently  over  it.  Keep  the  line 
as  taut  as  is  possible  without  shifting 
the  lead,  and  keep  it  over  your  forefinger 
of  the  hand  that  holds  the  rod,  by  which 
means  a  bite,  or  "knock,"  as  it  is  termed, 
will  become  the  more  perceptible,  and 
when  this  is  felt  a  second  time,  strike 
immediately,  and  if  quick  enough,  as  the 
barbel  has  a  leathery  mouth,  there  is 
little  chance  of  losing  him  other  than  by 
unskilfulness,  or  the  fish  fouling  itself 
round  snags  or  amid  piles,  which  it  will 
at  once  attempt  to  make  for  if  near.  If 
the  water  is  clear  and  the  fish  are  shy, 
surround  the  whole  of  the  hook  with  a 
ball  of  stiff  ground-bait,  letting  a  portion 
of  the  worm  hang  out.  A  more  elegant 
way  of  barbel  fishing,  practised  on  the 
Trent,  and  of  late  years  adopted  on  the 
Thames,   is  with  a    "travelling  float." 


17 


BAR— BAR 


'his  float  is  fitted  with  a  loop  of  wire  at 
both  ends,  without  any  cap  or  attachment 
to  the  line,  and  is  extremely  useful  where 
the  depth  of  water  exceeds  the  length  of 
the  rod.  A  small  piece  of  india-rubber 
thread  is  tied  into  the  line  at  the  proper 
depth  by  the  means  of  two  half-hitches ; 
this  will  easily  pass  through  the  rings  on 
the  rod  and  yet  rest  on  the  small  brass 
loop  fixed  on  the  float,  so  that  there  is 
no  hindrance  to  the  latter  working  pro- 
perly at  any  required  depth,  and  yet  it 
never  interferes  with  the  killing  of  a  heavy 
fish.  Sometimes  a  second  piece  of  india- 
rubber  thread  is  tied  underneath  the  float 
to  prevent  its  falling  unnecessarily  low. 
There  is  every  advantage  when  striking 
with  a  float  fitted  in  this  manner  at  the 
end  of  a  long  swim,  as  the  line  slips 
through  the  loops  without  dragging  the 
float  along,  consequently  the  blow  is 
sharper,  more  direct,  and  therefore  quicker. 
There  is  little  doubt,  however,  that  with 
roach  or  dace  tackle  the  sport  is  far  more 
exciting,  for  although  you  may  lose  two 
fish  out  of  three,  while  you  do  have  the 
fish  captive  they  are  not  so  handicapped 
and  checked  by  the  lead  of  the  leger  ; 
and  this  should  be  done  with  a  No.  8  or 
9  hook  and  with  a  good  round  gut  line. 
Single  hair  would  prove  useless,  although 
it  is  on  record  that  barbel  have  been  killed 
by  this  fragile  means. 

It  was  thought  until  very  recent  years 
that  it  was  waste  of  time  to  try  for  barbel 
while  the  river  was  in  flood ;  but  some  of 
the  heaviest  takes  are  now  made  by  leger- 
ing  during  these  periods.  Indeed,  during 
the  summer  floods  of  1879,  very  large 
bags  were  thus  made  in  the  Windsor  and 
Datchet  district ;  but  it  is  more  comfort- 
able to  wait  until  the  waters  are  just  be- 
ginning to  subside  and  getting  clear.  The 
barbel  is  held  in  profound  contempt  as 
an  edible  fish  ;  but  the  Jews  are  said  to 
possess  the  secret  of  dressing  them  so  as 
to  render  them  extremely  acceptable.  It 
is  said  that  they  eitherboil  them  in  vinegar 
and  water,  or  if  for  the  pan,  merely  scald 
them  first  in  this  mixture,  and  then  fry 
them  in  cutlets  in  boiling  oil.  The  roe, 
however,  should  be  carefully  avoided, 
as  it  affects  many  people  in  a  serious 
manner. 

Barge  Match. — Twenty-one  years  ago 
the  late  Mr.  H.  Dodd,  of  the  City  Wharf, 
New  North-road,  started  a  sailing-barge 
match  which  has  ever  since  been  one  of 


the  institutions  of  the  river,  and  has  had 
great  influence  in  bringing  about  many  im- 
provements in  the  build  of  barges  and  in 
the  smartness  of  their  crews.  Mr.  Dodd 
died  April  27th,  1881,  and  left  ^5,000  to 
the  Fishmongers'  Company,  in  trust  to 
invest  the  same  and  apply  the  income  in 
providing  silver  and  gold  cups  for  prizes 
for  sailing-barge  races  on  the  Thames, 
and  for  the  support  and  comfort  of  poor 
barge' or  lightermen,  so  that  the  recipient 
has  not  less  than  is.  a  day. 

Few  of  the  yacht  races  in  the  lower 
reaches  of  the  Thames  excite  so  much 
interest  in  so  many  people  as  does  the 
annual  barge  match,  and  when  there 
happens  to  be  wind  enough  to  display 
the  qualities  of  the  boats,  the  barges  can 
show  very  nearly,  if  not  quite,  as  good 
sport  as  the  yachtsmen. 

The  race  in  1884  took  place  on  the  3rd 
of  July,  but,  as  was  the  case  last  year, 
owing  to  the  extreme  lightness  of  the 
wind,  it  was  evident  that  the  usual  course 
from  Erith  round  the  Nore  and  back 
could  not  be  accomplished  ;  and  it  was 
therefore  decided  that  the  distance  should 
be  limited  to  a  point  beyond  the  Chap- 
man Light  instead.  The  following  was 
the  list  of  prizes  and  entries  : 

For  the  Topsails,  not  exceeding  55  tons 
register,  there  were  three  prizes,  con- 
sisting of  a/21  silver  cup,  and /"io  ioj-. 
for  the  crew  of  the  winner  ;  a  £15  silver 
cup,  and  ^5  55-.  for  the  crew  of  the  second 
barge  ;  a  ,£io  silver  cup,  and  £3  $s.  for 
the  hands  in  the  third  boat ;  the  crew  of 
each  losing  barge,  going  the  entire  course, 
to  receive  30J. ;  in  addition  to  which  the 
champion  flag  was  presented  to  the  winner 
by  the  committee  : —  Whi?nbrel,  49  tons, 
H.  W.  Martin,  owner  ;  S.  Beadle,  master. 
Electric,  54  tons,  E.  J.  Goldsmith,  junior, 
owner  ;  W.  Bannister,  master.  Atlaiiiic, 
54  tons,  A.  H.  Keep,  owner  ;  J.  Peartree, 
master.  Gcdwit,  54  tons,  H.  W.  Martin, 
owner  ;  F.  Beadle,  master.  R.  A.  Gibbons, 
54  tons,  Lighterage  Company,  Limited, 
owners  ;  G.  Lodge,  master.  British  Lion, 

49  tons,  S.  Burford  &  Son,  owners  ;  W. 
Hammond,  master. 

For  the  Spritsail  barges,  not  exceeding 

50  tons,  first   prize,  a  silver  cup,  worth 

fi6,  and  £to  ioj.  to  the  hands  ;  second, 
10  silver  cup,  and  ^5  %s.  to  the  hands  ; 
third,  silver  cup  worth  £7,  and  £3  %s. 
to  the  hands  ;  the  crew  of  each  losing 


BAR -BAR 

barge,  going  the  entire  course,  to  receive 
3os.:—Kalulu,  35  tons,  T.  F.  Wood, 
owner ;  H.  Cory,  master.  Shannon,  39 
tons,  Grays  Chalk  Quarries  Company, 
owners  ;  G.  Tyler,  master.  Louisa;  44 
tons,  Lighterage  Company,  Limited, 
owners  ;  J.  Cosey,  master.  Bessie,  43 
tons,  G.  Featherby,  owner  ;  J.  Talbott, 
master. 

The  start  was  made  at  about  half-past 
ten  o'clock  ;  the  timing  at  the  finish 
being  as  follows  : 

Topsails.  h  m   s> 

Godwit  (winner) 6  13  43 

Whimbrel  (2nd  prize)        6  16  22 

British  Lion  (3rd  prize)     6  23  30 

R.  A,  Gibbons      6  34     1 

Electric , 7  o  48 

The  Atlantic  did  not  start,  owing  to 
an  accident. 


Spritsails. 


Bessie  (winner) 

JLouisa    

Kalulu  ...     ... 

Shannon 


... 


H.  M.    S. 

...  6  36  25 
...  6  48  35 
...  7  18  30 
No|  timed. 


Barges. — Although  the  extension  of 
railway  facilities  in  the  country  through 
which  runs  the  Upper  Thames  has  very 
considerably  reduced  the  number  of  up- 
river  barges,  there  are  still  many  engaged 
in  the  carrying  trade.  That  they  are  use- 
ful, may  be  taken  for  granted ;  that  they 
are  possibly  ornamental,  may  be  a  matter 
of  opinion ;  that  they  are  a  decided 
nuisance  when  a  string  of  them,  under 
the  convoy  of  a  vicious  steam-tug,  mono- 
polises a  lock  for  an  hour  or  so,  admits 
of  no  doubt.  And  the  steam-tugs  them- 
selves are  an  abomination.  They  are 
driven  along  with  a  sublime  disregard  of 
the  interests  of  persons  in  punts  and  small 
boats — in  this  respect  resembling  their 
more  distinguished  relatives,  the  steam- 
launches— -and  raise  a  wash  which,  one 
would  suppose,  can  be  as  little  bene- 
ficial to  the  banks  of  the  river  as  it  is 
to  the  peace  of  mind  of  anglers  and 
oarsmen.  Nor  are  the  manners  J  and 
customs  of  their  crews,  or  of  their 
associates  the  bargees,  such  as  to 
conduce  to  the  comfort  of  riparian  pro- 


prietors  or  of  pleasure-seekers.  Practi- 
cally, they  seem  to  have  things  all  their 
own  way,  and  to  do  and  say  just  what 
they  like.  All  that  can  be  done  is  to  give 
them  as  wide  a  berth  as  possible,  and  to 
be  thankful,  at  all  events,  that  there  are 
not  more  of  them. 

Down  the  river — from  about  Brentford 
downwards  that  is — the  barges  occupy  a 
very  different  position ;  an  immense 
amount  of  the  enormous  goods  traffic  of 
the  Port  of  London  being  distributed  by 
their  medium,  and  their  numbers  appear- 
ing to  be  steadily  on  the  increase.  They 
are  of  two  kinds,  sailing  and  dumb  barges. 
These  latter  are  propelled  by  oars  alone, 
and  drift  up  and  down  apparently  at  the 
mercy  of  the  tide.  The  only  use  of  the 
long  sweeps  with  which  they  are  provided 
is,  in  fact,  to  keep  the  barge  straight,  and 
even  this  is  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  in 
a  high  wind.  They  are  quite  incapable 
of  getting  out  of  the  way,  or  of  keeping 
any  definite  course,  and  as  they  bump 
about  among  the  shipping  and  get  across 
the  bows  of  steamers,  they  are  the  very 
type  of  blundering  obstructiveness,  and  an 
excellent  example  of  how  time  is  allowed 
to  be  wasted  in  this  country.  Crowds  of 
them  hang  about  the  entrances  of  the 
docks  and  the  piers  where  steamers  are 
unloaded,  and  the  traffic  of  the  river, 
always  excessive,  is  becoming  absolutely 
congested  with  them.  The  books  of  the 
Watermen's  Company,  in  which  all  barges 
solely  engaged  in  the  London  traffic  are 
registered,  showed  in  1879  a  total  of 
7,000,  and  about  1,000  additions  are  made 
to  the  list  every  year.  The  number  of 
barges  leaving  the  London  and  St.  Kath- 
arine's Docks,  on  an  average,  in  24  hours 
is  100.  In  the  same  time  165  leave  the 
East  and  West  India  Docks,  100  the 
Victoria  Docks,  and  150  the  SurreypDocks. 
To  these  must  be  added  the  great  crowd 
of  dumb  barges  which  go  from  wharf  to 
wharf,  and  from  ship  to  ship,  without 
entering  the  docks  at  all.  The  considera- 
tion of  these  facts ;  a  trip  down  the  river 
in  a  steamboat ;  and  contemplation  of  the 
miles  and  miles  of  wharves  along  both 
banks,  almost  all  of  which  are  incessantly 
receiving  and  sending  out  goods  by  dumb 
barges ;  will  satisfy  any  one  that  these 
barges  are  a  very  large  factor  in  the  diffi- 
cult problem  of  satisfactorily  regulating 
the  traffic  on  the  river.  And  it  is  not  only 
that  their  numbers  are  enormous,  and 


their  mode  of  progression  slow,  uncer- 
tain, and  even  dangerous  to  other  vessels. 
it  is  provided  in  the  Conservancy  bye- 
laws  that  every  dumb  barge  shall  have  one 
competent  man  on  board,  and  that  when 
they  exceed  50  tons  they  shall  carry  at  least 
two  men.  The  competent  men,  as  has 
been  said,  are  in  fact  incapable  of  navi- 
gating their  clumsy  charges  to  any  satis- 
factory result ;  but  that  is  not  all.  The 
evidence  of  all  sorts  of  river  experts  given 
before  the  Traffic  Committee  is  exceed- 
ingly unfavourable  to  the  men.  Mr.  A. 
C.  Howard,  district  superintendent  of 
metropolitan  police,  gives  them  a  singu- 
larly bad  character.  "  In  navigating  they 
are  the  most  indifferent  class  of  men  on 
the  river,"  he  thinks.  Mr.  Spicer,  Trinity 
House  pilot,  is  decidedly  of  opinion  that 
dumb  barges  are  the  greatest  cause  of 
obstruction,  and  that  they  will  very  seldom 
get  out  of  the  way,  or  even  put  them- 
selves straight,  when  hailed  to  do  so,  A 
great  number  of  witnesses  are  of  even  a 
more  decided  way  of  thinking.  "I 
invariably  find  the  men  in  dumb  barges 
neither  obliging  nor  civil;"  "If  they 
only  took  a  little  pains,  they  would  do 
what  was  necessary  ;  but  if  you  ask  them 
to  put  their  head  round,  they  generally 
make  some  vulgar  observation.  .  .  .they 
are  uncivilised  men  like  Greeks" — why 
Greeks  should  be  selected  as  the  uncivil- 
ised type  is  not  apparent — "A  very  tur- 
bulent class  of  men;"  "A  very  bad  lot 
altogether ; "  "A rough  and  reckless  class 
.  .  .  .  rough  and  disorderly;"  "The 
conduct  of  some  of  them  is  so  bad,  that 
it  is  enough  to  taint  the  character  of  the 
whole  of  the  watermen  as  a  community  ;" 
"The  state  of  things  as  regards  the 
licensed  men  could  not  be  more  unsatis- 
factory or  worse  than  it  is."  Certainly  the 
licensing  monopoly  of  the  Watermen's 
Company  has  not  produced  any  affection 
between  the  great  body  of  lightermen  and 
the  hands  they  are  compelled  to  employ. 
But  graver  charges  even  than  churlish- 
ness or  incompetency  are  brought  against 
the  dumb  bargemen.  It  has  been  roundly 
stated  that  their  character  for  honesty  is 
not  all  that  it  should  be  :  that,  in  renewing 
licenses,  the  Watermen's  Company  con- 
cern themselves  very  little  with  a  man's 
personal  character  ;  that  gross  neglect  of 
duty  is  rarely  punished  by  suspension. 
The  late  chairman  of  the  company,  Mr. 
Elliott,   directly  contradicts  these  asser- 


19  BAR— BAR 

tions.  If  a  man  has  been  complained 
against,  he  says,  and  his  license  has  been 
endorsed,  it  is  not  renewed ;  if  a  man 
has  committed  a  theft  on  the  river  his 
license  is  cancelled,  and  never  renewed. 
Only  one  such  case  had  come  before  the 
court,  and  in  that  case  the  license  was 
"pointedly  refused."  A  letter  subse- 
quently written  to  the  committee  by  the 
solicitors  for  the  Wharfingers'  Association 
of  the  Port  of  London  is  at  direct  issue 
with  Mr.  Elliott.  If  these  gentlemen  are 
right*  and  there  seems  to  be  little  or  no 
doubt  that  they  are,  either  the  chairman 
of  the  Watermen's  Company  was  speak- 
ing without  book,  or  the  company  itself 
possesses  a  plentiful  lack  of  information. 
Say  the  solicitors:  "The  association 
have  in  their  possession  a  list  of  freemen 
now  employed  on  the  river  Thames  who 
are  known  to  the  police  as  having  been 
convicted  of  felony,  and  from  such  list  it 
appears  that  there  are  42  watermen  now 
employed  upon  the  river  who  have  been 
convicted,  of  whom  seven  have  been 
previously  convicted,  and  that  seven  are 
or  have  been  under  police  supervision  for 
long  terms."  Forty-two  black  sheep  are 
not  many  in  so  large  a  flock,  but  it  would 
be  curious  to  know  how  they  come  to 
have  licenses,  nor  would  the  further  in- 
formation (for  which  the  same  firm  asked, 
in  vain,  on  behalf  of  their  clients)  be 
wholly  devoid  of  interest — how  many 
licenses  of  lightermen  had  been  suspended 
in  consequence  of  the  felonious  proceed- 
ings of  their  owners.  "No  separate 
account,"  says  Mr.  Humpherus,  sending 
some  statistics  from  the  Watermen's 
Company  to  the  committee  at  an  earlier 
date,  "has  been  kept  of  licenses  which 
have  been  suspended  or  endorsed,  of 
which  there  are  but  a  few  cases."  But 
the  separate  account  might  not  be  without 
its  public  use  for  all  that. 

The  monopoly  of  navigating,  if  the 
term  may  be  used  in  this  connection,  the 
dumb  barges  is  in  the  hands  of  licensed 
freemen  of  the  Watermen's  Company, 
although  the  second  hand  need  not  be  a 
freeman.  Freedom  of  the  company  may 
be  obtained  by  serving  an  apprenticeship 
of  five  years.  But  it  by  no  means  follows 
that  because  a  lad  is  apprenticed  to  the 
water,  he  necessarily  learns  the  business 
of  a  waterman  or  lighterman.  It  is  said 
that  the  steward's  boy  on  board  the  un- 
fortunate Princess  Alice,  who    was   em- 


BAR— BAR 


20 


ployed  in  the  useful  but  not  aquatic  oc- 
cupation of  drawing  corks,  was  a  water- 
man's apprentice,  and  that  two  years' 
cork-drawing  would  count  towards  the 
number  of  years'  service  necessary  to 
qualify  him  as  a  lighterman,  although  it 
would,  perhaps,  not  help  in  getting  his 
license.  However  this  may  be,  and  the 
point  seems  to  be  doubtful,  great  com- 
plaints are  made  of  the  present  system. 
Mr.  A.  C.  Scovell,  representing  the 
Wharfingers'  Association  of  the  Port  of 
London,  explains  its  working  by  stating 
that  owners  of  lighters  must  employ  a 
freeman  who  is  a  licensed  lighterman,  or 
a  man  who  has  served  for  two  years,  and 
has  obtained  his  license  through  that 
service  ;  and  thinks  that  this  restriction 
unduly  limits  owners,  and  that  any  man 
who  has  good  personal  character  and 
competency  should  be  able  to  obtain 
a  license,  as  a  matter  of  course,  without 
any  reference  to  freedom  of,  or  apprentice- 
ship to,  the  Watermen's  Company — very 
much  in  the  same  way  that  a  cabman 
obtains  his  license.  Furthermore,  he 
thinks  that  the  power  of  granting  licenses 
should  be  taken  from  the  Watermen's 
Company  and  handed  over  to  the  Con- 
servancy. There  seems  to  be  a  very 
general  agreement  among  barge-owners 
on  this  head,  and  the  fact  that  the  lighter- 
men are  only  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Watermen's  Company  is  undoubtedly 
unsatisfactory  to  the  masters.  The  feel- 
ing that  obtains  in  many  quarters  that 
the  authorities  in  Watermen's  Hall  are 
inclined  to  be  unduly  tender  to  the  men, 
and  to  some  extent  prejudiced  against 
barge-owners,  may  or  may  not  have 
foundation  in  fact ;  but  one  thing  is  clear 
— that  there  is  a  very  strong  impression 
that  the  granting  of  licenses  should  be  in 
the  hands  of  a  public  body  and  not  of  a 
self-elected  court  such  as  the  Watermen's, 
and  that  the  present  mode  of  dealing  with 
delinquent  watermen  is  eminently  un- 
satisfactory. Of  course  a  good  deal  has 
also  been  urged  on  the  other  side — there 
never  yet  was  a  story  that  could  not  be 
told  both  ways—  but  it  is  significant  that 
the  Traffic  Committee,  an  unusually 
practical  and  competent  body,  after 
hearing  an  immense  mass  of  evidence, 
entirely  agree  in  their  report  with  the 
case  urged  against  the  present  system. 
They  express  their  opinion  that  it  was 
proved  "beyond  reasonable  doubt  that 


the  monopoly  of  the  Watermen's  Company 
has  produced  the  evils  usually  due  to 
monopoly,  and  that  it  should  be  put  an 
end  to,"  and  adopt  the  most  free-trade 
line  in  dealing  with  lightermen's  licenses. 
Their  recommendation  is  that  the  navi- 
gation of  barges  be  thrown  open  alto- 
gether, without  examination  or  other 
preliminary  ceremony,  leaving  owners  of 
barges,  who  will  naturally  have  a  wary 
eye  to  their  own  interests,  to  employ 
whom  they  will.  Furthermore,  they 
recommend  the  abolition  of  the  judicial 
functions  of  the  Watermen's  Company, 
and  suggest — and  it  would  seem  to  the 
lay  mind  that  the  suggestion  is  one  which, 
having  been  made,  carries  with  it  a  kind 
of  astonishment  that  any  other  system 
should  ever  have  survived  any  Parlia- 
mentary inquiry — that  the  ordinary  police- 
courts  should  have  jurisdiction  over  all 
offences  on  the  river.  Indeed,  it  is  abun- 
dantly clear  that  the  Watermen's  Company 
did  not  succeed,  in  the  course  of  the 
inquiry,  in  recommending  themselves  and 
their  system  to  the  favourable  considera- 
tion of  the  committee.  It  is  remarked 
that  many  of  the  bye-laws  of  the  company 
are  on  the  same  subjects,  and  cover  the 
same  ground,  as  those  of  the  Conservancy; 
and  that  it  has  been  complained  that,  in 
several  cases,  the  bye-laws  of  the  two 
bodies  clash  seriously.  This  being  the 
case,  the  committee  add  that  they  are  of 
opinion  that  there  should  be  only  one 
body  charged  with  the  regulation  of  the 
navigation  of  the  river,  and  that  that 
body  should  be  the  Conservancy  ;  un- 
kindly adding  the  expression  of  their 
opinion  that  the  self-elected  Watermen's 
Company,  "so  far  as  they  represent  any 
interest,  represent  only  a  section  of  barge- 
owners."  It  naturally  follows  that  it  is 
further  proposed  to  take  the  registration 
of  barges  out  of  the  hands  of  the  com- 
pany, and  what  there  will  be  for  the 
company  to  do  if  all  these  changes  are 
made,  except  to  fold  the  said  hands  and 
fall  into  a  tranquil  slumber,  it  is  not  easy 
to  see.  The  proposed  alterations  would 
bring  some  money  into  the  coffers  of  the 
Conservancy,  where  it  is  much  wanted. 
Under  existing  regulations  dumb  barges 
pay  nothing  to  the  Conservancy.  The 
dues  payable  to  the  Watermen's  Company 
are  :  On  first  registration,  if  owned  by  a 
freeman,  10*. ;  if  owned  by  a  non-freeman, 
£i  ;  and  annually,  if  owned  by  a  free- 


man,  2s.  6d.;  if  owned  by  a  non-freeman, 
5j.  It  is  proposed  that  the  Conservancy 
should  charge  ioj.  per  annum  per  barge. 
It  is  not  necessary  here  to  enter  at 
length  into  the  controversy  whether  it  is 
desirable  or  practicable  that  the  system  of 
dumb  barges  should  be  abolished  alto- 
gether, and  steam  towing  be  rendered 
compulsory,  although  it  may  be  men- 
tioned here  that  there  are  at  present 
about  50  tugs  engaged  in  the  barge-tow- 
ing trade,  and  that  many  coal-barges  are 
already  regularly  towed.  The  Traffic 
Committee  clearly  lean  to  making  steam- 
towing  compulsory,  but  do  not  go  so  far 
as  to  recommend  it,  except  between  Lon- 
don Bridge  and  the  uppermost  dock 
entrances  in  Blackwall  Reach.  The  evi- 
dence of  experts  on  this  head  is  unusually 
conflicting ;  for  instance,  the  harbour- 
master is  against  compulsory  towing, 
while  the  deputy  harbour-master  is  in  its 
favour;  and  probably  the  question  is 
hardly  yet  ripe  for  settlement.  One  ob- 
jection made  by  the  supporters  of  the 
present  system  may  be  set  forth  here,  as 
it  gives  a  very  good  idea  of  the  sort  of 
business  which  is  undoubtedly  facilitated 
by  the  existence  of  the  dumb  barges.  It 
is  said,  and  said  with  an  appearance  of 
great  truth,  that  the  greater  part  of  the 
trade  of  the  Port  of  London  is  carried  on 
in  a  manner  wholly  inconsistent  with  any 
system  of  towing  numbers  or  trains  of 
barges  together.  Goods  taken  from  or  to 
any  particular  ship  are  not  dealt  with  by 
the  dumb  barges  en  bloc.  For  export 
they  are  sent  from  all  sorts  of  places, 
sometimes  in  barge  loads,  sometimes 
different  parcels  are  sent  to  different 
ships  in  the  same  barge.  From  the 
home-coming  ships  parcels  are  sent 
in  one  barge  to  numerous  places.  The 
dumb  barge  is,  in  fact,  the  carrier's 
cart  or  Pickford's  van  of  the  river.  No 
doubt  it  would  be  difficult,  extremely 
difficult — impossible,  many  people  say — 
to  organise  a  system  of  running  trains  of 
barges.  That  it  is  impossible,  anybodv 
who  knows  the  difficulty  attending  the 
career  of  a  "pick-up"  goods  train  and  the 
elaborate  system  that  has  gradually  grown 
up  to  make  that  institution  not  only  use- 
ful but  necessary,  would  be  very  slow  to 
believe.  That 'the  traffic  of  the  river 
must  be  somehow  or  other  relieved  is  a 
fact  that  no  traveller,  however  indifferent, 
can  doubt ;   nor  is  it  open  to  question 


21  BAR— BAR 

that  the  duty  of  undertaking  the  task, 
which  daily  becomes  more  difficult,  must 
in  the  long  run  be  undertaken  by  some 
public  body,  whose  constitution  is  not  a 
relic  of  obsolete  usage,  and  whose  work 
will  be  done  in  the  full  light  of  day,  with 
the  wholesome  check  of  publicity,  and 
with  a  real  sense  of  responsibility. 

It  is  a  singular  fact,  not  unnoticed  by 
the  committee,  that  whereas  the  men  who 
work  in  the  dumb  barges  are  very  ill 
spoken  of  in  almost  every  quarter,  an 
excellent  character  is  given  to  the  men 
who  navigate  the  sailing  barges  lower 
down  the  river.  These  men  have  no 
monopoly,  and  are  exposed  to  free  and 
open  competition.  They  are,  according 
to  the  almost  unanimous  evidence  of 
skilled  witnesses,  pilots  and  so  forth, 
skilful  and  careful  navigators,  and  have 
gradually  got  into  a  custom  of  "give  and 
take"  with  the  steamers,  which  greatly 
facilitates  the  working  of  navigation  rules. 
Of  course  opinions  differ  here,  too,  and 
Captain  Woolcott,  of  the  Peninsular  and 
Oriental  service,  complains  that  he  has 
suffered  great  inconvenience  from  sailing 
barges — it  must  always  be  a  trying  busi- 
ness to  get  a  steamer  of  4,000  tons,  like  the 
Pekin,  down  the  Thames,  and  no  doubt 
bargee  is  sometimes  cantankerous  and 
cross-grained— and  suggested  that  the 
sailing  vessel,  in  such  cases,  as  being 
better  under  control,  should  give  way. 
As  the  result  of  this  and  similar  sugges- 
tions it  was  recommended  that  if  two 
vessels,  one  of  which  is  a  sailing  vessel 
and  the  other  a  steam  vessel,  are  proceed- 
ing in  such  directions  as  to  involve  risk 
of  collision,  the  steam  vessel  shall,  if  it  is 
safe  and  practicable  for  her  to  do  so,  keep 
out  of  the  way  of  the  sailing  vessel. 

The  sailing  barge  fleet  has  of  late  years 
largely  increased,  and  is  still  growing. 
It  numbers  now  nearly  3,000,  and  it  is 
stated  that  100  such  craft  leave  the 
Medway  every  24  hours.  They  are  fine, 
handy  vessels,  much  improved  in  many 
respects  latterly,  and  a  rate  of  speed  can 
be  got  out  of  them  which  would  surprise 
most  people  whose  only  idea  of  a  barge  is 
derived  from  some  of  the  old-fashioned 
tubs  or  the  graceful  dumb  barge.  Sait- 
ing  barges  of  45  tons  register  pay  a  small 
rate  to  the  Conservancy,  but  the  majority 
are  smaller  than  this.  A  barge  of  45  tons 
register  will  carry  some  100  tons  of  goods, 
and  is  navigated  by  two  men,  who,  if  the 


BAR-BAR  22 

vessel  comes  from  Rochester  or  there- 
abouts, need  not  be  freemen  of  the 
Watermen's  Company.  Anybody,  in 
fact,  may  bring  a  barge  from  the  Med- 
way,  but  if  the  vessel  start  from  Graves- 
end  a  freeman  must  be  on  board — an 
anomaly  which  appears  absurd.  Further, 
a  barge  coming  up  and  going  through  the 
bridges  is  compelled,  if  it  take  a  third 
hand,  to  take  a  waterman,  although  all 
the  way  from  the  Medway  to  London 
Bridge  she  may  have  been  sailed  by 
outsiders.  Vested  interests  are  indeed 
wonderful  institutions,  and  singularly 
tenacious  of  life ! 

The  interests  of  barge-owners,  both 
sailing  and  dumb,  are  protected  by  the 
Barge-Owners'  Protection  Society,  which 
was  founded  in  the  year  1865.  The 
members  pay  an  annual  subscription  of 
30J.  for  ten  dumb  or  five  sailing  barges, 
for  which  they. receive  legal  advice  from 
the  solicitor  on  all  matters  of  detail  con- 
nected with  the  carriage  and  tranship- 
ment of  goods,  their  detention  claims  are 
pressed,  and  their  collision  cases  con- 
tested after  they  have  been  thoroughly 
sifted  by  a  committee  of  practical  men. 
The  society  numbers  amongst  its  mem- 
bers the  principal  barge-owners  of  the 
Thames  and  Medway,  and  has  for  some 
years  past  averaged  350  cases  of  damage 
annually.  The  society  is  recognised  as  one 
of  the  institutions  of  the  river,  and  was 
specially  asked,  .through  its  secretary,  to 
send  representatives  to  give  evidence  be- 
fore the  Thames  Traffic  Committee.  Its 
office  is  at  9c,  Lower  Thames-street  {and 
see  East  and  West  India  Docks). 

Barking  Reach.  —  ( See  Tr ipcock 
Reach.) 

Barnes,  London,  s.w.— On  the  right 
bank  of  the  Thames  between  Putney  and 
Mortlake,  and  a  good  place  for  a  view  of 
the  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Boat-race. 
Barnes-common,  in  actual  extent  135 
acres,  15  of  which,  however,  are  now 
absorbed  by  the  railway,  is  open  and 
airy,  and  villas  are  rising  rapidly  all 
round  it.  It  is  one  of  the  best  kept 
commons  round  London,  and,  moreover, 
marches  with  Wimbledon  Common  and 
Putney  Heath,  so  that  the  extent  of  open 
ground  immediately  around  is  really  very 
large.  There  is  a  capital  terrace  with 
good  houses  fronting  the  river,  and  at 
high  water  the  view  is  pretty  enough. 


At  certain  states  of  the  tide,  however, 
there  is  somewhat  more  mud  on  view 
than  is  altogether  desirable.  From 
Waterloo  (about  20  min.),  1st,  -/g,  1/- ; 
2nd,  -/7,  -/io  ;  3rd,  -/6,  -/8.  From  Lud- 
gate-hill  (45  min. ),  1st,  1/-,  1/6  ;  2nd, 
-/io,  1/3 ;  3rd,  -/8,  1/-.  Nearest  Bridge, 
Hammersmith. 

Barnes  and  Mortlake  Amateur 
Regatta  was  originally  founded  in  1852, 
and  has  been  held  every  year  since  with- 
out intermission.  The  course  is  between 
Maynard's  boat-house  at  Strand-on-the- 
green  and  Barnes  railway  -  bridge,  a 
distance  of  about  one  and  a  half  mile, 
and  races  are  rowed  up  or  down  accord- 
ing to  the  tide.  About  ^100  worth  of 
prizes  is  annually  distributed,  and  for  the 
senior  four-oared  race  there  is  a  challenge- 
cup,  value  £j$. 

Winners  of  the  Challenge  Cup. 

1862  London  Rowing  Club. 

1863  London  Rowing  Club. 

1864  Kingston  Rowing  Club. 

1865  Kingston  Rowing  Club. 

1866  London  Rowing  Club. 

1867  London  Rowing  Club. 

1868  London  Rowing  Club. 

1869  London  Rowing  Club. 

1870  London  Rowing  Club. 

1871  London  Rowing  Club. 

1872  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1873  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1874  London  Rowing  Club. 

1875  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1876  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1877  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1878  London  Rowing  Club. 

1879  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1880  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1881  Thames  Rowing  Club. 

1882  Not  rowed,  owing  to  the  committefl 
having  accepted  the  entry  of  the  Ameri* 
can  Hillsdale  Crew,  and  the  Thames 
and  London  Clubs  therefore  declining 
to  compete. 

1883  London  Rowing  Club. 

1884  Grove  Park  Rowing  Club. 

Regatta,  July  26,  1884. 

Junior  Sculls  (rowed  up). 

First  Heat. 

A.  B.  Vaux,  West  London  R.C.       ...     1 

C.  W.  Mapleton,  Thames  R.C.        ...     o 

Second  Heat. 

C.  G.  Poole,  Anglian  B.C 1 

W.  B.  Powell,  Grove  Park  R.C.      ...    o 


Final  Heat. 
Surrey  Station— Vaux ... 
Middlesex  Station — Poole 


Eights  (rowed  up). 


disq. 


Surrey  Station  No.  2— West  London 
R.C. :  G.  J.  Huntley,  W.  D.  Gilbert, 

F.  A.  Knight,  C.  H.  Hickman, 
C.  J.  Scott,  E.  Bartlett,  A.  Lawless, 

G.  C.  Vaux  (stroke),  W.  R.  Wheeler 
(cox)     I 

Surrey  Station — Grove  Park  R.  C. :  C. 

F.  Cross,  F.  Watts,  G.  E.  P.  Gaskell, 

R.  H.  Lawrie,  F.  S.  Watts,  W.  H. 

Cummings,  F.  J.  Browne,  W.  F.  J. 

Watts  (stroke),  H.  B.  Ducker  (cox)    o 
Middlesex    Station     No.    2  —  East 

Sheen  B.C. :  J.  F.  G.  Glossopp,  H. 

F.  Highton,  H.  O.  F.  Luckie,  H.  R. 
Parker,  A.  Hughes,  R.  R.  H.  Lock- 
hart-Ross,  D.  M.  Robertson-Mac- 
donald,  R.  H.  Barron  (stroke),  R. 
W.  Willis  (cox)         o 

Middlesex  Station— Anglian  R.  C. :  C . 

G.  Poole,  R.  A.  Brown,  J.  A.  Hol- 
land, J.  Leahy,  G.  S.  K.  Dewhirst, 
W.  A.  Piggott,  J.  T.  Mus^rave,  P. 
W.  S.  Ell  (stroke),  D.  F.  Rail  (cox)    o 

Junior  Fours  (rowed  up). 

Middlesex  Station— Thames  R.  C.  : 
F.  W.  Long,  A.  Sturgeon,  B.  A. 
Moore,  W.  A.  Walters  (stroke),  R. 
Soden  (cox) I 

Surrey  Station— Anglian  R.C. :  A.  W. 
Burton,  J.  Freer,  W.  R.  Edwards, 
J.  Leahy  (stroke),  D.  F.  Rail  (cox)      O 

Centre  Station— East  Sheen  B.C.:  E. 
A.  Highton,  A.  P.  Parker,  J.  F.  G. 
Glossop,  H.  F.  Highton  (stroke), 
R.  E.  D.  Brown  (cox)  O 

The  Fitzgerald  Challenge  Cup  for 
Public  School  Fours  (rowed  down). 

Surrey  Station  —  Bedford  Modern 
School :  W.  Tudhall,  H.  A.  Poole, 
A.  Long,  M.  J.  Gordon  (stroke), 
H.  W.  Godfrey  (cox)  1 

Bedford  Grammar  School  and  London 
International  College  also  started. 

Senior  Pairs  (rowed  down). 

Middlesex  Station— Grove  Park  R.C. : 

F.  J.  Browne  and  W.  H.  Cummings     j 
Surrey  Station— Thames  R.C. :  W.  H. 

...    o 


Eyre  and  C.  W.  Hughes 


23  BAR-BAT 

Local   Fours  (for  the  Committee 
Challenge  Cup)  (rowed  down). 

Surrey  Station— East  Sheen  B.C. :  H* 
R.  Parker,  A.  Hughes,  H.  R.  Sadel, 
R.  H.  Barron  (stroke),  R.  W.  Willis, 
(cox) j 

East    Sheen   B.C.   and    London   Inter- 
national  College  also  started. 

Senior  Sculls  (rowed  down). 
Surrey     Station  —  R.     H.     Smith, 

Thames  R.C % 

Middlesex   Station — C.   W.   Hughes, 

Thames  R.C.  o 

Senior    Fours  (Barnes    Challenge 
Cup)  (rowed  down). 

Middlesex  Station— Grove  Park  R.C. : 
W.  F.  J.  Watts  (steers),  F.  J. 
Browne,  F.  S.  Watt,  W.H.  Cum- 
mings (stroke)  1 

Surrey  Station— London  R.C:  P.  D. 
Ullmann  (steers),  C.  Wood,  J.  Herr, 
F.  W.  Earnshaw  (stroke) sank 

Centre  Station —Thames  R.C:  C. 
Mapleton  (steers),  C.  Dangerfield, 
W.  H.  Eyre.CW.  Hughes  (stroke)  disq. 

Basildon,  Berkshire,  on  the  right 
bank,  a  small  village,  nearly  midway 
between  Streatley  and  Pangbourne,  and 
standing  a  little  distance  back  from  the 
river.  Population  about  700.  On  the  hill 
above,  and  somewhat  to  the  south-west,, 
is  Basildon  Park,  with  the  mansion  of 
Charles  Morrison,  Esq.,  which  contains 
a  fine  collection  of  pictures  and  works 
of  art.  On  the  river-side,  just  above  the 
railway  bridge,  is  the  house  known  as  the 
"Grotto."  The  church  of  St.  Bartholo- 
mew, supposed  to  have  been  built  in  the 
time  of  Edward  II.,  consists  of  chancel 
and  nave,  with  a  square  tower  and  Gothic 
porch. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Letters  via 
Reading.  (Nearest  money  order  and 
telegraph  office,  Goring. ) 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Goring, 
distant  about  2  miles  (which  see). 

Bathing. — Few  things  are  pleasanter 
on  a  hot  day  than  a  plunge  into  one  of 
the  deep,  quiet,  shady  pools  in  which  the 
Thames  abounds.  Few  things  are  more 
exhilarating  than  to  rise  after  a  scientific 
header  in  the  rushing  waters  below  some 
such  weir  as  that  at  Marlow.  And  at 
ordinary  times,  in  ordinary  seasons,  and 


BAT— BAT  24 

with  ordinary  caution,  the  pleasure  is  one 
almost  entirely  unaccompanied,  to  a 
reasonably  good  swimmer,  with  any 
amount  of  danger.  But  it  should  always 
be  remembered  that  any  sudden  flood, 
which  involves  the  raising,  perhaps  some 
miles  away,  of  sluices  and  weir  paddles, 
may  transform  the  usually  safe  bathing- 
place  into  what  is  practically  nothing  more 
nor  less  than  a  death  trap.  Furthermore, 
it  is  well  to  remember  that  some  of  the 
most  deplorable  bathing  accidents  on 
record  have  happened  to  men  with 
experience  on  the  river,  and  practised 
swimmers  to  boot.  Many  weirs  fall  into 
absolute  pits,  and  in  many  cases  contain 
the  dtbris  of  old  bridges,  blocks  of  con- 
crete, or  stumps  of  sunken  trees ;  and  in 
many  cases  again  the  eddies  and  whirl- 
pools in  the  rush  of  waters  defy  all  cal- 
culation. In  quieter  places  another  kind 
of  danger  is  presented  by  the  weeds, 
whose  clinging  embrace  has  proved  fatal 
to  many  a  good  swimmer.  It  must  not 
be  supposed  from  this  recapitulation  of 
the  dangers  of  river  bathing,  that  it  is  in- 
tended here  to  discourage  so  laudable, 
so  health-giving  a  practice.  What  is 
aimed  at  is  to  insist,  as  strongly  as  pos- 
sible, on  the  absolute  necessity  of  caution, 
and  the  desirability,  when  possible,  of 
consulting  before  the  plunge  some  local 
expert  as  to  the  condition  of  the  water. 
The  melancholy  fate  of  Mr.  Argles,  who 
lost  his  life  in  August,  1879,  in  one  of  the 
best  known  and  most  frequented  bathing- 
places  on  the  river — Odney  Pool  at  Cook- 
ham — ought  most  strongly  to  point  this 
moral.  Canon  Argles,  after  his  son's 
death,  writing  to  the  Times  on  the  sub- 
ject, said  that  a  guide-book,  which  his 
son  had  in  his  possession  at  the  time  of 
the  fatal  accident,  stated  that  there  was 
' '  splendid  bathing  in  Odney  Weir. "  And 
splendid  bathing  at  Odney  Weir,  under 
ordinary  circumstances,  there  undoubtedly 
is,  as  the  writer,  from  many  years'  ex- 
perience of  its  waters,  can  aver ;  but  the 
season  of  1879  was  in  all  respects  excep- 
tional, and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
the  suck  of  the  stream,  owing  to  the  great 
rush  of  water  which  it  is  impossible 
accurately  to  guage  from  the  appearance 
of  the  surface,  developed  some  peculiar 
source  of  danger  unknown  at  quieter 
times.  It  is  notorious  to  all  rowing  men 
and  habituis  of  the  river  that  Sandford 
Lasher  has  almost  yearly  demanded  its 


tale  of  victims,  and  it  is  almost  incon- 
ceivable that  people  will  continue  year 
after  year  to  tempt  fate  in  this  and  other 
equally  dangerous  places. 

It  was  originally  intended  to  add  to  the 
other  information  contained  in  this  book, 
which  it  is  hoped  will  be  of  use  to  rowing 
men,  a  list  of  the  best  and  most  con- 
venient bathing-places  between  Oxford 
and  Teddington.  But  a  careful  personal 
inspection  of  the  river,  undertaken  speci- 
ally for  the  purposes  of  this  article — an 
inspection  following  a  practical  Thames 
experience  of  over  twenty  years — led, 
irresistibly,  to  the  conclusion  that  so 
great  a  responsibility  was  not  lightly  to 
be  undertaken.  The  idea  of  giving  such 
a  list  was,  therefore,  reluctantly  aban- 
doned, and  the  Editor  has  thought  it 
more  judicious,  and  even  more  practical, 
simply  to  give  the  few  words  of  caution 
which  are  here  set  forth. 

It  is  hardly  credible,  even  taking  into 
consideration  the  difficulty  of  moving  the 
constituted  authorities,  that  nowadays, 
when  the  river  is  year  by  year  growing  in 
popularity  and  attracting  more  and  more 
visitors,  so  little  has  ever  been  attempted 
in  the  way  of  establishing  safe  and  con- 
venient bathing-places.  A  few  local  clubs 
and  private  houses  have  their  own  balhing- 
waters  and  bathing  conveniences,  pro- 
perly kept  in  order  and  attended  to  ;  but, 
for  the  general  public,  there  is  hardly  one 
that  offers  any  attraction  to  the  swimmer, 
except  the  bathing  sheds  and  ladders  at 
Solomon's  Hatch,  between  Marsh  Mill 
and  Henley.  It  is  not  as  if  any  great 
outlay  were  required,  or  as  if  any  serious 
expense  would  be  entailed  by  the  main- 
tenance of  the  simple  buildings  required, 
or  the  provision  of  the  needful  attend- 
ance. Enclosed  baths  are,  no  doubt, 
here  and  there  to  be  found,  but  in  the 
bright  summer  weather  the  temptation  to 
swim  in  comparatively  open  water  is 
almost  irresistible,  and,  danger  or  no 
danger,  is  sure  to  be  yielded  to.  That  a 
little  care  and  public  spirit  on  the  part  of 
the  governing  bodies  of  the  small  towns 
along  the  river,  who  reap  in  good  seasons 
so  large  a  harvest  from  the  boating  and 
excursion  public,  would  not  only  be  the 
means  of  giving  healthful  enjoyment  to 
many  and  would  save  many  valuable  lives 
is  certain.  That,  in  the  long  run,  it 
would  entail  no  loss  of  money  admits  of 
little  doubt. 


From  another  point  of  view,  the  estab- 
lishment of  recognised  public  bathing- 
places  would  be  a  most  valuable  boon  to 
the  boating  parties,  very  often  largely 
consisting  of  ladies,  who  throng  the  river 
in  the  summer  months.  It  is  too  often 
the  custom  under  the  present  absence  of 
system  for  the  rowing  man  to  cast  his 
flannels  from  him  and  to  plunge  into  the 
river,  in  puris  naturalibus,  oblivious  or 
careless  of  the  fact  that  after  the  bath  a 
certain  amount  of  drying  becomes  neces- 
sary. There  is  no  guarantee  that  the 
reach  selected  for  bathing,  which  may 
have  been  perfectly  empty  a  few  minutes 
before,  may  not  be  alive  with  boats  while 
the  drying  and  dressing  processes  are 
still  in  an  incomplete  state.  The  estab- 
lishment of  properly  sheltered  and  recog- 
nised bathing-places  would  go  far  to 
prevent  the  compromising  situations 
which  too  frequently  mar  the  pleasures  of 
a  picnic  or  boating  party.  No  system,  how- 
ever good,  will  prevent  the  reckless  and 
shameless  indecency  which  is  too  often 
displayed  by  the  roughs,  gentle  and  simple, 
who  unhappily  find  their  way  to  the 
river  as  they  do  to  all  other  places  of 
public  resort.  This  nuisance  is,  naturally, 
greater  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  more 
populous  towns,  and  in  cases  where  the 
local  authorities,  who  undoubtedly  have 
power  to  interfere,  are  too  supine  to 
adopt  the  simple  expedient  of  summoning 
the  culprits  before  the  magistrates,  the 
example  of  one  town  at  least  may  be  com- 
mended. In  this  case  a  vigilance  com- 
mittee of  the  able-bodied  residents  took 
the  matter  into  their  own  hands,  and  by 
the  summary  chastisement  of  some  of  the 
sturdiest  and  most  audacious  offenders 
very  speedily  worked  a  signal  and  per- 
manent cure.  It  is,  perhaps,  too  much 
to  expect  that  the  Thames  Conservancy, 
who  have  already  so  much  work  on  their 
hands,  should,  for  the  present  at  all 
events,  be  able  to  give  their  attention  to 
this  really  very  important  subject ;  but 
the  Board,  as  at  present  constituted,  has 
already  done  so  much,  and  has  shown 
itself  so  desirous  of  consulting  the  interests 
of  those  who  have  pleasure  on  the  river, 
as  well  as  of  those  who  are  there  on  busi- 
ness, that  it  may  be  hoped  that  from  them 
in  the  not  distant  future  the  desired  reform 
may  come. 

With  the  view  of  diminishing  the  num- 
ber of  deaths  which  annually  occur  from 


25  BAT— BAT 

incautious  bathing,  the  following  notice 
is,  by  order  of  the  Royal  Humane  Society, 
issued  by  the  secretary,  and  distributed 
throughout  the  United  Kingdom  :  "  Im- 
portant to  Bathers. — Avoid  bathing  with- 
in two  hours  after  a  meal.  Avoid  bathing 
when  exhausted  by  fatigue  or  from  any 
other  cause.  Avoid  bathing  when  the 
body  is  cooling  after  perspiration.  Avoid 
bathing  altogether  in  the  open  air  ff, 
after  having  been  a  short  time  in  the 
water,  there  is  a  sense  of  chilliness  with 
numbness  of  the  hands  and  feet  ;  but 
bathe  when  the  body  is  warm,  provided 
no  time  is  lost  in  getting  into  the  water. 
Avoid  chilling  the  body  by  sitting  or 
standing  undressed  on  the  banks  or  in 
boats  after  having  been  in  the  water. 
Avoid  remaining  too  long  in  the  water, 
but  leave  the  water  immediately  there  is 
the  slightest  feeling  of  chilliness.  The 
vigorous  and  strong  may  bathe  early  in 
the  morning  on  an  empty  stomach.  The 
young  and  those  who  are  weak  had 
better  bathe  two  or  three  hours  after  a 
meal ;  the  best  time  for  such  is  from  two^ 
to  three  hours  after  breakfast." 

The  Lancet  says  :  "  It  is  very  generally 
believed  that  the  proper  way  to  bathe  is 
to  take  a  header  into  the  sea,  or,  at  least, 
to  immerse  the  whole  body  immediately. 
Theoretically  this  may  be  done  so  far  as 
the  most  vigorous  organisms  are  con- 
cerned, but  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that 
a  man  may  be  perfectly  healthy,  and  yet 
not  endowed  with  sufficient  latent  energy 
to  recover  quickly  from  the  'shock'  which 
must  in  all  cases  be  inflicted  on  the  nerve- 
centres  by  suddenly  plunging  the  whole 
surface  of  the  skin,  with  its  terminal 
nervous  twigs,  into  a  cold  bath.  For  a 
time,  at  least,  the  central  activity  must 
be  reduced  in  force,  if  not  in  form. 
When,  therefore,  a  man  plunges,  and 
immediately  afterwards  strikes  out  to 
swim,  it  is  not  only  possible  but  probable 
that  he  may  become  exhausted,  and  fail 
from  depression  of  energy,  with  cramp ." 

Batter  sea  Bridge,  an  old  decrepit 
structure,  almost  as  much  out  of  date  as 
Putney  Bridge,  and  about  to  be  replaced 
by  a  new  and  more  commodious  struc- 
ture.   It  connects  Battersea  with  Chelsea. 

Battersea  Park,  London,  is  on  the 
Surrey  side  of  the  river,  and  in  the  S.W. 
district.  One  of  the  youngest  of  the 
London  parks,  it  is  certainly  one  of  the 


BAT— BIL  26 

prettiest.  The  sub-tropical  garden  is 
-emphatically  one  of  the  sights  which  no 
visitor  should  fail  to  see,  especially  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  summer.  The  park  con- 
tains excellent  drives,  and  is  encircled  by 
a  superior  prepared  ride.  There  is  every 
accommodation  for  cricketers,  and  boat- 
ing may  be  indulged  in  on  the  lake. 
The  park  gates  are  in  Albert -road, 
Prince  of  Wales's -road,  and  Victoria- 
road,  and  the  fine  terrace-walk  facing  the 
river  is  directly  approached  from  the 
steamboat  -  pier.  The  best  way  of 
approaching  Battersea  from  the  west  is 
along  the  Grosvenor  Road  and  over 
Chelsea  Suspension  Bridge.  Nearest 
Bridges, Chelsea,  and  Albert;  Steamboat 
Pier and  Railway  Station,  Battersea  Park. 

Beaconsfield  Rowing  Club,  in  con- 
nection with  the  Greenwich  Conservative 
Club.  Subscription  for  working  members, 
ios.  ;  members  are  elected  by  the  exe- 
cutive. Boat-house,  Conservative  Club 
House,  Greenwich.  Colours,  red  and 
white. 

"Bells  of  Ouseley."— A  tavern  on 
the  Berks  bank,  at  Old  Windsor  ;  about 
a  mile  below  the  lock,  and  close  to  Beau- 
mont Catholic  College.  Good  accommo- 
dation can  be  had,  and  the  house  is 
noted  for  its  ale.  The  scenery  here  is 
very  pretty.  The  nearest  railway  station 
across  the  river  is  Wraysbury,  Bucks  ; 
and  by  road,  Datchet ;  both  on  the 
South-Western  line,  about  an  hour  from 
town.  Fares  from  Wraysbury  to  Water- 
loo :  ist,  3/6,  5/6;  2nd,  2/6,  3/9;  3rd, 
J/9>  3/3-  Fares  from  Datchet :  ist,  3/9, 
5/6 ;  2nd,  2/9,  4/- ;  3rd,  1/9. 

Bensington,  commonly  called  Benson, 
a  village  on  the  left  bank  in  Oxfordshire, 
92  miles  from  London,  19J  miles  from 
Oxford.  Population,  1,259.  Soil,  loam 
and  gravel.  This  village,  which  was 
originally  called  Besintone,  appears  at 
one  time  to  have  been  of  some  import- 
ance, but  at  present  differs  but  little  from 
the  numerous  places  of  a  similar  char- 
acter which  are  scattered  about  the  valley 
of  the  Thames.  The  church  of  St. 
Helen  is  of  considerable  age,  but  has 
been  extensively  restored,  and  in  parts, 
indeed,  entirely  rebuilt.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  the  fine  arch  which  separates 
the  nave  and  chancel,  there  is  little  to 
arrest    the    attention.      The    following 


curious  epitaph  will  be  found  on  a  tablet 
on  the  south  wall : 


The  rest  of  the  date  was  apparently  never 
completed.  Close  by  is  a  stone  whence 
brasses  have  been  removed. 

Heavy  baskets  of  fish  are  often  got  near 
here. 

Inns.— "Castle;"  "White  Hart." 

Places  of  Worship.— -St.  Helen's; 
and  Baptist,  Methodist,  and  Wesleyan 
Chapels,  and  a  Free  Church. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance).  Mails  from  London,  7. 10 
a.m.  ,2. 10  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  7.10  a.m.  Mails 
for  London,  11.45  a.m.,  6-55  P^ni.  ;  Sun- 
day, 11.30  a.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Shillingford  ij 
mile  ;  down,  Wallingford  ij  mile.  Locks % 
Bensington ;  up,  Day's  4  miles ;  down, 
Wallingford  if  mile.  Ferry,  Mill  Stream. 
Railway  Station,  Wallingford. 

Fares,  Wallingford  to  Paddington :  ist, 
11/-,  16/-;  2nd,  7/,  12/-;  3rd,  4/7J.  No 
Sunday  trains. 

Billingsgate  Market,  in  Thames- 
street,  is  about  300  yards  east  of  London 
Bridge,  and  adjoins  the  west  side  of  the 


Custom  House.      The   derivation  of  its 
name  is  matter  of  dispute.     All  that  is 
certainly  known  is  that  the  appropriation 
of  the  site  to  the  purpose  of  a  fish-market 
took  place  in  the  year  1699  a. d.,  and  that 
a  fish-market  it  has  remained  ever  since. 
On  the  27th  of  October,  1874,  the  first 
stone  was  laid  of  the  handsome  building 
which  was  to    supersede  the    "elegant 
Italian  structure"  of  Mr.  Bunning,  which, 
with  its  tall  campanile,   had  long  been 
one  of  the  most  conspicuous  shore  marks 
of    the  river   below   bridge.     The    con- 
struction   presented    considerable    diffi- 
culties, both  from  the  necessity  of  carrying 
it  out  without  disturbance  of  the  daily 
business  of  the  market,   and  from  the 
nature  of  the  ground  on  which  it  had  to 
be  built,  and  which  required  an  immense 
amount  of  preparation  in  the.  way  of  a 
platform  of  solid  concrete,  15  feet  in  thick- 
ness.     In   1877,    however,    the  building 
was  completed,  and  on  the  20th  of  July 
of  that  year  formally  opened  for  business. 
Its  river  facade  still  adheres  more  or  less 
to  the  Italian  Gothic  legend,  but  the  cam- 
panile has  disappeared,  and  the  building 
now  presents  a  uniform  frontage  of  two 
lofty  storeys,   the  centre  portion  being 
thrown  a  little  back.     The  wings,  which 
are,  perhaps,  artistically  speaking,  some- 
what small  in  proportion  to  the  central 
block,  are  occupied  by  taverns,  at  each  of 
which  is  a  daily  fish  ordinary. 

All  along  the  front  runs  a  broad  float- 
ing stage,  alongside  of  which  come  the 
smaller  craft  by  which  the  water-borne 
fish  are  brought  up  the  river,  and  which 
vary  in  size  and  rig  from  the  specially 
built  steamer  of  more  than  200  tons 
register,  whose  cargo  has  been  collected 
from  the  smacks  of  the  North  Sea,  to  the 
little  open  barge  in  which  cod  or  salmon 
has  been  lightered  from  the  big  sea-going 
ships  in  the  docks  of  Victoria  or  Millwall. 
The  landing  process  begins  every  morn- 
ing, summer  and  winter,  at  5  a.m.,  when 
the  tolling  of  the  big  bell  announces  the 
opening  of  the  market,  and  a  rush  takes 
place  to  secure  the  earliest  sales. 

The  great  hall  in  which  the  sales  take 
place,  and  which  occupies  the  whole 
ground-floor  of  the  centre  building,  is  let 
off  in  140  "stands"  at  a  rate  per  week, 
which,  by  the  bye-laws  of  the  market, 
sanctioned  by  the  Board  of  Trade,  is  not 
to  exceed  get.  per  superficial  foot.  The 
total  weekly  supply  of  the  market  aver- 


27  BIL—BIS 

ages  by  water  800  to  850  tons,  and  by 
land  as  nearly  as  possible  double  tha"t 
amount,  and  the  whole  of  this  enormouf 
mass  has  to  be  carried  on  men's  shoulders 
from  ship  or  machine  to  salesman's  stall, 
there  to  be  disposed  of  in  some  four  hours 
or  so,  more  or  less.  The  market  is  at  its 
height  from  5  a.m.  to  about  9,  by  which 
time  the  greater  part  of  the  morninp- 
supply  has  been  cleared  off;  but  the 
market  remains  nominally  open  until 
3P-m. 

Meanwhile,  in  the  great  dungeon-like 
basement  below  the  market,  a  somewhat 
:   similar  scene  to  that  above  is  being  enacted 
with  the  day's  supply  of  shell-fish. 

The  staff  of  the  market  includes  about 
eleven  hundred  licensed  porters,  besides 
constables,  detectives,  clerks,  &c.  ;  and 
the  business,  rough  and  riotous  as  it  is, 
is  conducted,  so  far  as  the  official  per- 
sonnel is  concerned,  with  machine-like 
precision  and  punctuality.  The  utmost 
care,  too,  is  taken  to  ensure  the  most 
scrupulous  cleanliness  throughout  the 
building. 

Birds  of  the  Thames  Valley.— (See 
Ornithology.  ) 

Bisham,  Berkshire,  on  the  right  bank, 
within    the    Parliamentary    borough    of 
Marlow,  from  London  57^  miles,   from 
Oxford  54  miles.    Population,  652.    Soil, 
gravel    and    chalk.       Bisham   is   chiefly 
celebrated  for  its  abbey,  the  seat  of  G.  H. 
Vansittart,  Esq.,  which  dates   from  the 
time  of  King  Stephen.     In  1338  it  be- 
came   a    priory.      Subsequently   it   was 
given  by  Henry  VIII.  to  Anne  of  Cleves. 
Queen  Elizabeth  once  resided  here,  under 
the  charge  of  the  Hobys,  and  appears  to 
have  had  a  *«  good  time."     In  the  abbey 
were  buried  a  great  number  of  distin- 
guished people— among  them  that  Eari 
of  Salisbury  who  fought  at  Poictiers,  and 
Richard   Nevile,   the  Kingmaker.      The 
porch  and  great  hall,  which  are  portions 
of  the  oldest  part  of  the  building,  are  ex- 
ceedingly fine;   and  the  drawing-room, 
which  contains  a  bay-window  built  speci- 
ally for  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  is  remark- 
able for  some  very  good  old  stained  glass. 
There    is    a    remarkable    tapestry    bed- 
chamber, with  an  entrance  to  a  peculiarly 
constructed  secret  room  high  up  in  the 
wall ;   and  on  the  ground-floor  is  a  very 
satisfactory  ghost-room,  which  is  said  to 
be  haunted  by  the  apparition  of  one  of 


BIS-BIS 


28 


the  Ladies  Hoby,  who  beat  her  little  boy 
to  death  for  inking  his  copies,  and  is  now 
condemned  to  continual  vain  attempts  to 
wash  her  own  hands  in  a  ghostly  basin, 
which  goes  before  her  as  she  walks.  Un- 
fortunately it  is  not  clear  whether  anybody 
has  actually  seen  the  ghost,  but  it  is  said 
that,  during  a  period  of  repairing,  a  num- 
ber of  blotted  copy-books  of  the  time  to 
which  the  legend  refers  were  found 
secreted  in  the  room — evidence  which,  as 
ghost  stories  go,  is  quite  enough  for  all 
practical  purposes.  In  Bisham  Abbey 
are  several  interesting  portraits  of  the 
Hoby  family,  to  whom  the  house  be- 
longed from  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  to 
rather  later  than  the  middle  of  the 
•eighteenth  century,  and,  of  these,  one, 
which  represents  the  Lady  Hoby  of  the 
legend  with  a  deathly  white  face  and 
a  head-dress  very  like  that  of  the 
kneeling  female  figure  in  the  church, 
which  is  described  lower  down,  is  a  re- 
markably fine  work.  Also,  in  the  dining- 
room  is  a  very  jovial  portrait  of  a  certain 
Rev.  Peregrine  Hoby,  who  appears  from 
his  complexion  to  have  thoroughly 
enjoyed  the  good  things  of  this  life. 
This,  and  its  companion  portrait  of  the 
rev.  gentleman's  wife,  both  by  Burslee, 
are  capital  pictures.  A  portrait  of  Sir 
Francis  Walsingham,  over  one  of  the 
doors,  will  also  repay  inspection  ;  and 
the  gem  of  the  collection  will  be  found 
over  the  mantelpiece  in  the  shape  of  a 
brilliant  portrait  of  Henrietta  Maria,  by 
Van  Dyck. 

The  church,  the  original  name  of  which 
is  in  doubt,  is  now  called  All  Saints. 
Almost  all  architectural  features  of  in- 
terest were  utterly  destroyed,  with  the 
■exception  of  the  Norman  Tower,  about 
the  beginning  of  the  century.  The 
chancel  and  south  burial  chapel  were  re- 
stored in  early  decorated  style  in  1849  ;  the 
north  aisle  was  the  gift  of  Colonel  Owen 
Williams,  of  Temple  House,  in  1878. 
The  church  is  most  picturesquely  situated 
immediately  on  the  bank  of  the  river, 
and  should  certainly  be  visited  on  account 
of  its  remarkable  group  of  magnificent 
tombs.  These  are  in  the  south  aisle. 
The  first  and  most  elaborate  is  that  of  a 
noble  countess,  who  kneels  in  the  act  of 
prayer,  attired  in  ruff,  stomacher,  and 
a  most  extraordinary  head-dress  sur- 
mounted by  a  coronet.  Opposite  to  her, 
kneeling    on  a  lower  stool,   is    another 


female  coroneted  figure,  and  behind  are 
five  other  kneeling  figures,  three  female 
and  two  male  ;  the  whole  group  is  under 
a  canopy,  supported  by  pillars,  and  the 
monument  is  set  forth  with  elaborate 
carving  and  coloured  coats-of-arms.  Be- 
yond this  is  a  less  gorgeous,  but  much 
more  artistic  monument  to  the  brothers 
Hoby.  They  lie  upon  an  altar-tomb, 
two  knightly  figures  with  peaked  beards 
and  in  full  armour.  They  both  recline 
upon  their  left  arms,  and  the  one  nearest 
the  spectator  has  his  legs  crossed 
crusader-wise.  The  date  is  1566.  On 
the  tomb  are  several  inscriptions.  Of 
these  may  be  quoted  one  which  gives 
concisely  the  history  of  the  Hobys. 

Two  worthie  knightes  and  Hobies  both  by 

name 
Enclosed  within  this  marble  stone  do  rest 
Philip  the  fyrst  in  Csesar's  court  hathe  fame  ; 
Such  as  tofore  fewe  legates  like  possest 
A  diepe  discovrsing  heed  a  noble  breast 
A  covrties  passing  and  a  cvrteis  knight 
Zelovs  to  God  whose  gospel  he  profest 
When    gretest  stormes  can  dym   the    sacred 

light. 
A  happie  man  whom  death  hath  nowe  redeemd 
From  care  to  loye  that  can  not  be  esteemd. 
Thomas  in  Fraunce  possest  the  Legate's  place 
And  with  svch  wisdome  grew  to  gvide  the 

same, 
As  had  merest  great  honoyr  to  his  race 
Ye  sodein  fate  had  not  envied  his  fame, 
Firme  in  God's  truth,  gentle,  a  faithful  frend 
Wei  lernd  and  langvaged  natvre  besyde 
Gave  comely  shape  which  made  ruful  his  end 
Sins  in  his  flovre  in  Paris  towne  he  died 
Leaving  with  child  behind  his  woful  wief, 
In  forein  land  opprest  with  heapes  of  grief. 
From  part  of  which  when  she  discharged  was 
By  fall  of  teares  that  faithful  wieves  do  sheed 
The  corps  with  honovr  brovght  she  to  this 

place 
Performing  here  all  dve  vnto  the  dead. 
That  doon  this  noble  tombe  she   cavsed   to 

make 
And  both  thes  brethren  closed  within  the  same 
A  memory  left  here  for  vertve's  sake 
In  spite  of  death  to  honovr  them  with  fame 
Thus  live  they  dead,  and  we  lerne  wel  thereby 
That  ye  and  we  and  all  the  world  must  die. 
T.  B. 

Beyond  the  brothers  Hoby  is  the  tomb  of 
Margaret,  wife  of  Sir  Edward  Hoby,  who 
died  in  1605,  oddly  surmounted  by  an 
obelisk  with  a  swan  at  each  of  the  base 
angles.  The  stained  glass  window,  with 
coats-of-arms  of  the  Hoby  family,  in  the 
east  of  the  south  aisle  is  very  curious.  In  . 
the  nave  is  a  fine  brass  with  three  full< 
length  figures  to  the  memory  of  "John 


29 


BIS— BOA 


Brinckhorst,  sometime  citizen  and  mercer 
of  London,  and  marchavnt  adventvrar," 
and  his  two  wives  ;  only  one  date  is  given, 
that  of  the  death  of  one  of  the  ladies  in 
158 1.  A  smaller  brass  has  a  single  figure, 
and  is  dated  1517  ;  and  one  with  inscrip- 
tion only,  and  dated  1525,  records  the 
decease  of  one  Gray  \ '  and  Wylmott  hys 
wyffe." 

Hotel.— "The  Complete  Angler,"  by 
Marlow  Bridge. 

Place  of  Worship.— All  Saints. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Nearest 
money  order,  telegraph,  &c,  office,  Mar- 
low.  Letters  through  Marlow.  Mails 
from  London,  6.30  a.m.,  12.30  p.m. 
Mails  for  London,  10.35  a.m.,  3.15  and 
7.15  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  down,  Marlow  J 
mile  ;  up,  Henley  7 \  miles.  Locks,  down, 
Marlow  f  mile;  up,  Temple,  1  mile. 
Ferry,  Temple,    Rail.  Station,  Marlow. 

Fares,  Marlow  to  Paddington,  1st, 
6/-,  9/1 1 ;  2nd,  4/6,  7 16 ;  3rd,  2/7^ 

Blackfriars  Bridge  is  one  of  the 

handsomest  in  London,  and  would  have 
a  still  better  effect  were  not  its  appear- 
ance so  seriously  marred  by  the  proximity 
of  its  neighbour,  the  Alexandra  (London 
Chatham  &  Dover  Railway)  bridge.  It 
was  built  in  1864-9,  a*  a  cost  of  ^265, 000, 
from  the  designs  of  Mr.  William  Cubitt, 
although  those  of  Mr.  Page,  architect  of 
Westminster  Bridge,  had  been  selected 
in  the  first  instance.  It  crosses  the  river 
in  five  spans,  the  centre  span  being 
185  feet.  The  piers  are  of  granite,  sur- 
mounted by  recesses  resting  on  short 
pillars  of  polished  red  Aberdeen  granite, 
and  with  ornamental  stone  parapets. 
The  parapet  of  the  bridge  itself  is  very 
low,  which,  with  the  extreme  shortness 
of  the  ornamental  pillars  at  the  pier  ends, 
gives  the  whole  structure  rather  a  dwarfed 
and  stunted  look  ;  but  the  general  outline 
is  bold  and  the  ensemble  rich,  if  perhaps 
a  trifle  gaudy,  especially  when  the  gilding, 
of  which  there  is  an  unusual  proportion, 
has  been  freshly  renewed. 

Blackwall,  on  the  left  bank  from 
Orchard  Wharf  to  the  Isle  of  Dogs. — 
Here  are  the  East  India  Docks,  where 
the  principal  sailing  ships  trading  from 
the  port  of  London  load  and  discharge. 
The  visitor  may  in  these  docks  inspect 


long  tiers  of  China  tea-clippers — now 
almost  run  off  the  line  by  fast  steamers-* 
and  the  fine  passenger  ships  trading  to 
the  Australasian  ports.  Adjoining  the 
docks  is  the  spacious  ship-building  yard 
of  Messrs.  Green,  and  farther  down  the 
river  are  the  Trinity  House  head-quarters, 
beyond  which  again  are  the  Royal  Victoria 
and  Albert  Docks.  There  is  a  railway- 
station  on  the  steamboat-pier  [and  see 
Trinity  Buoy  Wharf).  Fares  from 
Fenchurch-street  (17  min. ),  1st,  -/6,  -/io; 
2nd,  -/4,  -/6 ;  trains  run  each  way  every 
15  minutes.  Steamers  from  Westminster, 
Charing-cross,  Temple,  and  London 
Bridge  every  J-hour.  Fares,  aft,  -/6; 
forward,  -/4.  Omnibus  from  Bank  of 
England. 

Blackwall  Beach  runs  for  rather 
more  than  a  mile  from  Greenwich  to 
Blackwall.  The  East  and  West  India 
Docks  are  at  Blackwall.  Bearings  N.  by 
E.  and  S.  by  W. 

Bleak  (The),  or  fresh-water  sprat,  is 
a  surface  fish,  affording  great  amusement 
to  young  anglers  ;  but  they  are  a  perfect 
pest  to  the  roach  and  dace  fisher,  as  they 
will  bite  at  almost  anything,  seldom  per- 
mitting the  bait  to  descend  to  its  allotted 
depth  without  seizing  it.  When  thus 
annoyed,  a  handful  of  bran  thrown  upon 
the  surface  of  the  water  will  cause  them 
to  follow  it  some  way  down  the  stream, 
and  keep  them  engaged  for  a  long  while, 
when  the  same  course  may  be  repeated. 
They  are  one  of  the  best  baits  for  spin- 
ning, from  their  resplendent  silvery  hue 
flashing  its  transmitted  light  far  through 
the  water.  They  spawn  in  May  or  June, 
and  multiply  very  rapidly.  This  fish 
differs  from  the  small  dace  by  being 
thinner  and  by  a  greenish  hue  on  its 
back,  and  its  scales  are  not  so  firmly  set, 
coming  off  easily  by  handling,  like  the 
sprat ;  the  belly  is  of  a  most  silvery  white- 
ness, the  fins  white. 

Boat  Races.— A  Conservancy  bye-law 
of  1869  runs  as  follows  :  Any  vessel  being 
on  the  upper  river  on  the  occasion  of  any 
boat-race,  regatta,  public  procession,  or 
launch  of  any  vessel,  or  any  other  occasion 
when  large  crowds  assemble  thereon,  shall 
not  pass  thereon  so  as  to  impede  or  inter- 
fere with  the  boat-race,  regatta,  proces- 
sion or  launch,  or  endanger  the  safety  of 
persons  assembling  on  the  river,  or  pre- 
vent the  maintenance  of  order  thereon ; 


BOA—BOA  30 

and  the  master  of  every  such  vessel,  on 
any  such  occasion  as  aforesaid,  shall 
observe  the  directions  of  the  officer  of  the 
Conservators  engaged  in  superintending 
the  execution  of  this  bye-law ;  and  if  any 
such  master  fails  in  any  respect  to  comply 
with  the  requirements  of  this  bye-law,  or 
does  anything  in  contravention  thereof, 
he  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  an  offence 
against  these  bye-laws,  and  shall  for  every 
such  offence  be  liable  to  a  penalty  not  ex- 
ceeding^. Persons  in  charge  of  steamers, 
similarly  offending,  are  liable  to  a  penalty 
of  £20. 

Boat  Racing,  Laws  of,  as  settled 
and  approved  by  the  Universities  of  Ox- 
ford and  Cambridge,  and  the  principal 
boat  clubs  in  London,  on  the  20th  March, 
1872. 

1.  All  boat  races  shall  be  started  in 
the  following  manner:  The  starter,  on 
being  satisfied  that  the  competitors  are 
ready,  shall  give  the  signal  to  start. 

2.  If  the  starter  considers  the  start 
false,  he  shall  at  once  recall  the  boats  to 
their  stations ;  and  any  boat  refusing  to 
start  again  shall  be  disqualified. 

3.  Any  boat  not  at  its  post  at  the  time 
specified  shall  be  liable  to  be  disqualified 
by  the  umpire. 

4.  The  umpire  may  act  as  starter,  as 
he  thinks  fit ;  where  he  does  not  so  act, 
the  starter  shall  be  subject  to  the  control 
of  the  umpire. 

5.  Each  boat  shall  keep  its  own  water 
throughout  the  race,  and  any  boat  depart- 
ing from  its  own  water  will  do  so  at  its 
peril. 

6.  A  boat's  own  water  is  its  straight 
course,  parallel  with  those  of  the  other 
competing  boats,  from  the  station  assigned 
to  it  at  starting  to  the  finish. 

7.  The  umpire  shall  be  sole  judge  of 
a  boat's  own  water  and  proper  course 
during  the  race. 

8.  No  fouling  whatever  shall  be  allowed ; 
the  boat  committing  a  foul  shall  be  dis- 
qualified. 

9.  It  shall  be  considered  a  foul  when, 
after  the  race  has  commenced,  any  com- 
petitor, by  his  oar,  boat,  or  person,  comes 
in  contact  with  the  oar,  boat,  or  person 
of  another  competitor;  unless,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  umpire,  such  contact  is  so 
slight  as  not  to  influence  the  race. 

10.  The  umpire  may,  during  the  race, 
caution  any  competitor  when  in  danger 
pi  committing  a  fou* 


11.  The  umpire,  when  appealed  to> 
shall  decide  all  questions  as  to  a  foul. 

12.  A  claim  of  foul  must  be  made  to 
the  judge  or  the  umpire  by  the  competitor 
himself  before  getting  out  of  his  boat. 

13.  In  case  of  a  foul  the  umpire  shall 
have  the  power :  (a)  To  place  the  boats — 
except  the  boat  committing  the  foul, 
which  is  disqualified — in  the  order  in 
which  they  come  in  ;  (b)  to  order  the  boats 
engaged  in  the  race,  other  than  the  boat 
committing  the  foul,  to  row  over  again 
on  the  same  or  another  day  ;  (c)  to  re-start 
the  qualified  boats  from  the  place  where 
the  foul  was  committed. 

14.  Every  boat  shall  abide  by  its 
accidents. 

15.  No  boat  shall  be  allowed  to  accom- 
pany a  competitor  for  the  purpose  of  direct- 
ing his  course  or  affording  him  other 
assistance.  The  boat  receiving  such 
direction  or  assistance  shall  be  disqualified 
at  the  discretion  of  the  umpire. 

16.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  umpire  ex- 
tends over  the  race  and  all  matters  con- 
nected with  it,  from  the  time  the  race  is 
specified  to  start  until  its  final  termination, 
and  his  decision  in  all  cases  shall  be  final 
and  without  appeal. 

17.  Any  competitor  refusing  to  abide 
by  the  decision,  or  to  follow  the  directions 
of  the  umpire,  shall  be  disqualified. 

18.  The  umpire,  if  he  thinks  proper, 
may  reserve  his  decision,  provided  that 
in  every  case  such  decision  be  given  on 
the  day  of  the  race. 

Boats  and  Boatbuilders.— A  com- 
parison of  the  rates  of  charges  of  some 
of  the  principal  boatbuilders  on  the 
Thames  shows  the  price  of  racing-boats, 
including  oars,  sliding-seats,  &c,  to 
average  as  follows :  Eights,  ^60 ;  fours, 

f35 ;  pairs,  ^22 ;  and  scullers'  boats, 
15.  The  prices  of  the  other  kinds  of 
boats  vary  considerably  according  to 
length,  material,  fittings  required,  &c.  ; 
but  a  pair-oared  gig  or  skiff,  built  of  deal 
and  mahogany,  22  feet  long,  plainly  fitted, 
and  without  any  very  high  degree  of 
finish,  with  one  pair  oars,  one  pair  sculls, 
one  boathook,  two  mats,  cushion,  back- 
rail,  &c,  complete,  may  be  taken  at 
£23 ;  if  built  of  oak  and  mahogany,  or 
mahogany  alone,  at  ^25.  The  charges 
for  hiring  vary  so  much  according  to  the 
class  of  boat  required,  and  many  other 
circumstances,  that  no  useful  list  of  prices 
can  be  compiled.     Among  the  principal 


yards  for  building  or  letting  may  be  men- 
tioned those  of  Messrs.  Salter,  Oxford ; 
Clasper,  Oxford,  and  ."  The  Feathers," 
Wandsworth ;  Searle  &  Sons,  Stangate, 
Lambeth,  London,  S.E. ;  Phelps,  Peters 
&  Co.,  Unity  Boat-house,  Putney  ;  Biffen, 
Mall-road,  Hammersmith  ;  Messum, 
Richmond  ;  Wheeler  &  Sons,  Richmond  ; 
and  Tagg,  Moulsey. — [For  cost  of  railway 
carriage  of  boats  and  canoes  see  RAILWAY 
Arrangements.  ) 

Botany. — The  botany  of  the  Thames 
is  perhaps  better  known  than  that  of  any 
other  English  river.  The  counties  through 
which  it  flows  have  been  for  the  most  part 
fully  investigated  from  a  botanical  point 
of  view,  and  the  results  of  these  investiga- 
tions are  familiar  to  those  of  scientific 
tastes  who  are  well  acquainted  with  the 
works  in  which  these  results  are  published. 
But  a  general  sketch  of  the  more  charac- 
teristic features  of  Thames  botany  may 
be  of  interest  to  the  general  reader,  and 
this  can  best  be  gathered  if  we  take  a 
glance  at  the  plants  to  be  found  in  certain 
districts  which  are  to  a  great  extent 
typical. 

First  of  all,  let  us  visit  the  Thames 
somewhere  about  the  middle  of  its  course, 
in  the  charming  neighbourhood  of  Great 
Marlow  ;  which  we  may  take  as  a  type  of 
that  large  extent  of  river  which  is  un- 
influenced by  tidal  influx  and  beyond  the 
range  of  the  metropolitan  area.  Here 
the  banks  of  the  river  are  crowded  with 
a  wealth  and  variety  and  richness  of 
vegetation  which  is  rarely  to  be  met  with 
except  in  such  situations.  We  may  pass 
over  such  common  though  beautiful 
waterside  plants  as  the  spiked  purple 
loosestrife  (Lyth?-um  Salicaria),  the  yellow 
loosestrife  (Lysimachia  vulgaris),  the 
meadow-rue  (Thalictrum  flavum),  the 
water  dropwort  (CEnanthe  crocata),  the 
yellow  iris  (Iris  Psevdacorus),  and  the 
elegant  meadow-sweet  (Spiraa  Ulmaria) ; 
but  others  demand  a  somewhat  more 
special  notice.  The  water-parsnip  (Sium 
latifolium),  for  example,  is  a  striking 
plant,  with  its  parsnip-like  leaves  and  tall 
stems  bearing  umbels  of  white  flowers, 
and  this  may  be  found  at  intervals  along 
the  banks  as  far  as  Richmond — in  former 
days  it  got  as  far  as  Chelsea.  The  sweet- 
flag  (Acorus  Calamus)  is  a  very  abundant 
Thames  plant,  getting  up  as  far  as 
Twickenham,  and  frequent  both  by  the 
side  of  the  main  stream  and  of  its  tribu- 


81  BOA— BOT 

taries ;  its  flag-like  leaves  may  be  distin- 
guished from  the  many  somewhat  similar 
ones  among  which  they  grow  by  their 
very  generally  wrinkled  margins — an  ap- 
pearance due,  we  imagine,  to  the  action 
of  some  insect,  and  by  their  peculiar 
but  pleasant  aromatic  odour  when 
broken :  although  so  frequent,  there 
seems  good  ground  for  believing  that  it 
is  not  a  native  plant.  The  flowering- 
rush  (Butomus  Umbellatus),  with  tall 
stems  surmounted  by  an  umbel  of  six- 
parted  pink  flowers,  is  another  conspi- 
cuous ornament  of  the  Thames  banks  ; 
while  in  the  early  summer  the  white 
blossoms  of  the  large-flowered  bitter- 
cress  (Cardamine.  amara),  made  more 
conspicuous  by  their  purple  stamens, 
arrest  attention.  In  the  still  backwaters 
of  the  river  itself,  we  shall  find  besides 
the  ever  beautiful  white  and  yellow  water- 
lilies,  a  plant  which  at  first  sight,  from 
its  habit  and  the  shape  of  its  leaves, 
might  be  taken  for  a  near  relation  of  the 
latter  of  these ;  but  if  we  examine  its 
numerous  yellow  flowers  we  shall  see 
that  they  differ  in  being  all  in  one  piece, 
or  what  botanists  call  monopetalous,  and 
that  they  are  bordered  with  an  elegant 
fringe.  This  is  the  fringed  buckbean 
(Villarsia  nymphcsoides) ,  and  is  a  very 
characteristic  Thames  plant ;  it  was  re- 
corded as  such  by  Lobel  in  1570,  and  was 
formerly  found  as  low  down  as  Richmond, 
though  it  does  not  now  get  below  Walton. 
The  meadows  by  the  Thames  produce 
many  beautiful  and  rare  plants ;  at  the 
head  of  these  we  may  place  two  flowers 
of  early  summer  :  the  snowflake  (Leucojum- 
cBstivum),  which  looks  like  an  enlarged 
snowdrop,  bearing  several  flowers  on 
one  stem,  and  the  fritillary  (Fritillaria 
Meleagris).  The  former  of  these  grows 
in  various  places  along  the  river  in  Berk- 
shire and  Buckinghamshire,  at  Newlock, 
Sonning,  Windsor,  and  about  Reading, 
where  it  is  very  abundant  in  the  meadows 
by  the  Loddon,  and  hence  called  "Lod- 
don  lilies."  The  fritillary  is  a  well-known 
and  conspicuous  ornament  of  Christ 
Church  Meadows,  Oxford  ;  it  also  occurs 
at  Reading  and  in  other  places.  In  the 
mowing  grass,  before  it  is  cut,  we  shall 
find  such  handsome  plants  as  the  meadow 
cranesbill  (Geranium  pratense),  and  the 
clustered  bell-flowers  (Campanula  glome- 
rata),  with  the  curious  adder's-tongue 
(Ophioglossum  vulgatum),  for  which  some 


BOT-BOT 


32 


little  search  is  necessary :  in  damp  places 
we  shall  come  across  the  large  red  rattle 
(Pedicularis  palustris)  and  the  marsh- 
stitch  wort  (Stellar  ia  glauca).  The  still 
ditches  and  shallow  ponds  near  the  river, 
such  as  those  at  Cock  Marsh  near  Cook- 
ham,  contain  the  pretty  frogbit  (Hydro- 
charis Morsusrance),  with  its  three-petalled 
white  flowers,  the  beautiful  water-violet 
(Hottonia  palustris),  and  the  bladderwort 
(Utricularia  vulgaris),  which  escapes 
notice  save  in  the  flowering  season  when 
it  puts  up  its  stalks  with  their  curiously- 
shaped  yellow  flowers;  the  bladders  on 
its  leaves  are,  however,  as  students  of 
Darwin  will  remember,  its  most  remark- 
able feature,  forming,  as  they  do,  small 
insect-traps  of  most  effectual  construction. 
A  ramble  in  Quarry  Wood,  opposite 
Marlow,  will  probably  lead  to  the  dis- 
covery of  the  curious  bird's-nest  (Mono- 
tropa  Hypopitys),  with  wax-like  leafless 
stems  and  inflorescence ;  the  pretty  win- 
ter-green (Pyrola  minor),  the  flowers  of 
which  remind  us  of  the  lily  of  the  valley  ; 
the  deadly  nightshade  (Atropa  Bella- 
donna) ;  the  brown  withered  -  looking 
bird's-nest  orchis  (Neottia  Nidus-avis) ; 
and,  best  of  all,  the  rare  military  orchis 
(Orchis  militaris).  When  we  remember 
that  nearly  all  these  and  many  more  are 
to  be  found  in  the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Thames  at  Great  Marlow,  we 
shall  see  that  the  botany  here  is  indeed  full 
of  interest. 

We  will  now  come  to  another  part  of 
the  Thames  within  the  tidal  influence,  and 
glance  at  the  plants  to  be  found  from 
Teddington  downwards,  until  London 
effectually  puts  a  stop  to  all  riverside 
vegetation.  Many  of  the  characteristic 
riverside  plants  hold  their  own,  in  a  more 
or  less  satisfactory  way,  up  to  Putney 
and  Wandsworth,  such  as  marsh-mari- 
gold, meadow-sweet,  purple  loosestrife, 
meadow-rue,  water-dropwort,  and  the 
like  ;  but  there  is  an  absence  of  the  great 
variety  of  vegetation  which  greeted  us  at 
our  last  peep  at  the  Thames.  But  there 
are  many  plants  to  be  met  with  which 
interest  the  botanist,  although  to  an  or- 
dinary observer  they  may  be  less  striking. 
One  of  these  is  the  tawny  balsam  (Impa- 
tiens  fulva),  with  thick  green  succulent 
stems  and  reddish-orange  balsam-like 
flowers  dangling  from  slender  stalks. 
Like  the  well-known  American  water- 
weed,  this  is  a  present  to  us  from  Brother 


Jonathan,  but   is  now  so  thoroughly  at 
home  with  us  that  none  would  suspect 
its  exotic   origin.     "  It  almost  certainly 
originated   from  the  gardens  of  Albury 
Park,  Surrey.     A  small  stream,  the  Til- 
lingbourne,  flows  through  these  gardens 
and  runs  into  the  Wey  above  Guildford, 
and  this  in  time  flows  into  the  Thames  a 
little  above  Shepperton.     In  this  way  the 
seeds  have   been   carried  by  the  water- 
current  and  by  barges,  &c,  throughout 
the  Thames  Valley  district"  ("Flora  of 
Middlesex").      It    was    first    seen    near 
Albury  in  1822,  and  has  completely  es- 
tablished itself    in    many  places,   while 
plants  may  be  met  with  here  and  there 
any  year  between  Putney  and  Richmond. 
It  may  be  worth  while  remarking  that  a 
freshwater    mussel    (Dreissena  polymor- 
pha),  which   is   supposed  to  have  been 
originally  introduced  from  Russia  on  logs 
of  timber,  has  spread  itself  in  England  in 
a  similarly  rapid  manner.     It  was  first 
noticed  by  Mr.  J.  de  C.  Sowerby  in  1822 
in  the  Commercial  Docks,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  found  even  in  the  supply-pipes 
of  the  London  water  companies.    Another 
foreigner  may  be  found  occasionally  by 
the  Thames,   but    more    abundantly    in 
fields  and  by  road-sides  at  Kew,  Rich- 
mond, and  Mortlake  ;  it  is  readily  known 
by  its  yellow  disk  with  a  few  white  ray 
florets,   the    size    of    each     flowerhead 
scarcely  exceeding  that  of  the  common 
grounsel.     This  is  Galinsoga  parviflora, 
a  Peruvian  annual,  which  is  supposed  in 
the  first  instance  to  have  escaped  from 
Kew   Gardens,    and    is  now   about   the 
commonest  weed  in  the  district.     A  form 
of  the  winter-cress,  known  to  botanists  as 
Barbarea  stricta,  by  no  means  a  common 
plant,  may  be  found  early  in  the  season 
on  both  sides  of  the  river  between  Rich- 
mond and  Isleworth.    Two  rare  bulrushes 
(Scirpus  triqueter  and  S.  carinatus)  are 
abundant  by  the  Thames  about  Putney ; 
they  formerly  extended  along  the  river  at 
intervals  as  far  as  Limehouse  and  the  Isle 
of  Dogs.      The  white   saxifrage    (Saxi- 
fraga  granulata)  is  very  abundant  by  the 
Thames  about  Kew  and  Chiswick ;  and 
here  too  the  pretty  little  ivy-leaved  toad- 
flax (Linaria  Cymbalaria)  makes  itself  at 
home  wherever  it  can  find  a  footing  on  a 
wall  near  the  river ;  it  grows,  or  grew  until 
lately,  on  one  of  the  piles  of  Battersea 
Bridge.    The  bistort  ( Polygonum  Bistorta) 
and  white  saxifrage  still  puts  in  an  appear- 


ance  in  Battersea  Park,  where  they  were 
very  abundant  ten  years  or  so  since.  The 
fritillary,  which  used  to  be  very  abundant 
in  meadows  between  Mortlake  and  Kew, 
has  gradually  died  out,  although  it  lin- 
gered until  quite  lately.  The  Star  of 
Bethlehem  (Ornithogalum  umbellaium)  is 
abundant  by  the  river  between  Kew  and 
Richmond,  and  Cardamine  amara  may 
also  be  found  there,  as  well  as  the  balm 
(Melissa  officinalis),  which  is  quite  estab- 
lished. Above  Teddington  we  may  notice 
the  Alexanders  (Smyrnium  Olusatrum)  at 
Hampton  Court,  under  the  wall  by  the 
side  of  the  river;  the  vervain  (Verbena 
officinalis)  and  wild  sage  (Salvia  Ver- 
benaca)  also  occur  there  ;  while  the  pretty 
little  autumnal  squill  (Scilla  autumnalis) 
grows  on  the  sloping  bank  by  the  towing- 
path  between  Hampton  Court  and  Ditton 
Ferry. 

The  walls,   and  wharves,    and  docks 
being  passed,  the  riverside  begins  again 
to  display  something  in  the  way  of  plants  ; 
but  now  a  new  and  potent  factor  appears 
in  the  shape  of  the  salt  water,  which  makes 
its  way  up  with  each  tide,  and  materially 
influences  the  flora .    We  may  regard  the 
neighbourhood  of  Purfleet  as  the  district 
where  marine  vegetation  first  puts  in  a 
well-defined  appearance;    here  we   find 
thrift  (Armeria   maritima),  sea-plantain 
(Plantago  maritima),  and  such  inconspi- 
cuous flowered,  yet  characteristic  marine 
plants   as   Suceda  maritima,  Salicornia 
herbacea,   Obione  portulacoides,  A  triplex 
marina,  and  the  like ;  besides  such  more 
striking  plants  as  two  sea-lavenders  (Sta- 
tice  Limonium  and  S.  Bahusiensis) ,  and 
the  Michaelmas-daisy  (Aster  Tripolium), 
which  gets  considerably  higher  up,  and 
is  found  about  Woolwich  and  Greenwich. 
The  Woolwich  and  Plumstead  marshes 
afford  many  plants  of  interest :   in   the 
first  rank  of  which  must  be  placed  the 
great  marsh  sowthistle  (Sonchuspalustris), 
one  of  the  largest,  as  well  as  one  of  the 
rarest  of  British  plants.  The  pretty  snow- 
flake,    already    mentioned    among    the 
plants  of  the  Upper  Thames,  is  to  be 
found  in  the  same  locality,  with  scurvy- 
grass  (Cochlearia  anglica),  and  such  sea 
plants  as  the  sea-milkwort  (Glaux  mari- 
tima), Lactucasaligna,  and  the  like.  One 
of  the  rarest  of  British  plants,  a  vetchling 
(Lathy  rushirsutus),  which  is  almost  con- 
fined to  the  south  of  Essex,  is,  or  was 
lately,  to  be  found  at  Hadleigh ;  while 


33  BCT— BOU 

an  equally  rare  and  much  handsomer 
species  (L.  tuberosus),  with  much  hand< 
somer  rose-coloured  pea-like  flowers, 
occurs  in  Canvey  Island,  with  several 
other  interesting  plants.  At  Southend, 
as  might  be  expected,  the  maritime  flora 
is  in  full  force ;  and  there  is  much  to 
interest  the  botanist.  Among  the  rarities 
to  be  met  with  there  upon  the  shore, 
are  various  trefoils  and  medicks,  Vicia 
bithynica,  Lathyras  Aphaca,  Bupleurum 
tenuissimum,  Inula  crithmoides,  the 
horned  poppy  (Glaucium  maritimum), 
the  sea-kale  (Crambe  maritima),  and 
many  more. 

A  sketch  like  the  above  must  of  neces- 
sity be  very  incomplete  ;  it  may  be  well, 
therefore,  in  conclusion,  to  enumerate 
the  principal  works  in  which  the  botany 
of  the  Thames,  for  certain  districts,  is 
more  or  less  exhaustively  treated.  Middle- 
sex, Surrey,  and  Essex  boast  complete 
countyfloras  ;  the  first,  by  Messrs.  Trimen 
and  Dyer,  contains  much  information  as 
to  the  botany  of  the  Thames  in  former 
times ;  the  second  and  third,  by  Messrs. 
Brewer  and  G.  S.  Gibson  respectively,  if 
less  exhaustive,  are  still  very  useful  works. 
A  flora  of  Kent,  which  is  greatly  wanted 
by  British  botanists,  is  in  progress  under 
the  authorship  of  Mr.  F.  J.  Hanbury. 
No  complete  floras  exist  of  Berkshire  or 
Buckinghamshire ;  a  paper  on  the  plants 
of  the  former  county,  bringing  together 
what  has  been  recorded  about  them  by 
various  authors,  has  been  published  in 
"Transactions  of  the  Newbury  District 
Field  Club,"  by  the  writer  of  this  notice. 
Dr.  De  Crespigny's  "New  London 
Flora,"  published  in  1877,  will  be  found 
to  contain  a  good  deal  of  information 
relating  to  Thames-side  plants. 

Bourne  End,  Bucks,  on  the  left  bank, 
from  London  53J  miles,  from  Oxford  58 
miles,  one  of  the  scattered  villages  making 
up  the  parish  of  Wooburn.  The  little 
river  Wye,  Wick,  or  Wyke,  as  it  is 
variously  written,  enters  the  Thames  here. 
Bourne  End  is  a  place  of  no  importance, 
except  that  it  is  a  station  on  a  branch  of 
the  great  Western  Railway,  32  miles  from 
London,  trains  averaging  about  an  hour. 
It  is  the  junction  for  Marlow. 

Inns.— "Railway"  and  "Old  Red 
Lion." 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Marlow  3 J  miles ; 
down,  Cookham  |  mile.     Locks,  up,  Mar- 


B 


BOU— BRA  34 

low  3  miles ;    down,  Cookham  ij  mile. 
Ferry,  Spade  Oak. 

Fares  to  Paddington,  ist,  5/3,  8/9; 
2nd,  4/-,  6/9;  3rd,  2/4J. 

Bray,  Berkshire,  a  small  village  on  the 
right  bank,  about  a  mile  from  Maiden- 
head, 62!  miles  from  Oxford,  48!  miles  from 
London.  Population,  2,717.  The  most 
prominent  object  in  the  village  from  the 
river  is  the  fine  old  church,  close  to  which 
stands  the  vicarage,  with  trim  gardens, 
and  smooth  shaven  lawns  running  down 
to  the  river.  A  profusion  of  fine  trees 
adds  to  the  beauty  of  the  view,  and  the 
place  is  very  happily  situated  at  a  beautiful 
bend  of  the  river.  It  is  not  surprising 
that  the  ancient  vicar,  so  celebrated  in 
song,  should  have  persistently  determined 
to  live  and  die  vicar  of  Bray.  For  a 
secluded  and  quietly  beautiful  place  of 
residence  few  more  agreeable  spots  can 
be  found.  Visitors  from  the  river  can 
land  at  the  "George  Inn,"  and  travellers 
walking  down  the  bank  on  the  Bucks  side 
can  be  ferried  over  to  the  same  point  on 
hailing  the  opposite  shore.  It  would 
seem  at  first  sight  that  there  was  not 
much  for  the  visitor  to  see  in  the  village 
of  Bray,  but  in  fact  the  church,  which  is 
as  handsome  within  as  it  is  without,  will 
well  repay  careful  inspection  ;  and  Jesus 
Hospital  is  also  well  worthy  a  visit,  though, 
as  it  lies  a  few  minutes'  walk  inland,  it  is 
generally  overlooked  by  boating  parties. 
The  church,  dedicated  to  St.  Michael, 
dates  back  to  the  time  of  the  first  Edward, 
and  is  a  fine  example  of  the  early  English 
perpendicular  style,  with  -a  fine  square 
flint  tower.  It  was  entirely  restored  about 
i860,  and  the  ancient  monuments  and 
brasses,  in  which  it  is  unusually  rich,  have 
been  treated  with  reverent  care.  Several 
of  the  new  corbels  in  the  nave  and  chancel 
are  portraits :  two  very  noticeable  ones 
on  the  right  and  left  of  the  chancel  are 
those  of  the  Rev.  Austen  Leigh,  the  late 
vicar,  and  the  late  Samuel  Wilberforce, 
bishop  of  Winchester,  the  latter  an  ex- 
cellent likeness.  There  are  many  curious 
tablets  on  the  walls,  and  the  floor  of  the 
church  is  almost  entirely  paved  with 
similar  memorials.  One  of  the  most  curious 
monuments  is  that  of  William  Goddard, 
founder  of  Jesus  Hospital,  of  Phillibert?. 
who  died  1609,  and  of  Joyce  Maunsell 
his  wife,  died  1622.  This  consists  of  two 
painted  half-length  figures  under  canopied 


niches,  showing  very  vividly  the  costumes 
of  the  period.  William's  hands  are 
crossed  upon  the  skull,  which  so  fre- 
quently occurs  in  the  monumental  art  of 
this  part  of  Berkshire,  and  his  epitaph  is 
worth  quoting.    It  runs  thus  : 

If  what  I  was  thou  seekst  to  knowe, 
Theis  lynes  my  character  shal  showe  ; 
Those  benifitts  that  God  me  lent 
With  thanks  I  tooke  and  freely  spent. 
I  scorned  what  playnesse  covld  not  gett, 
And  next  to  treason  hated  debt ; 
I  loved  not  those  thet  stird  vp  strife  ; 
Trve  to  my  freinde  and  to  my  wife : 
The  latter  here  by  me  I  have; 
We  had  one  bed  and  have  one  grave 
My  honesty  was  svch  that  I 
When  death  came  feard  not  to  dye. 

Another  odd  epitaph  inscribed  on  the 
memorial  brass  of  an  old  vicar  of  Bray 
and  his  wife,  probably  of  the  time  of  James 
I.,  runs : 

When  Oxford  gave  thee  two  degrees  in  art, 
And  love  possest  thee  mester  of  my  heart ; 
Thy  colledge  fellowshipp  thou  lefst  for  mine, 
And  novght  bvt  deathe  covld  seprate  me  fro 

thine. 
Thirty-five  yeares  we  livd'e  in  wedlocke  bands, 
Conioyned  in  ovr  hearts  as  well  as  handes  ; 
Bvt  death  the  bodies  of  best  friendes  devides, 
And  in  the  earth's  close  wombe  their  relyckes 

hides  ; 
Yet  here  they  are  not  lost  bvt  sowen,  that  they 
May  rise  more  gloriovs  at  the  Ivdgment  day. 

Among  the  brasses  are  those  of  Arthur 
Page,  died  1610,  and  his  wife  Sessely, 
died  1598  ;  and  that  of  William  Laken,  a 
judge,  dated  1475,  on  the  south  wall, 
which  was  found  obliterated  by  plaster 
when  the  church  was  last  restored.  There 
is  a  curious  brass  with  coloured  coat-of- 
arms  of  William  Smithe,  1594;  and  on 
the  floor  of  the  south  aisle  is  another, 
without  date,  on  which  are  the  figures  of 
one  Will.  Smyth,  and  his  wives  Agneta 
and  Matilda.  It  would  seem  from  the 
similarity  of  the  heraldic  devices  that, 
notwithstanding  the  difference  of  spelling, 
both  these  gentlemen  belonged  to  the 
same  branch  of  the  great  family  of  Smith. 
On  the  south  wall  is  the  brass  of  Clement 
Kelke,  a  cytycen  of  London,  "a  marchant 
ventver,"  1593.  The  crowning  glory  of 
the  Bray  brasses  is  the  well-known  memo- 
rial of  the  Foxley  family.  This  depicts 
Sir  John  Foxley  and  his  two  wives  early 
in  the  14th  century.  The  figures  are 
under  a  triple  canopy,  a  great  part  of 
which  has  unfortunately  disappeared. 
The  knight  is  in  armour,  with  his  feet  on 


a  lion  couchant,  and  the  whole  rests  on  a 
column  issuing  from  the  back  of  a  fox. 
In  its  pristine  perfection  this  must  have 
been  a  singularly  fine  example,  even  now 
it  is  a  somewhat  unique  specimen.     An- 
other curious  tablet  is   that  to  William 
Norreys,  of  "Fifild  in  Bray/'  who  died 
1591.     The  brass  represents  Norreys,  his 
wife,    and  numerous  progeny,    with  his 
arms  and  motto,  "Faithfully  sarve"  ;  and 
the  inscription  informs  us  that  he  was 
"Usher  of  the  Parliament  Howse  and  of 
the  most  noble  Order  of  the  Garter,  con- 
troller of  the  works  of  Windesor  Castle  and 
parks  there."     A  curious  little  altar-table 
is  extant,  used  in  the  church  in  1646,  and 
the  carved  stone  font  is  of  about  the  same 
period.       In    the   vestry  is  preserved   a 
tattered,    torn,    and    dog's-eared    black 
letter  copy  of  Foxe's  Book  of  Martyrs, 
which  was  originally  chained  for  public 
perusal  to  a  pillar  in  the  church  about  the 
time  of  Elizabeth,  and  was  found  when 
the  tower  was  restored. 

Jesus   Hospital — almshouses   for  forty 
poor  persons — with  chapel  and  house  for 
resident    parson,    is    a    queer    red-brick 
quadrangle    with    yews    and    cypresses 
trimmed  in  ancient  style  along  its  road 
frontage,  and  surrounding  an  old-world 
well-kept  garden  and  an  ancient  pump, 
which  latter  institution  is  apparently  held 
in  great  veneration  by  the  alms-people. 
Over  the  porch  is  a  full-length  statue  of 
the  pious  founder,  on  either  side  of  which 
are  shields  with  the  arms,  on  the  left,  of 
William  Goddard ;   on  the  right,  of  the 
Fishmongers'   Company,    by  whom   the 
charity  is  administered.     The  erection  of 
the  hospital  commenced  in  1623,  and  it 
was  completed    in   1628.      The  curious 
alms-box,   which  stands  in    the    porch, 
dates  back  to  1635. 
Hotel. — "The  George,"  by  the  river. 
Place  of  Worship.— St.  Michael's. 
Postal   Arrangements.  —  Money 
order  office  and  savings  bank.     Nearest 
telegraph  office,  Maidenhead.  Mails  from 
London,   6.30  and  11.30  a.m.  ;  Sunday, 
6.30a.m.  Mails  for  London,  9.40  and  11.36 
a.m.  and  7.40  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  11.40  a.m. 
Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Maidenhead  i\ 
mile ;  down,  Windsor  5#  miles.      Locks, 
Bray;    up,    Boulter's    if    mile;     down, 
Boveney  3!  miles.     Ferry,  Bray.     Rail- 
way Station,  Maidenhead. 

Fares,  Maid,  to  Padd.  :  1st,  4/4,  7I6 ; 
2I*d,  3I3,  5/9 ;  3rd,  2/0J. 


35  BRA— BRE 

Bream  (The)  is  much  more  plentiful 
in  the  Thames  during  recent  years  than 
formerly.  It  is  a  flat,  bony  fish  generally, 
repulsive  from  its  sliminess,  but  yet  has 
its  admirers,  who  fish  for  little  else.  It.is 
mostly  taken  by  legering  with  a  lob-worm, 
or  the  traveller  in  deep  holes  and  in  a 
gentle  current.  It  spawns  in  May  and  is 
in  season  from  June  to  March.  There 
are  two  sorts  of  bream — the  golden  and 
the  silver.  The  former  is  a  far  superior 
fish  to  the  latter. 

Brentford,  Middlesex,  on  the  left 
bank,  from  London  13  miles,  from  Oxford 
98J  miles,  nearly  opposite  Kew ;  a  station 
on  the  London  and  South- Western  Rail- 
way 10J  miles  from  Waterloo.  Trains 
average  35  minutes.  There  are  alternative 
routes  to  Ludgate  (about  1  hour)  and 
Paddington  (about  45  minutes).  Popula- 
tion, 11,091.  Soil,  London  clay.  Brent- 
ford has  been  described  as  a 

tedious  town 
For  dirty  streets  and  white-legged 
chickens  known ; 
and  although  the  chickens  are  no  longer 
a  specialty,  the  streets  are  still  open  to 
improvement.    The  place,   now  divided 
into  Old  and  New  Brentford,  is  in  fact,  a 
bustling,   busy,    metropolitan  water-side 
district  rather  than  a  self-contained  town, 
and  has  the  untidiness  characteristic  of 
such  places.     The  river  Brent  enters  the 
Thames  here,  and  at  its  mouth  are  the  ex- 
tensive docks  of  the  Great  Western  Rail- 
way, where  whole  fleets  of  barges  discharge 
and  take  in  cargoes.     Many  important 
manufactures  are  carried  on  in  both  parts 
of  the  town.     The  town-hall,   the  post- 
office,  and  other  public  buildings  are  in 
New   Brentford.       The  church  of    Old 
Brentford  is  dedicated  to  St.  George,  and 
is   a  plain   brick  building   of  no   great 
antiquity,  with  an  altar-piece  by  Zoffany, 
who  lived   at  Strand-on-the-Green,  just 
below  Kew  Bridge.     It  is  in  contempla- 
tion to  build  a  new  church,  and  to  this 
end  a  site  costing  £2, 200  has  been  secured. 
The  church  of  New  Brentford  is  dedicated 
to  St.  Lawrence,  and,  except  the  tower, 
which  is  of  great  antiquity,  dates  from 
about  the  middle  of  the  last  century.    St. 
Paul's  Church,  Old  Brentford,  was  built 
in  1868. 

Bank. — London  and  County,  High- 
street. 

Hotels.—"  Star  and  Garter ;"  "  Kew 
Bridge  Castle  -r"  "  New  Brentford." 

B  2 


BRE-BUR 


36 


Market. — Tuesday. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  George's, 
St.  Lawrence,  St.  Paul's,  and  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church  of  St.  John  the  Evan- 
gelist. 

Police. — Station  (T  division,  Metro- 
politan), High-street. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
insurance).  Mails  from  London,  7  and 
8.45  a.m.,  2.40,  6.45,  and  8.20  p.m. 
Sunday,  over  counter,  8  to  10  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  6.15  and  9.30  a.m., 
12.40,  3,  5,  8.15,  and  9.50  p.m.  Sun- 
day, 9  p.m. 

Nearest  'Bridges,  up,  Richmond  2 J 
miles ;  down,  Kew  \  mile.  Lock,  up, 
Teddington,  5 \  miles.  Ferry  and  Rail- 
way Station,  Brentford. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  Or  Ludgate :  1st, 
1/-,  1/6;  2nd,  -/io,  1/2;  3rd,  -/8,  1/-.  To 
Paddington:  1st,  1/6,  2/3;  2nd,  1/2,  1/9; 
3rd,  -/io. 

Bridges— 

Cricklade  to  Oxford. 

Miles        Miles 

xror««  horn  from 

Name.  Crick_    FollyBd> 

lade.  Oxford. 

Eisey(foot)           1  ...  42 

Castle  Eaton        4  ...  39 

Hannington         6  ...  37 

Lechlade gh  •••  33l 

St.  John's 10J  ...  32J 

Radcot      ...         , 17  ...  26 

Old  Man's  (foot) 18  ...  25 

Tadpole 21  ...  22 

Ten  Foot  (foot) 22  ...  21 

New           28  ...  15 

Langley's (or Ridges) Weir  29  ...  14 

Eynsham  ...         ...         ...  36  ...  7 

Godstow 40  ...  3 

Osney         42^  ...  £ 

(And  see  Trip  from  Cricklade.  ) 

Oxford  to  Putney. 


Miles 

from 

London. 


Name. 

Folly 

Abingdon 

Sutton        

Clifton  Hampden 
Day's  Lock  (foot) 
Shillingford 
Wallingford 

Streatley 

Pangbourne 


Miles  Miles 

from  from 

London.      Oxford. 


Name. 

Caversham 

Sonning 

Henley      

Marlow     

Cookham  ... 
Maidenhead 

Windsor 

Victoria     

Albert        

Staines       

Chertsey 

Walton      ...         ... 

Hampton  Court  ... 

Kingston 

Richmond 

Kew  

Hammersmith     ...         ...       a§     ...  103 

Putney      7       ...  104^ 

(And  see  Trip  from  Oxford.  ) 

Below  Putney. 
Wandsworth,  Battersea,  Albert, Chelsea 
(or  Victoria),  Vauxhall,  Lambeth,  West- 
minster, Charing  Cross  (foot),  Waterloo, 
Blackfriars,  Southwark,  London  (for 
particulars  see  under  their  respective 
headings). 

Bugsby's  Reach,  about  one  mile  long, 
runs  from  Blackwall  to  the  beginning  of 
Woolwich  Reach.  The  Lea  enters  the 
Thames  on  the  left  bank  by  Bow  Creek. 
Bearings  N.N.W.  and  S.S.E. 

Buoys.— The  following  is  a  list  of  the 
buoys  between  Gravesend  and  the  Nore. 
They  are  all  under  the  management  of 
the  Trinity  House,  and  will  be  found 
described  under  their  respective  headings: 
NORTH  Side— Ovens,  Gravesend  Reach; 
River  Middle,  Sea  Reach  ;  East  River 
Middle,  Sea  Reach  ;  Spit  (off  Leigh),  Sea 
Reach  ;  West  Shoebury,  Sea  Reach  ; 
Middle  Shoebury,  Sea  Reach.  South 
Side— West  Blyth,  Sea  Reach  ;  Middle 
Blyth,  Sea  Reach  ;  East  Blyth,  Sea  Reach  ; 
Yantlet,  Sea  Reach  ;  Jenkin,  Sea  Reach ; 
Nore  Sand,  Sea  Reach  ;  Sheerness  Middle, 
entrance  to  Sheerness;  Grain  Spit,  en- 
trance to  Sheerness.  The  Ovens,  Blyth, 
and  Yantlet  Buoys  were  transferred  to  the 
Thames  Conservancy  in  1865,  and  were 
re-transferred  to  the  Trinity  House  in 
1879. 

Burcott, Oxfordshire,  on  the  left  bank, 
rather  more  than  a  mile  and  half  above 
Day's  Lock,  is  a  hamlet  of  Dorchester  of 


37 


BUR— C/N 


no  importance.  It  receives  letters  through 
Abingdon,  Dorchester  being  the  nearest 
money  order  office  and  telegraph  station. 

Buscot,  a  village  in  Berkshire  on  the 
right  bank,  about  31  miles  from  Oxford. 
Soil,  clay;  population,  500.  Buscot  is 
only  a  small  agricultural  village,  and, 
with  the  exception  of  the  fine  estate  of 
Buscot  House,  contains  nothing  of  any 
interest  but  its  old  church  of  St.  Mary, 
tvith  its  rather  low,  square,  embattled 
tower.  The  interior  of  the  church  is 
plain,  but  a  fine  Norman  arch  divides  the 
nave  and  chancel;  and  there  is  a  piscina 
of  apparently  considerable  antiquity. 
Buscot  church  is  further  adorned  by  a 
couple  of  mural  monuments,  dating  from 
the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  quite 
in  the  taste  of  that  period,  and  fitted  with 
the  customary  angels,  fat  boys,  and  gene- 
rally hideous  emblematical  devices.  There 
is  a  lock  at  the  village,  the  second  from 
the  source  of  the  river,  with  a  fall  of 
rather  more  than  four  feet  in  ordinary 
seasons. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Lechlade. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  St.  John's,  about 
2  miles  ;  down,  Radcot  about  5  miles  ; 
Locks,  up,  St.  John's  about  2  miles  ;  down, 
Rushy  8j  miles.  Railway  Station,  Lech- 
lade, distant  about  2  miles  {which  see). 

Bushey  Park.— See  Hampton  Court 
Palace. 

Camping  Out  is  a  form  of  enter- 
tainment which  has  lately  come  into 
fashion,  and  is  spoken  of  with  much 
enthusiasm  by  its  devotees,  among  whom 
may  be  numbered  a  proportion  of  ladies. 
It  is  a  little  difficult  to  see  the  great  enjoy- 
ment of  sleeping  in  a  tent  when  you  can 
get  a  bed,  or  of  being  exposed  to  the 
mists  and  fogs  which  are  so  plentiful  on 
the  river  at  night  and  in  the  early  morn- 
ing even  in  the  summer.  It  is  not  neces- 
sary to  give  any  detailed  advice  on  this 
subject,  as  the  enthusiast  will  probably 
have  imbibed  the  taste  for  camping  from 
an  experienced  friend,  who  will  be  able  to 
"show  him  all  the  ropes."  It  may  be 
suggested  that  a  good  deal  of  the  land  on 
the  banks  of  the  river  is  private  property, 
and  that  trespassing  in  private  paddocks 
and  gardens,  as  is  too  often  done,  indis- 
criminate wood-cutting  for  fires,  and 
similar  practices,  should  be  avoided.  The 
owner  of  one  well-known  and  extremely 


comfortable  camping-ground  has  been, 
we  regret  to  say,  compelled  to  close  it 
against  campers  owing  to  the  ill  return 
so  constantly  made  him  for  his  courtesy. 
This  gentleman  is  a  man  of  the  world, 
and  not  at  all  of  a  fidgety  or  touchy  dis- 
position ;  but  when  it  came  to  cutting 
down  valuable  ornamental  shrubs,  climb- 
ing garden  walls,  stealing  fruit  and  eggs, 
and  surreptitiously  milking  cows  at  unholy 
hours,  it  was  felt  that  the  line  must  be 
drawn.  A  lock-island  is  generally  a  good 
place  for  a  camp.  Tents  should  be 
pitched  a  little  distance  from  the  water, 
on  rising  ground  if  possible,  and  upon 
no  account  under  the  shadow  of  over- 
hanging trees.  It  is  well  to  be  provided 
with  a  sufficiency  of  reasonable  comforts, 
but  the  example  of  a  party  who  were 
once  seen  by  the  writer  at  Cookham,  with 
a  servant  in  livery  laying  the  table  for 
dinner,  is  not  one  to  be  followed.  Half 
the  fun  of  camping  consists  in  doing 
everything  for  oneself,  and  in  the  perfect 
freedom  from  all  conventional  social 
trammels  which  such  a  mode  of  existence 
involves.  For  cooking  utensils,  the  cook- 
ing stoves  sold  at  93,  Wigmore-street, 
have  been  well  spoken  of.  An  iron  tripod, 
with  chain  and  hook  to  which  to  hang  the 
kettle  or  the  saucepan,  is  very  useful. 
B.  Edgington,  of  2,  Duke-street,  London 
Bridge,  can  be  recommended  for  tents  of 
all  kinds. 

Canoe  Club  (Royal).  Office,  it, 
Buckingham- street,  Adelphi. — The  Royal 
Canoe  Club  Boat-house  is  at  Turk's, 
Kingston-on-Thames.  T.  G.  F.  Winser, 
Sec.  The  object  of  the  club  is  to 
improve  canoes,  promote  canoeing,  and 
unite  canoeists,  by  arranging  and  record- 
ing canoe  voyages,  by  holding  meetings 
annually  for  business  and  bivouac,  for 
paddling  and  sailing,  and  for  racing  and 
chasing  in  canoes  over  land  and  water, 
Any  gentleman  nominated  by  two  mem- 
bers is  eligible.  Election  is  by  ballot, 
one  black  ball  in  five  to  exclude.  Entrance 
fee,  £2  ;  subscription,  £1.  Life  mem- 
bers, ;£  10,  without  entrance  fee.  Ladies 
are  also  eligible  for  election.  Each  mem- 
ber on  election  is  required  to  send  a  carte 
portrait  of  himself  for  insertion  in  the 
club  album.  The  officers  are  commodore 
(H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales),  captain, 
two  mates,  purser,  cook,  and  secretary. 
The  club  ribbon  is  black,  with  crown  and 
club  cipher  embroidered  in  gold.     The 


OAN-CHA  38 

club  burgee  is  blue,    with    crbwn    and 
cipher  in  white. 

The  principal  sailing  races  of  the  Royal 
Canoe  Club  take  place  on  Hendon  Lake 
and  at  Teddington.  The  regatta  of  1884 
was  held  on  the  Thames  at  Teddington, 
on  the  28th  of  Tune. 

Canvey  Island  (Essex)  is  situated  on 
the  Thames,  about  12  miles  below  Graves- 
end,  and  is  close  to  Hole  Haven,  or  Holy- 
Haven,  and  not  far  from  Thames  Haven. 
There  is  a  very  comfortable  and  un- 
obtrusive inn,  where  boating  men  are 
frequently  accommodated  with  bed  and 
board.  The  population  of  the  island, 
purely  agricultural,  is  about  300.  The 
very  pretty  little  church  is  dedicated  to 
St.  Katherine.  There  is  a  coastguard 
station  on  the  island,  and  Benfleet  station 
is  on  the  land  side  about  three  miles  from 
the  water.  There  is  a  fine  shell  bay  and 
beach,  which  nearly  at  all  times  of  the 
tide  is  a  most  pleasant  walk  close  to  the 
sea. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Benfleet, 
on  the  London,  Tilbury,  and  Southend 
Railway,  about  1  hour  30  minutes  from 
London  ;  Steamboat-piers,  Thames  Haven 
and  Southend.  Railway  fares,  Benfleet 
to  London,  1st,  3/9,  6/3  ;  2nd,  2/10,  4/9  ; 
3rd,  1/11,  3/10. 

Carp  are  occasionally  taken  in  the 
Thames  whilst  angling  for  roach,  and 
they  are  only  specially  fished  for  at 
Teddington,  where  they  are  sometimes 
caught  in  considerable  numbers. 

Castle  Eaton.— A  little  village  in 
Wiltshire,  on  the  right  bank,  about  39 
miles  from  Oxford,  with  the  small  church 
of  St.  Mary,  chiefly  noteworthy  for  a  fine 
old  bell  turret.  The  river  increases  con- 
siderably in  its  volume  and  width  about 
here,  and  is  spanned  by  a  bridge.  Popu- 
lation about  320. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Fairford  (the  nearest  money- 
order  and  telegraph  office). 

Nearest  Bridges,  up.  Eisey  3  miles  ; 
down,  Hannington.  Lock,  down,  St. 
John's  about  6J  miles.  Railway  Station, 
Fairford  3  miles. 

Fares  to  Paddington,  1st,  18/6,  27/6  ; 
2nd,  12/-,  20/- ;  3rd,  8/5J. 

Causeway  Stakes,  also  known  as 
Coway  Stakes,  in  the  bend  of  the  river 


half  a  mile  above  Walton  Bridge  ;  the 
reputed  scene  of  a  battle  between  Csesar's 
legions  and  the  Britons.  The  river  was 
forded  by  the  invader  notwithstanding 
that  Cassivelaunus  had  planted  the  bank 
and  filled  (he  river  bed  with  sharp 
stakes.  It  is  said  that  remains  of  these 
stakes  were  to  be  seen  in  the  river  until 
quite  recently,  but  this  tradition  had 
better  not  be  accepted  as  a  fact.  The 
venerable  Bede  notes  that  these  stakes 
"are  seen  to  this  day  about  the  thickness 
of  a  man's  thigh,  stuck  immovable,  being- 
driven  hard  into  the  bottom  of  the  river/" 
but  it  does  not  appear  that  the  venerable 
one  himself  had  ocular  demonstration  of 
the  fact. 

Caversham,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left 
bank ;  from  London  74J  miles,  from 
Oxford  37  miles.  Population,  2,500. 
Soil,  chalk.  Caversham  is,  to  all  intents 
and  purposes,  a  suburb  of  Reading,  with 
which  it  is  connected  by  an  iron  bridge. 
The  village  is  unimportant,  but  there  are 
many  good  houses  in  the  neighbourhood. 
Among  the  principal  mansions  is  Caver- 
sham Park.  An  omnibus  runs  to  and 
from  the  "Elephant  Inn,"  Reading,  and 
the  "  Prince  of  Wales,"  Little  End,  via 
Grey  Friar's-road,  Caversham  Bridge, 
and  the  New-road.  The  Church  of 
St.  Peter  has  lately  undergone  extensive 
repairs  and  restorations.  It  contains 
some  fine  Norman  work.  There  is 
also  a  Wesleyan  Church  at  Lower 
Caversham. 

Inns. — "Crown,"  on  the  Oxfordshire 
side;  ''White  Hart,"  on  the  Berkshire 
side,  where  boats  can  be  left,  as  well  as 
at  Causton's  under  the  bridge. 

Police.  — Station,  Prospect-street. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  telegraph,  and  savings 
bank).  Mails  from  London,  7  a.m.,  12 
noon  and  5  p.m. ;  Sunday,  7  a.m.  Mails 
for  London,  8.25  a.m.,  1.50  and  7.30 
p.  m. ;  Sunday,  1  p.  m.  There  is  a 
pillar  letter-box  in  the  wall  facing  the 
bridge. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Caversham ;  up, 
Pangbourne  6\  miles ;  down,  Sonning 
3J  miles.  Locks,  up,  Mapledurham  4 
miles  ;  down,  Caversham  about  f  mile. 
Ferry,  at  ' '  Roebuck. ' '  Railway  Station, 
Reading  [which  see  for  Fares). 

Championship    of     the    Thames 

(Amateur).— The     possession     of     the 


Wingfield  Sculls,  a  challenge  prize  in- 
stituted in  1830,  carries  with  it  the 
amateur  Championship  of  the  Thames. 
The  course  was  originally  from  West- 
minster to  Putney.  In  1849  the  long 
course  from  Putney  to  Kew  was  selected. 
Twelve  years  later  the  University  course 
between  Putney  and  Mortlake  was  adop- 
ted, and  the  race  has  been  rowed  there 
ever  since.  In  1882  Mr.  J.  Lowndes, 
the  previous  year's  winner,  resigned,  and 
on  the  21st  August,  Mr.  Alexander  Payne, 
of  the  Moulsey  Boat  Club,  beat  Mr.  W. 
R.  Grove,  London  R.C.,  after  a  good 
race,  in  27  min.  35  sec. 

In  1884,  the  race  fell  to  W.  S.  Unwin, 
of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  who  easily 
beat  his  four  opponents  in  the  good  time 
of  24  min.  12  sees. 

WINNERS. 

1830  J.  H.  Bayford 

1831  C.  Lewis 

1832  A.  A.  Julius 

1833  C.  Lewis 

1834  A.  A.  Julius 

1835  A.  A.  Julius 

1836  H.  Wood 

1837  P.  Colquhoun 

1838  H.  Wood 

1839  H.  Chapman 

1840  T.  L.  Jenkins 

1841  T.  L.  Jenkins 

1842  H.  Chapman 

1843  H.  Chapman 

1844  T.  B.  Bumpstead 

1845  H.  Chapman 

1846  W.  Russell  . 

1847  J.  R.  L.  Walmisley 

1848  J.  R.  L.  Walmisley 

1849  F.  Playford 

1850  T.  R.  Bone 

1851  T.  R.  Bone 

1852  E.  G.  Peacock 

1853  J.  Paine 

1854  H.  H.  Playford 

1855  A.  A.  Casamajor 

1856  A.  A.  Casamajor 

1857  A.  A.  Casamajor 

1858  A.  A.  Casamajor 

1859  A.  A.  Casamajor 
i860  A.  A.  Casamajor 

1861  E.  D.  Brickwood 

1862  W.  B.  Woodgate 

1863  J.  E.  Parker 

1864  W.  B.  Woodgate 

1865  C.  B.  Lawes 

1866  E.  B.  Michell 

1867  W.  a  Woodgate 


39  CHA-CHA 

1868  W.  Stout 

1869  A.  de  L.  Long 

1870  A.  de  L.  Long 

1871  W.  Faucus 

1872  C.  C.  Knollys 

1873  A.  C.  Dicker 

1874  A.  C.  Dicker 

1875  F.  L.  Playford 

1876  F.  L.  Playford 

1877  F.  L.  Plavford 

1878  F.  L.  Playford 

1879  F.  L.  Playford 

1880  A.  Payne 

1881  J.  Lowndes 

1882  A.  Payne 

1883  J.  Lowndes 

1884  W.  S.  Unwin. 
Championship    of    the     Thames 

(Professional.) — The  first  race  rowed 
for  the  Championship  of  the  Thames  was 
in  1831,  C.  Campbell  being  the  first  to 
bear  the  title  of  Champion.  Up  to  1865, 
races  for  the  Championship  of  the  Thames 
were  very  properly  rowed  on  the  Metro- 
politan water  ;  but  in  1866,  when  Hamill 
came  over  and  challenged  Harry  Kelley, 
the  title  of  the  race  became  the  Champion- 
ship of  the  World,  and  the  matches  took 
place  indifferently  at  Putney  and  at 
Newcastle.  In  1877  the  race  was  actually 
rowed  on  the  Paramatta  River,  New 
South  Wales,  and  in  the  same  year  a 
Challenge  Cup  was  given  by  the  pro- 
prietor of  the  Newcastle  Daily  Chronicle, 
with  the  understanding  that  instead  of 
there  being  distinct  Championships  of 
the  Thames  and  Tyne,  the  two  titles 
should  be  merged  into  that  of  Champion 
of  England.  In  1878  J.  Higgins  suc- 
ceeded in  winning  this  cup  a  sufficient 
number  of  times  to  enable  him  to  claim  it 
as  his  own  property.  In  1878,  the  Sports- 
man newspaper  gave  another  cup,  which 
was  first  won  by  W.  Elliott,  and  in  1879. 
was  taken  to  Canada  by  Hanlan,  whose 
property  it  finally  became  after  his  defeat 
of  Laycock  at  Putney,  Feb.  14,  1881. 
In  1880  Hanlan  beat  Trickett  very  easily 
over  the  Putney  course,  and  proved  him- 
self fully  worthy  to  rank  among  the  best 
of  the  Champions.  In  April,  1882,  he 
beat  R.  W.  Boyd  on  the  Tyne,  and  a 
month  after  again  defeated  Trickett  on 
the  Thames,  winning  both  races  with  the 
most  ridiculous  ease.  No  Championship 
race  on  the  Thames  or  Tyne  occurred  in 
1883  or  1884.— (For  Chart  of  Course  see 
University  Boat  Race.) 


CHA-CHA  40 


The  following  List  of  Champions  is  reprinted  by  permission  from  the  "Sportsman's 

Pocket  Book." 

Date.                                   Winner.                             Loser.                   Course.  Time. 

1831.  September  9   C.Campbell C.Williams W.  to  P m.  s. 

1838.  November  1    Ditto        R.  Coombes W.  to  P — 

1846.  August  19   R.  Coombes C.  Campbell P.  to  M 26.15 

1847.  September  29 Ditto         R.  Newell P.  to  M 23.46 

1851.  May  7 Ditto         T.  Mackinney P.  to  M 26.5 

1852.  May  24    T.Cole R.  Coombes P.  to  M 25.15 

1852.  October  14 Ditto        Ditto P.  to  M 23.35 

1854.  November  20 J.  A.  Messenger  ....     T.  Cole P.  to  M 24. 30 

1857.  May  12    H.  Kelley J.  A.  Messenger P.  to  M 24.30 

1859.  September  29 R.Chambers    H.  Kelley P.  to  M 25,25 

i860.  September  18 Ditto            T.White    P.  to  M 23.15 

1863.  April  14   Ditto             G.  W.  Everson P.  to  M 25.27 

1863.  June  16    Ditto            R.  A.  W.  Green P.  to  M 25.25 

1865.  August  8 H.  Kelley R.Chambers    P.  to  M 23.26 

1866.  July  4 Ditto     Hamill    Tyne 33.29 

1866.  Julys Ditto     Hamill   Tyne — 

1866.  November  22 R.Chambers    J.H.Sadler P.  to  M 25.4 

1867.  May  6 H.  Kelley R.Chambers    Tyne 31.41 

1868.  November  17 J.  Renforth   H.  Kelley P.  to  M 23.15 

1874.  April  16   J.H.Sadler R.  Bagnall    P.  to  M 24.15 

1875.  November  15 Ditto R.W.Boyd P.  to  M 29.2 

1876.  June  27    E.  Trickett    J.Sadler    P.  to  M 24.35 

1876.  A  match  was  made  between  Trickett  and  Lumsden,  but  the  latter  forfeited. 

1876.  June  29.     A  match  was  made  between  Sadler  and  Higgins  for  the  Championship,  subject 

to  the  former  beating  Trickett ;  but  after  being  defeated,  Sadler  forfeited. 

1877.  May  28    R.W.Boyd J.  Higgins     P.  to  M 29.0 

1877.  June  30.     Trickett  beat  Michael  Rush  for  the  Championship  of  the  World,  on  the  Para- 
matta River,  New  South  Wales. 

1877.  October  8    J.  Higgins     R.W.Boyd P.  to  M 24.10 

1878.  January  14 Ditto        Ditto         Tyne foul. 

1878.  June  3 Ditto        W.Elliott P.  to  M 24.38 

1878.  September  17 W.  Elliott  beat  R.  W.  Boyd  in  final  heat  of  race. 

1879.  February  17   W.Elliott J.  Higgins     Tyne — 

1879.  June  16    Hanlan W.Elliott Tyne — 

1880.  November  15 Hanlan  Trickett P.  to  M 26.11 

1881.  February  14   Hanlan  Laycock P.  to  M 25.41 

1882.  April  3 Hanlan R.W.Boyd Tyne — 

1882.  May  1 Hanlan Trickett P.  to  M 27.58 


Chapman  Lighthouse    is    an    iron  closing  a  Dioptric  or  Lenticular  apparatus 

screw-pile  structure,  painted  red,  built  on  of  the  second  order,  in  the  centre  of  which 

Chapman  Head,  in  Sea  Reach.    It  shows  is  the  source  of  light,  a  fountain  lamp, 

towards  the  eastward  a  red  light  over  the  with  four  concentric  wicks  burning  colza 

sand   called   the   River    Middle,    and    a  oil.     The  light    since  January,    1881,   is 

white  light  in   the  safe  channel  ;   to  the  occulting,    disappearing   twice    in   quick 

westward  its  light  is  wholly  white,  and  is  succession  every  half  minute.     The  total 

designed  to  lead  vessels  clear  of  a  danger  height  of  the  building  from  base  to  vane 

called  the  Scar.     The  piles  have  each  a  is  74  feet,  and  the  light  is  exhibited  at  an 

Mitchell's  screw    at   the   lower   end,  by  elevation  of  40  feet   above  high  water, 

means  of  which  they  were  driven  into  the  Three  keepers  are  employed  :  two  on  duty 

sand  when  the  structure  was  built,  in  1851.  and  one  on  shore,  and  the  relief  is  effected 

Above  the  wash  of  the  water,  a  six-sided  once   a   month,  by  a  steamer  from   the 

chamber  contains  the  accommodation  for  Trinity  depot  at  Blackwall,  so  that  each 

the   keepers,   two   in   number,    which   is  man  serves  two  months  at  the  lighthouse, 

surmounted  by  a  six-sided  lantern,  en-  and  has  one  month  in  three  on  shore. 


Charing  Cross  (Foot)  Bridge,  runs 
along  and  forms  a  portion  of  the  Charing- 
cross  railway- bridge,  and  is  approached 
on  the  north  side  from  Villiers-street,  and 
on  the  south  side  from  Belvedere-road. 
It  is  the  shortest  way  for  foot  passengers 
from  Charing-cross  and  neighbourhood 
to  Waterloo  Station. 

Chelsea,  S.  W. ,  on  the  left  bank,  once 
a  quiet  village  three  miles  from  London, 
is  now  a  densely  populated  locality,  and 
lies  between  the  Brompton-road  and  the 
Thames,  Sloane-street  being  its  eastern 
boundary,  while  its  western  boundary  is 
indeterminate,  as  it  is  still  growing.  It 
gives  its  name  to  a  parliamentary  borough, 
which  includes  the  Kensington  and 
Hammersmith  parishes,  and  is  now  repre- 
sented by  Sir  Charles  Dilke  and  Mr.  J, 
B.  Firth,  Liberals.  Chelsea  contains  a 
great  population  of  the  working  class. 
Chelsea  is  Radical,  while  Kensington 
may  be  looked  upon  as  Conservative  ; 
Hammersmith  being  a  mixed  parish. 
The  old  parish  church  stands  on  the 
embankment  close  to  the  river,  and  is 
rich  in  associations  ecclesiastical,  his- 
torical, and  literary.  The  river  front  of 
Chelsea  has  been  greatly  improved  by 
the  embanking  of  Cheyne-walk  and  the 
construction  of  the  Chelsea  Embank- 
ment ;  and  the  admirably  designed  red 
brick  houses  in  the  Queen  Anne  style, 
lately  completed  on  the  Cadogan  estate, 
are  thoroughly  in  accordance  with  old 
Chelsea  traditions  and  associations.  The 
principal  public  buildings  are  the  Bar- 
racks, Chelsea  Hospital,  and  the  Military 
Asylum.  The  Gardens  of  the  Apothe- 
caries' Company  are  also  well  worth  in- 
spection. NEAREST  Railway  Stations, 
Sloane -square,  Grosvenor-road,  and 
Chelsea  ;  Omnibus  Routes,  Sloane-street, 
King's-road,  and  Fulham-road  ;  Steam- 
boat Piers,  Cadogan  Pier  and  Battersea 
Pier. 

Chelsea     Suspension     Bridge     is 

another  work  by  the  designer  of  West- 
minster Bridge,  and  leads  from  Victoria- 
road  to  the  east  of  Battersea-park,  to  the 
Chelsea  Embankment  and  its  continua- 
tion, the  Grosvenor-road.  It  was  made 
in  Edinburgh,  and  set  up  in  its  present 
position  in  1858  at  a  cost  of  ^8o,ooo. 

Chertsey,  Surrey,  on  the  right  bank, 
from   Oxford    79!  miles,   from   London 


41  CHA— CHE 

31!  miles.  A  station  on  the  London  and 
South  Western  Railway,  about  an  hour 
from  London.  The  station  is  ten  minutes' 
walk  from  the  Town  Hall,  and  twenty- 
five  minutes'  from  Chertsey  Bridge.  Flys 
meet  the  trains.     Population,  7,760. 

Chertsey  is  an  old-fashioned  country 
town  with  a  number  of  good  houses  and 
a  few  shops  of  some  importance  in  its 
two  principal  thoroughfares,  Windsor- 
street  and  Guildford-street,  which  runs  at 
right  angles  to  Windsor-street,  and  leads 
from  the  town-hall  to  the  station.  There 
is  not  much  to  be  said  in  favour  of  the 
architectural  pretensions  of  the  two 
principal  public  buildings — the  town-hall 
and  the  church.  The  town  generally 
may  be  described  as  quiet  and  dull,  but 
to  make  amends  it  is  rich  in  interesting 
historical  associations.  Some  remains  of 
Chertsey  Abbey,  in  which  the  body  of 
Henry  VI.  was  for  a  short  time  buried, 
still  exist,  although  it  is  harder  every 
day  to  conceive  that  so  magnificent  a 
building  as  has  been  described  could 
have  so  utterly  disappeared.  Near 
Chertsey  is  St.  Anne's  Hill,  a  favourite 
retreat  of  Charles  James  Fox  ;  and  in  the 
Porch  House  in  Guildford-street  died  the 
poet  Cowley.  The  room  in  which  he 
died  is  said  to  be  still  in  existence, 
although  the  porch  which  gave  its  name 
to  the  house  was  removed  in  1786. 
Cowley's  death  here  is  recorded  in  an 
inscription  on  the  wall  of  the  house, 
which  concludes  with  Pope's  line  : 

Here  the   last  accents  flowed  from  Cowley's 
tongue. 

St.  Anne's  Hill  has  other  recommenda- 
tions besides  its  connection  with  the  great 
statesman,  as  the  views  from  its  summit 
on  both  sides  are  singularly  beautiful. 
The  country  around,  indeed,  is  almost 
universally  picturesque,  being  for  the 
most  part  hilly  and  well-wooded.  The 
charming  neighbourhoods  of  Virginia 
Water  and  Sunningdale  are  within  easy 
reach,  and  these  excursions  may  be 
recommended  to  visitors.  Weybridgeand 
the  country  surrounding  are  also  worthy 
of  exploration.  Chertsey  Bridge,  which 
connects  Surrey  and  Middlesex,  is  of 
stone,  with  seven  arches,  and  near  it, 
on  the  right  bank,  is  one  of  the  most 
interesting  experimental  establishments 
on  the  river.  Here  Mr.  Forbes,  so  long 
and  so  favourably  known  as  an  enthusi- 

# 


CHE— CHU 


42 


astic  devotee  of  pisciculture,  has  brought 
his  arrangements  for  the  hatching  and 
rearing  of  salmon  trout  and  other  fish  to 
a  singular  degree  of  completeness.  Mr. 
Forbes  occasionally  grants  permission  to 
view  these  fish  nurseries.  Sir  William 
Perkins's  Endowed  Schools  were  founded 
in  1725  for  the  education  of  twenty-five 
poor  boys  of  the  parish  of  Chertsey.  In 
1736  Sir  William  Perkins  built  a  similar 
school  for  twenty-five  poor  girls.  The 
original  school  buildings  were  in  Windsor- 
street.  At  his  death  in  1741,  Sir  William 
left  ^3,000  for  the  support  of  the  schools, 
and  in  1819  the  fund  had  increased  to 
over  ^"5,000.  It  was  then  decided  to 
sell  the  old  houses  and  buy  a  piece  of 
land  at  the  west  end  of  Chertsey,  and 
largely  to  extend  the  benefits  of  the 
schools.  Subsequently  the  buildings  were 
again  enlarged ;  the  clothing  which  was 
given  to  the  children  and  certain  special 
gifts  were  abolished  ;  and  the  whole  of 
the  income  is  devoted  to  giving  a  sound 
elementary  education  to  between  500 
and  600  children  of  Chertsey  and  neigh- 
bourhood. The  Chertsey  District  Horti- 
cultural Society,  founded  some  fifteen 
years  ago,  has,  from  small  beginnings, 
made  rapid  progress,  and  its  shows  are 
now  among  the  best  in  the  home  counties. 
There  is  also  a  Chrysanthemum  Society, 
founded  in  1876.  Among  the  other 
public  institutions  is  the  Literary  and 
Scientific,  the  members  of  which  have 
the  use  of  a  reading-room,  recreation- 
room,  and  a  good  library  of  2,000  volumes . 
The  subscription  is  for  non-members, 
£1  is.  ;  for  general  members,  10s.  6d. 
per  annum,  3s.  per  quarter;  library 
members,  2s.  6d.  per  annum.  Of  water- 
side features  Chertsey  has  but  few.  The 
''Bridge  House  Hotel,"  the  Chertsey 
Rowing  Club  boat-house,  and  Messrs. 
Des  Vigne's  torpedo-launch  manufactory 
pretty  well  exhaust  the  list.  There  is  a 
convenient  landing-place  at  the  "  Bridge 
House  Hotel."  The  coach  from  London 
to  Virginia  Water  changes  horses  at 
Chertsey. 

Roach  swims  in  plenty  ;  good  angling 
from  bank.  From  this  to  Shepperton  is 
fine  jack  water. 

Banks.— Ashby  &  Co.,  Old  Bank,  and 
London  and  County,  both  in  Guildford-st. 

Fire.— Station  in  the  town. 

Hotels.— "The  Bridge  House,"  on 
the  river  ;  "  Crown,"  London-street. 


Places  of  Worship. —St.  Peter's; 
and  Baptist,  Congregational,  and  Wes- 
leyan  Chapels. 

Police  -  station. — East-street,  some 
distance  from  the  town. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office, 
Windsor- street,  opposite  the  church 
(money,  savings  bank,  telegraph,  insur- 
ance office).  Mails  from  London,  3.35 
and  8.40  a.m.,  4.49  p.m.  Mails  for 
London,  9.35  and  11.35  a.m.,  3.20  and 
8  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Station,  and  Lock, 
Chertsey.  Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Staines 
3!  miles  ;  down,  Walton  4J  miles.  Locks, 
up,  Penton  Hook  2  miles  ;  down,  Shep- 
perton 2  miles.     Ferry,  Laleham. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  :  1st,  4/-,  5/6  ;  2nd, 
3/-,  4/-  ;  3rd,  1/10,  3/4. 

Chertsey  Rowing  Club.— Election 
by  ballot  in  general  meeting  ;  one  black 
ball  in  five  excludes.  Subscription,  15*.  ; 
honorary  members,  £1  is.  ;  lads  for  cox- 
swains, 5*.  Colours,  black  and  white 
vertical  stripes.  Boat-house,  just  below 
Chertsey  Bridge,  right  bank. 

"Chichester."— (See  "  Arethusa.") 

Chiswick, — London,  S.W.,  on  the 
left  bank. — A  waterside  suburb  about  5 
miles  west  of  Hyde  Park  Corner,  rapidly 
being  swallowed  up  by  the  advancing 
tide  of  buildings.  Hogarth  died  here, 
and  is  buried  in  the  churchyard.  Rous- 
seau also  lived  here,  boarding  at  a  little 
grocer's  shop.  The  gardens  of  the  Horti- 
cultural Society  lie  on  the  Turnham- 
green  side.  Chiswick  Church  is  situated 
at  the  west-end  of  the  pleasant  riverside 
walk  known  as  The  Mall  ;  and  just 
opposite  lies  Chiswick  Eyot,  a  well-known 
landmark  in  champion  and  University 
boat-races.  There  is  a  ferry  here  from 
the  bottom  of  Chiswick-lane,  in  Middle- 
sex, to  Ferry-lane,  leading  to  Barnes 
Common,  in  Surrey.  Chiswick  may  be 
reached  by  rail  from  Waterloo,  Ludgate- 
hill,  and  Mansion  House. 

Chub  (The)  is  a  great  favourite  with 
many  anglers.  Leather-mouthed  is  he, 
and  for  a  while  strong  withal,  when  first 
hooked.  But  he  is  a  very  wary  fish, 
which  sinks  out  of  sight  at  even  the 
distant  flight  of  a  bird  over  his  head. 
From  the  fact  of  his  desperate  rush  when 
first  feeling  the  barb  very  strong  tackle  is 
requisite  to  secure  him,  and  yet  that 
tackle  must  be  of  the  finest  if  you  desire 


to  deceive  him.  Chub  spawn  in  April  or 
May,  and  the  best  season  for  them  is  from. 
October  throughout  the  winter  months. 
Indeed,  they  may  be  taken  in  great 
numbers,  and  mostly  of  the  largest  size, 
when  the  water  is  frozen,  with  only  here 
and  there  an  open  spot  for  the  intro- 
duction of  the  lure.  In  summer  a  fly 
is  the  best  method  of  catching  him,  and 
a  large  black  or  red  palmer  thrown  just 
under  the  overhanging  boughs  and  near 
their  submerged  roots  will  be  sure  to  be 
attended  with  success,  as  in  these  places 
the  fish  resort  in  waiting  to  seize  the 
insects  which  fall  from  the  branches.  A 
cockchafer,  grasshopper,  small  frog,  or 
beetle  is  another  favourite  bait  which 
may  be  introduced  through  an  opening 
of  the  foliage,  while  the  fisher  is  concealed 
from  observation ;  the  angler  approaching 
the  spot  with  muffled  tread,  as  the 
slightest  concussion  on  the  bank  is 
sufficient  to  give  the  fish  the  alarm  and 
put  him  on  his  guard.  As  it  is  difficult 
when  a  fish  is  thus  hooked  to  land  him, 
the  following  plan  may  be  resorted  to  : 
Take  a  number  8  or  9  hook  whipped  on 
to  about  a  yard  of  gut,  on  this  place  a 
good-sized  swan  shot,  twist  this  on  the 
end  of  your  top  joint  until  none  of  the 
tackle  hangs  from  it :  now  push  your  rod 
quietly  through  a  gap  in  the  foliage, 
unroll  the  portion  of  your  line  by  a  few 
turns  of  the  rod,  and  then  let  the  bait 
by  the  weight  of  the  shot  descend  to  the 
surface  of  the  water  :  when  there  move  it 
up  and  down  to  make  a  slight  splash, 
and  to  imitate  the  attempt  of  the  bait  to 
escape  from  drowning.  If  there  be  any 
chub  in  the  neighbourhood  they  will 
presently  rise  to  the  surface,  and  after 
taking  a  survey  of  the  lure  perhaps 
hesitate  to  take  it.  You  will,  however, 
from  your  station  command  a  view  of  your 
victims,  and  if  there  be  one  chub  larger 
than  the  others  you  covet,  offer  the  bait, 
not  to  that  one,  but  to  the  others,  as  if 
from  the  accidental  struggles  of  the 
chaffer,  &c,  but  do  not  let  them  take  it. 
Thus,  after  a  while  the  chief  of  the  lot 
will  get  excited  and  suddenly  make  a 
dash  for  it,  and  you  have  him.  You 
must  hold  him  with  a  strong  grasp,  rely- 
ing upon  your  tackle,  or  he  will  dart  for 
the  fastnesses  of  roots,  &c,  beneath  the 
bank.  When  you  have  exhausted  him. 
go  as  low  as  you  can  on  your  hands  and 
knees,  get   the  landing-net  under  him, 


43  CHU-CLE 

and  draw  him  deftly  out.  Having  done 
this  you  have  but  to  untie  the  line  from 
the  gut  hook  and  wind  up  your  line,  now 
free  from  incumbrance,  through  the 
bushes.  Now  try  another  place,  leaving 
this  alone  for  a  while,  and  thus  in  the 
extent  of  a  single  meadow  margined  with 
willows  or  elders  you  may  continue  to 
take  chub  from  sunrise  until  eve.  A  very 
deadly  bait,  introduced  on  the  Thames 
from  the  Trent,  is  the  pipe-like  pith  from 
the  backbone  of  an  ox,  simply  scalded 
and  slightly  cut  open.  Chub  are  brought 
together  after  this  bait  by  a  sprinkling  of 
ox-brains  which  the  fishermen  chew  and 
blow  out  on  the  surface  of  the  water  from 
their  mouths.  But  there  is  no  occasion 
to  resort  to  this  objectionable  practice, 
as  the  brains  may  be  cut  up  and  separated 
on  a  piece  of  wood  or  plate,  and  filliped 
off  into  the  wTater  with  the  point  of  the 
knife.  A  double  hook  is  needed  for  this 
mode,  as  the  pith  requires  an  extra 
security,  and  the  travelling  float  should 
be  used,  as  the  fish  are  shy  in  coming 
too  near  the  punt,  although  this  decidedly 
novel  treat  is  almost  irresistible.  Large 
chub  are  often  taken  while  trolling  or 
spinning  with  the  gudgeon  or  minnow, 
and  they  will  run  at  the  small  fry,  such 
as  minnows,  with  great  avidity  when 
well  on  the  feed.  Their  teeth  are  very 
formidable,  and  are  placed  out  of  sight 
in  their  throats,  as  are  those  of  others  of 
their  fresh-water  congeners.  The  chub 
is  of  little  value  for  the  table,  except  in 
hard  frosty  weather,  when  its  flesh  be- 
comes firm  and  ceases  to  be  woolly  and 
insipid.  If  there  are  no  obstructions 
near  the  chub  when  first  hooked  you  may 
permit  him  to  make  his  one  desperate 
rush  ;  after  that  a  little  will  subdue  him. 

Cleopatra's  Needle  stands  on  the 
Victoria  Embankment,  left  hand  of  the 
river.  This  famous  monolith  of  red 
granite,  from  Alexandria,  originally  stood 
at  Heliopolis,  and  was  presented  to  this 
country  by  Mehemet  Ali  in  1819.  No 
ministry  was  bold  enough  to  face  the 
difficulty  and  expense  of  transporting  it 
across  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  and  for  many 
years  it  lay  half-buried  by  sand  at 
Alexandria,  at  the  foot  of  its  still  erect 
sister,  which,  according  to  some  people, 
is  the  real  original  Cleopatra's  Needle. 
In  the  Alexandrian  sand  the  English 
obelisk  would  probably  have  remained 
until  the  end  of  time  (unless,  indeed,  the 


CLE-CLI 

British  tourist  had  carried  it  away  piece- 
meal in  the  form  of  relics)  but  for  the 
public  spirit  of  the  late  Sir  (then  Mr.) 
Erasmus  Wilson  and  Mr.  John  Dixon, 
the  well-known  civil  engineer.  Mr.  Wilson 
put  down  ^£  10,000  for  the  expenses  of 
transport,  and  Mr.  Dixon  undertook  to 
d  -liver  the  monument  in  the  Thames  for 
that  sum  on  the  principle  of  "no  cure, 
no  pay" — no  obelisk,  no  ^10,000.  A 
cylinder  boat  was  designed,  in  which  the 
needle  was  encased,  and  justified  Mr. 
Dixon's  expectations  by  making  good 
weather  of  it  until  it  became  unmanage- 
ble  and  untenantable  in  a  heavy  gale  in 
the  Bay  of  Biscay.  Abandoned  by  the 
steamer  which  had  it  in  tow,  after  the 
sacrifice  of  six  lives  in  a  last  gallant 
attempt  to  save  the  Cleopatra,  few  people 
doubted  that  the  needle  would  find  its 
last  resting-place  at  the  bottom  of  the 
sea.  Fortunately  a  passing  steamer  suc- 
ceeded in  securing  it,  and  towed  it  into 
Ferrol,  whence  it  was  safely  transferred 
to  its  present  site.  Much  ingenuity  was 
shown  in  the  machinery  designed  for  its 
erection,  the  difficulties  of  which  will 
readily  be  understood  when  it  is  stated 
that  the  obelisk  is  over  68  feet  in  height, 
and  weighs  180  tons.  Nearest  Steam- 
boat Piers  and  Bridges,  Waterloo  and 
Charing-cross ;  Railway  Stations,  Char- 
ing-cross  (Dist.  &  S.  E. ) ;  Omnibus  Routes, 
Waterloo  Bridge  and  Strand. 

Clewer,  Berkshire,  a  village  standing 
on  a  creek  of  the  Thames,  just  above 
Windsor  railway-bridge,  and  close  to 
Windsor  race-course,  which  is  in  the 
parish.  Clewer  is  notable  for  the  number 
of  important  mansions  and  seats  in  and 
about  it,  and  for  the  religious  institutions 
which  have  grown  up  around  the  churches, 
principally  under  the  auspices  of  the  Rev. 
T.  T.  Carter.  The  institutions  attached 
to  St.  Andrew's,  the  parish  church,  are 
independent  of  the  parish.  They  are  the 
House  of  Mercy,  in  connection  with  the 
London  Church  Penitentiary  Association 
(32,  Sackville-street,  W. ),  where  about  80 
female  penitents  are  maintained  under 
the  care  of  sisters  of  mercy,  headed  by  a 
warden.  Under  the  charge  of  the  sisters 
are  also  a  Convalescent  Hospital  with 
nearly  100  beds  ;  an  Orphanage  ;  and 
St.  Andrew's  Cottage,  for  ladies  needing 
rest.  Attached  to  St.  Stephen's  Church 
is  the  Ladies'  College,  &c.  The  parish 
church   is  interesting,  some  parts  of  it 


44 


being  very  old,  and  dating  back  to  Saxon 
times.  It  has  a  tablet  to  the  memory  of 
Field  Marshal  Earl  Harcourt.  The 
churchyard  is  made  unusually  pleasant, 
great  care  being  taken  of  the  graves,  Her 
Majesty  the  Queen  setting  an  example  in 
bringing  flowers. 

Places  of  Worship. — St.  Andrew's 
and  St.  Stephen's. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Mails  from 
London,  7.10  a.m.  and  12.30  p.m.  For 
London,  10.15  a.m.  and  5.45  p.m. 

Clifton  Hampden,  Oxfordshire,  on 
the  left  bank,  98^  miles  from  London,  13 
miles  from  Oxford.  Population,  377. 
Soil,  chiefly  gravel.  This  picturesque 
little  village  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  a 
bold  bluff,  which  rises  abruptly  from  the 
somewhat  flat  country  around.  The  cliff 
is  surmounted  by  the  church  and  vicarage, 
and  is  clothed  with  luxuriant  trees  down 
to  the  water's  edge.  The  village,  a  pretty 
collection  of  old-fashioned  cottages,  all 
of  which  are  bright  with  flowers,  does  not 
call  in  itself  for  more  than  a  passing 
notice.  It  derives  some  importance  from 
the  new  red  brick  bridge  with  six  pointed 
arches,  built  by  the  lord  of  the  manor  in 
place  of  the  ferry  which  formerly  existed 
here,  the  towing-path  crossing  the  river 
at  this  point.  The  toll  for  horses  not 
drawing  vehicles  is  i^d.,  and  for  foot 
passengers,  id.  The  church,  dedicated 
to  St.  Michael  and  All  Angels,  formerly 
a  chapelry  in  connection  with  the  Abbey 
of  Dorchester,  was  entirely  restored  in 
1844  by  the  late  Mr.  G.  H.  Gibbs,  and  is 
a  very  elaborate  specimen  of  the  work  of 
Sir  Gilbert  Scott.  It  contains  in  the 
north  of  the  chancel  a  tomb  with  a  re- 
cumbent portrait  figure  of  the  late  Mr. 
Gibbs,  and  a  most  elaborate  brass  screen 
with  figures  in  bronze.  The  reredos  is  a 
somewhat  bold  work  in  mosaic,  repre- 
senting on  either  side  the  Prophets, 
Evangelists,  and  Latin  Doctors,  and  in 
the  centre  the  Last  Supper.  The  church- 
yard, from  which  a  charming  view  extends 
up  and  down  the  river,  is,  like  the  village, 
ablaze  with  flowers,  and  is  entered  through 
a  handsome  modern  lych  gate.  On  the 
Berkshire  side,  two  or  three  minutes' 
walk  from  the  bridge,  is  the  "Barley 
Mow  Inn,"  one  of  the  thatched,  sile  built, 
old-fashioned  resting-places  which  have 
been  almost  improved  out  of  existence  by 
the  modern  system  of  hotels.  The  parlour 
of  the  "Barley  Mow"  is  a  queer  panelled 


room,  more  like  the  cabin  of  a  ship  than 
the  coffee-room  of  an  inn,  and  is  of  so 
low  a  pitch  as  to  still  further  favour  the 
illusion.  But  although  the  house  is  primi- 
tive, and  the  entertainment  unpretending, 
it  is  a  capital  little  inn  of  its  class,  and 
may  be  recommended  to  boating  men. 

Inns.  — "The  Barley  Mow"  (Berkshire 
side);  "Plough." 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Michael 
and  All  Angels. 

Postal  Arrangements. — The  near- 
est money  order  and  telegraph  offices 
are  at  Dorchester  and  Abingdon.  Mails 
from  London,  8  a.m.,  and  on  Sundays. 
Mails  for  London,  6  p.m. ;  Sunday,  10.55 
a.m.  Pillar-box  at  Burcott,  cleared  at 
5.40  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  Clifton  Hampden  ; 
up,  Sutton  Bridges  (Culham)  3J  miles  ; 
down,  Shillingford,  5 J  miles  (a  foot-bridge 
at  Day's  Lock  2 \  miles).  Locks,  up, 
Clifton  \  mile  ;  down,  Day's  2J  miles. 
Railway  Station,  Culham. 

Fares,  Culham  to  Pad.:  1st,  10/-, 
17/6  ;  2nd,  7/6,  13/-  ;  3rd,  5s. 

Coaching. — Riverside  towns  have  not 
been  neglected  in  the  recent  revival  of 
coaching,  and  many  pleasant  views  of 
the  river  are  afforded  to  travellers  by  "the 
road. " 

Thus,  the  Guildford  coach  passes 
through  Kingston  (fare,  45-.  6d.)  and 
Thames  Ditton  (p. ).  The  route  of  the 
"Old  Times,"  Virginia  Water  coach,  is 
via  Barnes,  Richmond,  Twickenham, 
Hampton  Court,  Moulsey,  Walton,  Oat- 
lands  Park,  Weybridge,  and  Chertsey, 
thus  taking  in  all  the  best  views  of  the 
river ;  the  return  fare  for  the  whole  dis- 
tance being  ijs.  6d.;  intermediate  fares 
are  also  charged.  The  Windsor  coach 
visits  Barnes,  Richmond,  Twickenham, 
Teddington,  Hampton  Court,  Hampton, 
and  Staines,  the  return  fare  being  17s.  6d. , 
with  various  intermediate  fares. 

All  information  respecting  these  and 
other  coaches  can  at  any  time  be  obtained 
of  Mr.  Banks,  at  the  booking  office, 
Hatchett's  Hotel,  Piccadilly. 

Coastguard.— The  Thames  which  is 
in  the  Harwich  district  is  shared  between 
the  two  divisions  of  Southend  and  Sheer- 
ness,  the  greater  portion  being  under  the 
former,  which  extends  from  Shoeburyness 


45  CLI— CON 

round  by  Tilbury  and  Gravesend  to 
Cliffe  Creek,  beyond  which  the  Sheerness 
division  continues  in  the  direction  of  the 
sea. 

Cobbler  (The).—  (See  Romney  Is- 
land. ) 

Conservators  of  the  Thames,  41, 

Trinity  Square,  London,  E.C.— The  Con- 
servators are  a  body  constituted  in  1857 
by  the  Act  20  &  21  Vict.  cap.  147,  which 
was  the  result  of  a  compromise  between 
the  Crown  and  the  Corporation  of  a  suit 
arising  out  of  conflicting  claims  to  the 
bed  of  the  river.  Under  this  Act  the 
Conservators  consisted  of  twelve  persons 
representing  various  interests,  and  their 
jurisdiction  extended  from  Staines  in 
Middlesex  to  Yantlet  Creek  in  Kent.  In 
1864  considerable  changes  were  made  in 
the  Act,  and  six  elective  Conservators 
were  added  ;  and  by  a  further  Act  of 
1866,  the  Conservancy  of  the  Upper 
Thames  as  far  as  Cricklade,  in  Wiltshire, 
was  vested  in  the  Conservators,  and  five 
Conservators  were  added,  viz. :  one  ap- 
pointed by  the  Board  of  Trade,  and  four 
elected  by  persons  on  the  upper  river. 
Acts  passed  in  1867,  1870,  and  1878,  fur- 
ther extended  the  scope  of  the  Conser- 
vancy's duties.  Of  the  Conservators  as 
at  present  constituted,  seven—the  Lord 
Mayor,  two  aldermen,  and  four  common 
councillors— represent  the  Citv  ;  the  Ad- 
miralty and  Board  of  Trade  'have  each 
two  nominations  ;  the  Trinity  House  is 
represented  by  its  deputy-master  and  one 
nominee.  The  elected  Conservators  re- 
present the  following  interests  :  Owners 
of  shipping  registered  in  London,  two  ; 
owners  of  lighters  and  steam  tugs,  two ; 
owners  of  river  passenger  steamers,  one  ; 
dock-owners  and  wharfingers,  one;  and 
persons  of  the  upper  river,  four.  Under 
the  Act  of  1866  the  remuneration  of  the 
Conservators  is  fixed  at  ,fi,8oo  per 
annum,  with  a  further  addition  of  £700 
from  the  upper  river  fund. 

The  principal  matters  to  which  the 
rules  and  bye-laws  of  the  Conservancy 
apply,  are  the  navigation  of  the  river  ;  the 
lights  to  be  carried  by  vessels;  the  re- 
gulation of  the  carriage  of  explosive  sub- 
stances, and  of  petroleum;  the  fisheries; 
the  regulating  of  boat  races.  The  bye- 
laws  can  always  be  had  on  application  at 
the  London  office.— (See  Boat  Races, 
Fishing,  Lights,  Navigation.) 


COO— COO  46 

Cookham,  Berkshire,  on  the  right 
bank;  from  London  53  miles,  from  Ox- 
ford 58J  miles.  A  station  on  a  branch 
line  of  the  Great  Western  Railway,  about 
an  hour  from  Paddington.  An  omnibus 
meets  the  trains;  the  station  is  about 
eight  minutes  from  the  river.  Population 
(of  village),  872.  Soil,  chalk  and  gravel. 
Cookham  stands  at  the  end  of  what  is 
popularly  supposed  to  be  the  best  part  of 
the  Thames,  and,  together  with  Maiden- 
head, is  probably  better  known  to  pic- 
nickers and  London  excursionists  than 
almost  any  other  place  on  the  river.  It 
is  immediately  opposite  the  woods  of 
Hedsor,  the  seat  of  Lord  Boston,  and 
just  below  the  lock  is  the  pretty  Formosa 
island  on  the  right ;  and  the  magnificent 
hanging  woods  of  Cliveden  on  the  left. 
In  the  neighbourhood  are  many  noble 
mansions,  Dropmore  being  immediately 
behind  Hedsor ;  White  Place,  formerly 
the  property  of  the  Duke  of  Buckingham, 
is  in  the  meadow  opposite  Cliveden ; 
with  many  others  still  farther  removed 
from  the  river.  The  grounds  of  both 
Hedsor  and  (during  the  absence  of  the 
family)  of  Cliveden  are  shown  on  appli- 
cation. The  conifers  at  Dropmore  are 
renowned,  and  the  view  from  the  ridge, 
on  which  stands  "Cliveden's  proud  al- 
cove," is  superb.  The  church  of  Holy 
Trinity/ an  ancient  building  with  chancel, 
nave,  aisles,  and  a  square  tower  (about 
1500),  contains  some  modern  stained 
glass  windows,  and  an  alabaster  monu- 
ment of  the  16th  century  to  the  memory 
of  Arthor  Babham  and  wife  with  a  quaint 
inscription.  There  are  also  some  good 
brasses.  That  to  George  Welder,  dated 
1616,  is  in  the  south  aisle ;  there  is  one 
dated  1615  in  the  north  aisle  with  a 
curious  epitaph ;  another,  mutilated,  to 
Richard  Babham  and  wife  (1527)  on  the 
north  wall  of  the  north  aisle  ;  and  under 
an  altar  tomb  in  the  chancel  are  the 
figures  of  Robert  Peck  (an  official  of 
Henry  VI.)  and  wife,  1510.  In  the  north 
aisle  a  brass  with  three  full-length  figures 
has  the  inscription,  "Pray  for  the  souls 
of  William  Andrew  and  John  Monkeden 
and  Margaret  ;  which  William  deceased 
1506  ;"  also  in  the  north  aisle  is  a  brass 
with  full-length  figure  of  John  Babham — 
the  companion  figure  of  his  wife  being 
missing — with  date  1458.  On  the  north 
wall  is  a  very  good  mural  tablet  to  Sir 
Isaac  Pocock,  by  Flaxman  (1808).     The 


most  interesting  monument,  however,  to 
many  visitors  to  Cookham  Church  will  be 
that  to  the  late  lamented  Frederick 
Walker,  A.R.A.  The  marble  mural 
monument  which  records  his  untimely 
death,  and  which  is  placed  on  the  west 
wall  of  the  south  aisle,  bears  a  medallion 
bust,  a  most  admirable  likeness. 

Cookham  Reach,  when  not  searched  by 
the  wind,  is  a  safe  resort  for  roach,  for 
which  the  swims  are  many  about  Spade 
Oak,  Bourne  End,  Hedsor,  Cliveden,  &c. 

Fairs.  —May  16  and  October  n. 

Hotels.—'  '  Bell  and  the  Dragon  ; "  the 
"Ferry,"  on  the  river;  the  "King's 
Arms.  ' 

Places  of  Worship. — Holy  Trinity, 
and  a  Wesleyan  chapel. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
insurance).  Mails  from  London,  7  a.m., 
12.30  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  7  a.m.  Mails  to 
London,  12.30  and  7.30p.m.;  Sunday, 
7.15  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Lock,  Ferry,  and 
Railway  Station,  Cookham.  Nearest 
Bridges,  up,  Marlow  4  miles ;  down, 
Maidenhead  3  miles.  Locks,  up,  Marlow 
3J  miles  ;  down,  Boulter's  2J  miles. 

Fares  to  Paddington:  1st,  5/-,  8/6; 
2nd,  3/8,  6/3  ;  3rd,  2/3. 

Cooper's  Hill.— (See  also  Egham.  ) 
Cooper's  Hill  Boat  Club  (Royal 
Indian  Engineering  College). — This  boat- 
ing club  numbers  between  fifty  and  sixty 
members.  In  1881  the  club  sent  an  eight 
to  Henley  to  compete  for  the  Ladies' 
Plate,  an  eight  and  a  four  to  Kingston, 
and  a  four  to  Reading.  In  1882  it  was 
unrepresented  at  Henley  and  Kingston, 
but  had  a  four  at  Reading.  The  colours 
are  dark  blue  and  yellow.  The  boat- 
house,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the 
college,  is  on  the  left  bank,  opposite  the 
upper  end  of  Magna  Charta  Island,  about 
600  yards  below  the  "  Bells  of  Ouseley." 

Cooper's  Hill  College.— The    Royal 

Indian  Engineering  College  has  been  es- 
tablished under  the  orders  of  the  Secretary 
of  State  for  India  in  Council,  in  view  to 
the  education  of  Civil  Engineers  for  the 
service  of  Government  in  the  Indian 
Public  Works  Department ;  but  it  is  open, 
to  the  extent  of  the  accommodation  avail- 
able, to  all  persons  desirous  of  following 
the  course  of  study  pursued  there.  All 
particulars  as   to  admission,   course  of 


47 


COO-CRI 


study,   appointments,  etc.,    may  be   ob- 
tained of  the  Secretary  at  the  College. 

Corinthian  Yacht  Club.  —  Club- 
house, Erith.  The  primary  object  of 
the  club  is  the  encouragement  of  ama- 
teur yacht  sailing.  The  election  is  by 
ballot  in  committee  ;  three  adverse  votes 
exclude.  The  affairs  of  the  club  are  ad- 
ministered by  a  commodore,  vice-commo- 
dore, rear-commodore,  hon.  treasurer, 
secretary,  and  a  committee  of  fifteen  other 
members,  with  power  to  increase  their 
number  to  twenty.  The  club  numbers 
over  500  members.  In  races  of  this  club 
no  professional  or  paid  hands  are  allowed 
except  in  the  largest  class,  i.ett  over  20 
tons.  None  but  members  of  the  C.  Y.  C.  are 
to  act  as  helmsmen  in  any  race.  Entrance 
fee,  £2.  2.s. ;  subscriptions,  £1  is.  Burgee, 
blue,  with  laurel  wreath  in  gold  in  the 
centre. 

"Cornwall."— This  reformatory  train- 
ing-ship of  the  School-Ship  Society  is 
anchored  off  Purfleet.  As  a  general  rule 
the  committee  do  not  admit  boys  unless 
the  three  following  conditions  are  satisfied  : 

1.  That  the  boy  be  sentenced  to  not 
less  than  three  years'  detention. 

2.  That  he  be  not  less  than  13  years  of 
age  nor  more  than  15. 

3.  That  he  be  certified  as  sound  and 
healthy. 

The  comparative  cost  per  head  on 
ordinary  maintenance  and  management 
is  £23  5s'  &£  Funds  are  urgently  needed, 
as  ' '  the  amounts  received  on  account  of 
the  Treasury  allowance  and  the  county 
and  borough  rates  do  little  more  than 
suffice  for  the  maintenance  of  the  boys 
and  for  the  payments  of  the  officers." 
Visitors  are  requested  not  to  go  on 
Saturday,  which  is  cleaning  day  on  board. 
The  Cornwall  was  once  the  Welles ley ; 
and  was  built  in  Bombay  of  teak  in  1815, 
and  was  the  flagship  of  Sir  W.  Parker 
and  of  Lord  Dundonald. 

Coway  Stakes  (See  Causeway 
Stakes). 

Cricklade,  Wiltshire,  on  the  right 
bank,  distant  from  Oxford  43  miles.  Soil, 
loam  ;  population,  about  2,000.  The 
nearest  railway  station  is  Purton,  about 
4  miles  off,  an  omnibus  plying  between 
the  station  and  the  town.  The  fast  trains 
from  Paddington,  distance  82  miles, 
perform  the  journey  in  two  hours  and  a 
quarter,     or    thereabouts.       This    is    a 


straggling  and    fairly   picturesque  little 
place   on   the   Thames  and  Severn  and 
North  Wilts  Canals,  and  it  is  here  that 
the  Thames,    at   its   junction   with    the 
Churn,  begins  to  assume  the  appearance 
of  a  navigable  river.     Though  in  itself  a 
small  place,  Cricklade  is  the  centre  of  a 
number  of  other  parishes  which  have  for 
many  years  united  in  returning  two  Mem- 
bers to  Parliament,  the  constituency  at 
the  last  general  election  numbering  7,473. 
The  present  Members  are  Mr.  M.  H.  N. 
Story   Maskelyne  (L. )  and    Sir    Daniel 
Gooch   (C).      Cricklade    is    a   pleasant 
little  town,  clean  and  well-paved,  but  has 
not  been  the  scene   of  any  particularly 
remarkable  events,  since  it   shared   the 
fate  of  so   many   of  the  other  Thames 
towns  and  was  plundered  by  the  Danes 
in  1015,  and  now  contains  few  objects  of 
interest,  except  the  church  of  St.  Samp- 
son,  a    very    handsome    building,   with 
chancel,   nave,   and  side  aisles,   and  a 
remarkably  good  square  embattled  tower, 
with  parapet  and  four  pinnacles.     This, 
which  is  said  to  date  from  1400,  was  built 
of   stone    from    the    same    quarries    as 
supplied  the  materials  for  the  construc- 
tion of  Cirencester  and  Gloucester  cathe- 
drals, and  which  are  now  exhausted.    On 
the  north  side  of  the  tower  are  carved 
a  pair  of  reaping  hooks  and  a  pair  of 
shears,   and  above   them   a  wheel  pro- 
jects.    A  local  legend  says   that  these 
objects  refer  to  the  three  men  who  were 
most  concerned  in  building  the  tower — 
a  farmer,  a  tailor,  and  a  clock-maker. 
This,  however,  is  more  than  doubtful, 
seeing  that  whatever   meaning  may  be 
supposed  to  attach  to  the  shears  and  the 
reaping  hooks,   the   wheel  is  simply  a 
Catherine  wheel,  and  a  very  good  one 
too.     But  the  builders  of  the  tower  de- 
lighted   in    quaint    and    out-of-the-way 
decoration,  as  is  instanced  in  the  walls 
and  beautifully  groined  roof  of  the  in- 
terior.    Here,  in  addition  to  numerous 
coats  of  arms — including,  on  the  south 
side,  that  of  the  Hungerford  family,  by 
whom  the  tower  was,  in  all  probability, 
built — are  sculptured  the  aces  of  the  four 
suits  of  the  pack  of  cards,   the  shears 
again,  two  pairs  of  ladies'  stays,  and  a 
number  of  other  quaint   devices.     The 
church,    which  contains   some  excellent 
Early  English  windows  and  a  very  good 
west  window  and  door,  was  undoubtedly 
the  work  of  different  periods,  of  which 


CRI-CRO 


48 


three  may  distinctly  be  noted  at  the 
flying  buttress  outside  the  east  end,  and 
is  both  handsome  and  commodious. 
Among  the  tablets  on  the  floor  is  one  in 
memory  of  one  Simon  Wild,  jun.,  1710, 
who  is  oddly  enough  said  to  have  been 
"in  Jenis  for  singing,  ringing,  and 
writing,"  and  the  tomb  of  Robert  Jenner 
informs  the  world  that  he  "deceased 
this  life"  in  1651.  There  is  an  empty 
niche  in  the  north  aisle  to  which  it  is 
probable  that  a  curious  and  much-defaced 
stone  figure,  which  lies  by  the  side  of  the 
path  to  the  church,  of  right  belongs  ; 
although  here  again  local  tradition  steps 
in,  and  declares  that  the  effigy  in  question 
represents  the  mangled  body  of  a  man 
who  fell  from  the  tower  during  its  con- 
struction. At  the  west  end  of  the  pretty 
churchyard  is  a  good  old  farmhouse,  and 
on  the  north-east  side  a  picturesque 
building  dating  from  1652,  which,  having 
started  in  life  as  a  school,  afterwards 
became  a  workhouse,  and  is  now  a  school 
again.  In  the  churchyard  there  is  also  a 
fine  old  cross,  which  formerly  stood  in  the 
marketplace.  Another  good  cross  stands 
in  the  churchyard  of  St.  Mary's  at  the 
other  end  of  the  town.  This  church, 
though  much  smaller  than  St.  Sampson's, 
is  architecturally  interesting,  notably  by 
reason  of  a  Norman  arch  of  the  eleventh 
century.  The  town  also  contains  Baptist, 
Congregational,  Wesleyan,  and  Metho- 
dist places  of  worship,  and  a  Town  Hall 
capable  of  holding  about  300  people. 

Bank. — The  Gloucestershire  Banking 
Company. 

Fire  Engine.— Church-street. 

Market  Day.— Third  Tuesday  in  the 
month. 

Hotels.— "White  Hart"  and  "White 
Horse." 

Places  of  Worship. — St.  Sampson's 
and  St.  Mary's. 

Police. — The  station  is  the  last  house 
at  the  north  end  of  the  town,  just  across 
the  bridge  over  the  Thames. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  High-street.  Mails  from 
London,  3  a.m.  and  2.30  p.m.  Mails 
for  London,  noon,  and  9.45  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  down,  Eisey,  for 
foot  passengers,  about  a  mile,  and  Castle 
Eaton,  about  4  miles.  Lock^  St.  John's, 
about  10 J  miles.  Railway  Statio?it  Pur- 
ton,  4  miles.   Omnibus,  three  times  a  day. 


Fares  to  Paddington,  1st,  14/4,  25/- ; 
2nd,  10/9,  18/9;  3rd,  6/9^. 

Crimps  may  be  said  to  be  practically 
an  extinct  order  of  reptile.  Jack's  ship 
is  now  boarded  on  arrival  at  Gravesend 
by  the  officers  of  the  Board  of  Trade, 
who  provide  him  with  a  passage  straight 
home  if  he  wishes  it,  and  he  is  next 
awaited  in  the  dock  by  the  employe's  of 
the  Sailors'  Home.  If  their  rigime  does 
not  suit  him,  the  private  lodging-houses 
he  prefers  are  under  the  strictest  sanitary 
and  police  surveillance  ;  and  when  his 
money  is  out  and  he  wants  a  ship,  the 
only  means  by  which  he  can  obtain  one 
is  through  the  Shipping  Office.  Finally, 
if  in  spite  of  these  tender  surroundings 
he  contrives,  as  he  still  occasionally  does 
contrive,  to  procure  his  own  ultimate 
ejectment  from  some  unlicensed  den  in 
the  minimum  of  clothing,  and  without 
even  the  minimum  of  coin,  he  has  still 
the  refuge  of  the  "  Straw  House."  Thus 
while  blood-suckers  of  various  breeds 
still  ply  their  trade  with  more  or  less 
success  at  Jack's  expense — a  fact  for 
which  Jack  has  assuredly  nowadays  no 
one  to  thank  but  himself— the  '.'  crimp," 
whose  specialty  it  was,  after  having 
sucked  the  blood,  to  dispose  of  the 
carcase  to  some  sea-going  skipper  in 
want  of  a  crew,  has  no  longer  any  raison 
d'etre,  and  has  therefore  practically  ceased 
to  be. 

Crowmarsh  Giffard,  sometimes  called 
Long  Crowmarsh,  Oxfordshire,  on  the 
left  bank  opposite  Wallingford,  90!  miles 
from  London,  2of  miles  from  Oxford. 
Population  about  350.  Soil,  upper  green- 
sand.  Crowmarsh  is  a  small  village 
joined  to  Wallingford,  Berks,  by  a  stone 
bridge,  and  within  the  Parliamentary 
borough  of  Wallingford.  The  church, 
St.  Mary  Magdalene,  of  great  antiquity, 
was  built  in  the  reign  of  King  Stephen, 
and  consists  of  nave,  chancel,  and  north 
transept.  The  western  doorway  is  a  fine 
specimen  of  Norman  work.  The  old 
west  door  of  massive  oak  has  been 
recently  removed  and  fitted  to  the  vestry  ; 
it  still  bears  marks  of  the  bullet-holes 
which  were  made  (it  is  said)  during  the 
siege  of  Wallingford  Castle  at  the  time  of 
the  Civil  Wars.  In  this  parish  is  Howbery 
Park  ;  the  old  mansion  (formerly  the 
seat  of  W.  S.  Blackstone,  Esq.,  M.P.) 
was  burnt  down  a  century  ago.     It  is 


49 


CRO— CUM 


now  rebuilt  on  same  site,  and  owned  by 
H.  B.  Watkin  Williams  Wynn,  Esq. 
The  rents  of  two  acres  of  land  in  the 
parish  have  from  time  immemorial  been 
applied  to  the  repair  of  the  church. 

Fair.— Horse  fair,  August  2. 

Place  of  Worship.  —  St.  Mary 
Magdalene. 

Postal     Arrangements Letters 

through  Wallingford,  which  is  the  nearest 
money  order,  telegraph,  and  insurance 
office.  Mails  from  London,  6.15  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  7  p.m. 

Nearest  Lock,  Bridge,  and  Ferry, 
Wallingford.  Nearest  Bridges,  up, 
Shillingford  2J  miles  ;  down,  Streatley 
5!  miles.  Locks,  up,  Bensington  \\ 
mile  ;  down,  Cleeve  5 \  miles.  Railway 
Station,  Wallingford. 

Fares,  Wallingford  to  Paddington : 
1st,  9/5,  16/- ;  2nd,  7/-,  12/- ;  3rd,  4/3. 

Crow  Stone  (The).— An  obelisk  on 
the  Essex  bank,  about  a  mile  westward 
of  Southend,  marks  the  limit  of  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  Thames  Conservancy  ; 
an  imaginary  line  being  drawn  across 
the  river  here  to  Yantlet  Creek  in  Kent, 

Cuckoo  Weir.— A  bathing-place  for 
the  junior  boys  of  Eton  College,  the 
water  being  of  a  convenient  depth  with 
but  little  stream.  It  leaves  the  river  at 
Upper  Hope,  a  little  distance  below 
Athens,  and  re-enters  it  again  above  the 
Great  Western  Railway-bridge  opposite 
Clewer.  During  the  vacation  the  Royal 
Humane  Society  of  Eton  and  Windsor 
keep  a  waterman  here  for  the  safety  of 
the  bathing  public. 

Culham,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left  bank, 
a  portion  of  the  parish  being  in  Berkshire. 
A  station  on  the  Great  Western  Railway, 
56  miles  from  Paddington,  trains  take 
from  i£  hour  upwards  ;  from  London 
ioi|  miles,  from  Oxford  9I  miles.  Popu- 
lation, about  600.  Soil,  gravel.  The 
station  is  30  minutes'  walk  from  the  lock. 
A  small  village  2  miles  below  Abingdon. 
The  green  is  a  few  minutes'  walk  from 
the  lock,  the  road  passing  by  Culham 
House  and  grounds,  the  wall  of  which 
encloses  a  fine  belt  of  trees.  The  church 
is  at  the  western  end  of  the  green,  and  is 
dedicated  to  St.  Paul.  Little  remains  of 
the  original  edifice,  the  church  having 
been  rebuilt  some  25  years  ago.  The 
square  tower,  however,  which  dates  from 


the  first  year  of  the  last  century,  is  still 
standing  ;  the  register  dates  from  1650. 
The  sum  of  between  ^50  and  £6o  is 
distributed  annually  in  coal  to  the  in- 
habitants, arising  from  the  sale  of  some 
common  land  on  which  the  parish  had 
the  right  of  cutting  gorse.  The  following 
entry  occurs  in  the  parish  register :  "Oct. 
10th,  1666.  Collected  for  the  poore  of 
London,  disabled  by  a  dismall  and 
lamentable  fire,  £1  3s.  8d."  The  training 
college  for  schoolmasters,  with  school 
attached,  is  about  a  mile  from  the  rail- 
way-station. This  institution,  capable 
of  accommodating  nearly  100  students, 
was  founded  by  the  late  Right  Rev. 
Samuel  Wilberforce,  when  Bishop  of 
Oxford,  for  the  purpose  of  training 
young  men  as  Church  schoolmasters. 
Seventy-five  per  cent,  of  the  expenditure 
is  defrayed  by  Government  grant. 

Just  below  Culham  Lock  is  a  fine  reach 
for  pike.  Sutton  Mill -pool  close  by  is 
one  of  the  deepest  on  the  river,  and  when 
a  fish  is  laid  hold  of  here  it  is  generally 
worth  the  taking. 

In  the  wall  of  Culham  House,  and 
immediately  opposite  the  "Sow  and 
Pigs"  Inn  on  the  green — a  good  specimen 
of  modern  reproduction  of  an  old  red- 
bricked  and  timbered  building — is  the 
Post  Office  letter  box,  which  is  cleared 
on  week-days  at  7.10  p.m.,|  and  on 
Sundays  at  noon.  Letters  arrive  from 
Abingdon,  the  nearest  money  order  and 
telegraph  office,  at  7  a.m. 

Inns. — "Sow  and  Pigs,"  and  "Rail- 
way Hotel  "  at  the  station. 

Place  of  Worship. — St.  Paul's 
Church. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Lock,  and  Railway 
Station,  Culham.  Nearest  Bridges,  up, 
Abingdon  2  miles  ;  down,  Clifton  Hamp- 
den si  niiles.  Locks,  up,  Abingdon  2J 
miles  ;  down,  Clifton  3  miles. 

FARES  to  Paddington:  ist,  9/11,  17/6; 
2nd,  7/5,  13/-  ;  3rd,  4/8. 

Cumnor,  a  very  picturesque  village  in 
Berkshire,  on  the  right  bank,  about  a 
mile  and  a  half  from  Bablock  Hithe 
Ferry,  and  distant  from  Oxford  4  miles 
by  road.  Population,  about  1,000.  The 
walk  from  Bablock  Hithe  to'  Cumnor  is 
very  pretty,  though  rather  steep — the 
path  past  the  cottage,  immediately 
opposite  the  ferry,  should  be  taken — but 
except  from  its  association  with  Sir  Walter 
Scott's  noble  romance  of  *'  Kenilworth,' 


CUM—CUP  60 

the  village  itself  has  little  to  recommend 
it  to  the  notice  of  passing  travellers. 
Cumnor  House  or  Place  has  now  entirely 
disappeared,  and  except  the  tomb  of  Sir 
Anthony  Forster  (Scott's  Tony  "Fire- 
the-Faggot")  in  the  church,  nothing 
associated  with  the  sad  story  of  Amy 
Robsart  now  remains  in  Cumnor.  The 
Church  of  St.  Michael  (the  keys  of  which 
can  be  obtained  at  the  post-office)  is 
charmingly  situated,  and  consists  of  nave, 
chancel,  north  aisle,  and  south  transept, 
with  a  plain  square  tower.  Inside  it  has 
some  handsome  pointed  arches,  and  on 
the  north  wall  of  the  chancel  is  the 
sculptured  stone  altar-tomb  of  Sir  Anthony 
Forster,  with  brass  of  himself,  his  wife, 
and  his  three  children.  This  monument 
has  a  long  and  florid  Latin  inscription, 
eulogising  Sir  Anthony  and  his  lady  in 
the  highest  terms,  and  especially  attribut- 
ing to  the  gentleman  the  possession  of 
the  highest  Christian  virtues  in  a  very 
unusual  degree.  From  this  it  would  seem 
to  follow  that,  unless  the  writer  of  the 
epitaph  had  even  less  regard  for  truth 
than  such  gentry  are  usually  credited 
with,  Sir  Walter  Scott's  account  of  the 
facts  connected  with  the  death  of  Amy 
Robsart  cannot  be  considered  as  in  the 
least  degree  historically  correct.  The 
church  also  contains  an  old  chained  Bible, 
and  on  the  south  wall,  on  a  brass,  is  the 
following  curious 

Epitaph  upon  ye  Death  of  Iames  Welsh. 
The  body  of  Iames  Welsh  lyeth  bvryed  here, 
Who  left  this  mortal  life  at  fovrscore  yeare  ; 
One  thovsand  and  six  hvndred  twelve  he  dyed, 
And  for  the  poore  did  Christianly  provide. 
According  to  the  talent  God  had  lent, 
Five  povndes  he  gave  of  zeale  and  good  intent ; 
The  frvite  makes  knowne  the  natvre  of  the  tree, 
Good  life  the  Christian,  even  so  was  hee  ; 
Whose  tyme  well  spent  vnto  his  sovl  did  gaine 
The  heavenly  rest  where  holy  saynts  remayne. 
This  memory  a  loving  wife  vnto  her  hvsband 

gave, 
To  show  her  hart  remembers  him,  thovgh  death 

inclose  his  grave. 
The  gyfte  he  gave  vnto  the  poore  she  hath 

inlarged  the  same, 
With  five  povndes  added  to  his  five,  vnto  her 

Christian  fame ; 
Hath  placed  them  both  to  ye  churchmen  here, 

nowise  to  be  delay'd, 
Bvt  that  yearly  to  the  poor  of  Cvmner  be  a 

mark  of  silver  pay'd ; 
Which  is  the  fvll  apoynted  rent  of  the  whole 

beqveathed  some, 
And  so  for  ever  shall  remayne  vntill  the  day  of 

dome. 


In  Cvmner,  for  the  poore's  releife,  Margery 

Welsh  doth  will, 
The  charge  of  this,  when  she  is  deade,  may  be 

performed  still. 

The  lady  certainly  got  a  thorough  good 
advertisement  for  the  money. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
in  the  village.  Nearest  money  order, 
telegraph  office,  &c.,  Oxford.  Letters 
through  Oxford. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Oxford ; 
distant  4  miles  {which  see). 

Cups,    Cocktails,     and     Grogs.— 

Water-parties  and  picnics  at  Nuneham, 
or  under  the  shade  of  Cliveden  or  Quarry 
Woods,  require  at  all  times  a  good  and 
sufficient  lunch  to  make  the  day  go  off  in 
a  satisfactory  manner,  and  the  presence 
of  somebody  who  knows  how  to  combine 
ice,  sugar,  lemon,  and  "drinks"  artistic- 
ally, is  an  additional  advantage.  A 
judicious  mixer  is  not  at  all  out  of  place 
on  board  a  yacht  on  a  hot  day  in  the 
lower  reaches  of  the  river,  and  the  services 
of  such  a  benefactor  to  his  species  have 
even  been  appreciated  by  stern  and  ener- 
getic members  of  rowing  clubs  during 
compulsory  pauses  from  the  day's  work 
within  the  cool  walls  of  a  lock.  Not 
much  is  wanted  in  the  way  of  parapher- 
nalia. A  very  big  jug  or  half-gallon 
mug,  and  a  lump  of  ice,  are,  in  fact,  all 
the  extras  required.  The  sugar  and 
lemon  and  the  needful  bottles  take  up 
very  little  room,  and  may  even  be  classed 
as  necessaries,  and  the  skilful  concocter 
will  want  but  little  space  and  time  to 
produce  any  of  the  following  "coolers," 
which  have  borne  the  test  of  time  and 
experience  with  eminently  satisfactory- 
results.  The  basis  of  all  wholesome  cups 
is  a  brew  of  sugar  and  lemon-peel  with  a 
little  water — hot  if  you  are  ashore  and 
can  get  it  conveniently,  cold  if  you  are  in 
a  boat  and  far  from  a  fire  and  kettle. 
Only  if  the  water  be  cold  the  lemon-peel 
must  soak  a  little  longer  than  if  hot  water 
be  used.  The  quantity  of  sugar  must 
vary,  of  course,  in  proportion  to  the 
amount  of  sweetness  in  the  wine  or  cider 
to  be  used,  and  will  also  depend  to  some 
extent  on  the  taste  and  fancy  of  the  mixer. 
Four  lumps  of  sugar  to  a  bottle  of  fair 
average  claret  will  be  about  the  mark, 
and  for  a  cup  on  this  scale  the  following 
should  be  the  mode  of  procedure.  Take 
four  good-sized  lumps  of  sugar  and  the 
peel  of  half  a  lemon  cut  very  thin.     Put 


these  into  your  jug  or  mug,  and  add 
sufficient  water  (hot  for  choice)  to  cover 
the  sugar.  Let  the  sugar  melt— if  hot 
water  be  used,  cover  the  top  of  the  jug 
while  the  stewing  is  going  on— and  then 
add  a  glass  of  sherry  and  half  a  glass  of 
brandy.  Put  in  as  large  a  lump  of  ice 
as  circumstances  will  admit  of,  and 
immediately  add  a  bottle  of  claret  and  a 
bottle  and  a  half  or  two  bottles  of  soda- 
water.  Then  take  out  the  lemon-peel, 
insert  a  handful  of  borage,  a  sprig  of  fresh 
mint,  and  a  couple  of  thin  slices  of  lemon, 
stir  and  drink.  Some  artists  have  a  weak- 
ness for  adding  a  piece  of  cucumber  rind, 
and  the  suggestion  is  not  without  merit. 
Other  mixers  add  liqueur,  but,  with  a 
reservation  in  favour  of  orange  brandy, 
this  course  is  not  to  be  recommended. 
Good  orange  brandy  may  be  safely  used 
instead  of  brandy  pure  and  simple,  but 
curacoa,  maraschino,  and  above  all  char- 
treuse, give  a  certain  sickliness  and  flavour 
of  subsequent  headache  to  the  cup  in 
which  they  find  a  place.  A  bottle  of 
lemonade  and  one  of  soda  instead  of  the 
two  bottles  of  soda,  have  been  occasion- 
ally used  with  success,  and,  especially  if 
the  party  consist  largely  of  ladies,  is  a 
pleasant  change ;  but  the  best  variation 
in  the  original  theme  is  to  leave  out  the 
brandy,  decrease  the  quantity  of  sugar, 
and  add  a  bottle  of  champagne.  There 
are  very  few  better  cups  than  this.  Cider, 
champagne,  or  Moselle  cups  are  made 
on  exactly  the  same  principles  as  the 
original  claret  cup,  but  the  first  will 
generally  require  more  sugar,  while  for 
the  others  a  couple  of  lumps  will,  as  a 
rule,  be  enough.  Almost  any  wine  may 
be  made  into  a  cup,  as  any  vegetable  can 
be  converted  to  the  purposes  of  the  salad 
bowl,  if  the  two  cardinal  principles  of 
always  stirring  your  lemon-peel  and  sugar 
first,  and  of  always  pouring  your  wine, 
&c,  on  to  the  ice,  and  of  not  adding 
your  ice  after  the  cup  is  mixed,  be  care- 
fully kept  in  view.  Drinks  poured  on  to 
ice  will  keep  their  freshness  for  a  much 
longer  time  than  those  to  which  ice  is 
merely  added. 

Cocktails  are  easy  to  concoct  with  the 
assistance  of  two  metal  cups  with  a 
bevelled  edge,  to  enable  them  to  fit  closely 
together  when  required,  and  are,  though 
simple  in  principle,  a  very  agreeable  form 
of  refreshment  at  times.  Put  into  one  of 
your  cups  a  piece  of   thin   lemon-peel 


51  CUP— OUP 

about  two  or  three  inches  long,  a  little 
powdered  white  sugar,  a  dash  of  bitters 
(Boker's  is  to  be  recommended  in  this 
connection),  and  half  a  glass  of  gin, 
whisky,  or  brandy,  or  a  glass  of  sherry 
or  claret.  Fill  up  with  small  pieces  or 
shavings  of  ice,  Then  fix  on  your  other 
cup  and  shake  the  mixture  vigorously. 
Remove  the  top  cup,  add  a  good  squeeze 
of  lemon-juice,  and  rub  the  edge  of  your 
cup  with  the  same.  If  you  prefer  it  you 
may  turn  the  mixture  into  a  wine-glass, 
but  it  is  better  served,  as  Mr.  Bob  Sawyer 
remarked,  ' '  in  its  native  pewter. "  Cham- 
pagne makes  a  capital  cocktail,  but  will 
not  stand  the  shaking  up  process,  so 
it  is  better,  in  this  case,  to  shake  up 
the  rest  of  the  ingredients,  and  add 
the  champagne  last.  Lemon,  sugar, 
bitters,  ice,  as  aforesaid,  a  glass  of  good 
sherry,  a  spoonful  of  brandy,  and  the 
yolk  of  an  egg,  all  shaken  well  up 
together,  make  an  excellent  restorative 
after  a  hard  day's  work.  The  addition 
to  the  ordinary  cocktail  of  a  few  sprigs  of 
fresh  mint,  and  the  imbibition  of  the 
drink — which  in  this  case  may  be  advan- 
tageously made  of  rather  more  liberal 
proportions — through  a  straw,  may  not 
make  a  genuine  American  mint-julep, 
but  the  result  is  refreshing  if  not  orthodox. 
Two  or  three  strawberries  or  raspberries, 
a  slice  of  orange,  or,  indeed,  a  dash  of 
any  fresh  fruit,  give  additional  charms  to 
either  cocktail  or  julep. 

Grogs  are  simple  matters,  and  require 
no  advice  until  they  reach  the  higher 
branches,  and  become  punches,  at  which 
point  the  judicious  mixer  again  comes 
into  play,  to  be  a  welcome  guest  of  the 
yachtsman  in  the  chilly  spring  and  sum- 
mer weather  often  to  be  enjoyed  off  the 
marshes  of  Kent  and  Essex.  The  fol- 
lowing will  be  found  a  very  good  punch 
for  a  cold  night,  and  if  taken  in  sufficient 
quantities,  will  excite  no  painful  re- 
miniscences in  the  morning.  Assuming 
that  the  jug — it  must  be  a  jug,  a  bowl 
is  an  abomination— is  to  contain  four 
good-sized  tumblers,  it  will  be  well  to 
proceed  as  follows.  First  ascertain  that 
the  jug  is  perfectly  clean  and  dry  :  yacht 
stewards  are  not  to  be  trusted  in  sucli 
matters  any  more  than  parlour  maids. 
Have  the  kettle  on  the  fire  before  you— 
never  to  take  boiling  water  on  trust 
should  be  the  first  maxim  of  the  careful 
punch-maker.      Into  your  jug  put   five 


CUP- DAT 


52 


lumps  of  sugar  and  the  peel  of  a  lemon 
cut  thin.  Add  a  little  boiling  water,  and 
cover  your  jug  with  a  plate.  While  the 
stewing  is  going  on  strain  the  juice  of  a 
lemon  through  a  piece  of  muslin,  and  in 
five  minutes  add  to  the  original  founda- 
tion. Then  add  of  wineglasses  full  of 
gin  or  whisky  as  many  as  you  think 
discreet,  and  fill  up  with  boiling  water 
on  the  same  principle.  Take  out  the 
lemon-peel.  Swaddle  your  jug  up  in  a 
piece  of  thick  flannel,  carefully  covering 
the  top,  and  let  it  stand  before  the  fire, 
or  better  still,  in  an  oven  if  possible,  for 
half  an  hour.  It  is  a  pleasant  nightcap. 
Some  people  add  liqueur  even  here,  but 
that  is  a  mistake  to  be  carefully  avoided. 
The  best  jug  for  this  punch  is  one  of  the 
old-fashioned  brown  Uncle  Toby  sort. 
If  the  drink  be  wanted  cold,  add  a  lump 
of  ice  after  the  stewing,  and  proceed 
afterwards  as  before,  but  with  iced  water, 
and  omitting  the  baking.  This  recipe  is 
occasionally  used  for  mixed  punch,  but 
for  that  there  is  a  much  better  plan. 
Take  a  common  earthenware  painter's 
pipkin,  glazed  inside,  of  about  one  large 
tumbler  capacity.  Put  in  three  lumps  of 
sugar,  about  a  third  of  the  peel  of  a 
lemon,  a  glass  of  old  rum,  and  a  glass 
of  brandy.  Set  fire  to  the  mixture,  and 
let  it  burn  well  for  about  two  minutes,  care- 
fully stirring  the  while.  Then  add  the 
juice  of  half  a  lemon,  strained  through 
muslin,  blow  out  the  fire,  and  fill  up  with 
boiling  water.  Pour  into  a  tumbler  and 
drink  as  soon  as  you  can.  You  will  find 
it  hot  and  eminently  comforting.  Pre- 
vention is  better  than  cure,  and  this  is 
said  to  be  a  first-rate  companion  for  a 
cautious  man  in  an  aguish  country  such 
as  is  to  be  found  among  the  marshes 
about  the  Lower  Hope.  The  mixture 
is  also  agreeable  as  a  cold  refresher,  iced 
water  being  poured  on  the  burnt  mixture, 
and  a  lump  of  ice  being  put  in  the 
tumbler  before  the  punch  is  poured  in. 

It  is,  of  course,  impossible  to  give 
anything  like  an  exhaustive  list  of  the 
numberless  recipes  which  exist  for  cup 
and  punch  making.  Many  books  exist 
which  afford  information  of  more  or  less 
value  on  the  subject,  and  to  them  the 
curious  must  be  referred.  But  for  ordinary 
purposes  the  above  hints  may  not  be 
without  use.  As  has  already  been  said, 
they  have  successfully  passed  the  ordeal 
of  practical  experience. 


Dace  (The),  although  commonly  as- 
sociated with  the  roach,  varies  much  in 
its  habits  and  choice  of  food.   It  is  seldom 
found  in  still   waters,    and    delights    in 
clear,  sharp,  lively  streams  and  gravelly 
shoals,  in  the  runs  between  weeds,  or  on 
the  shallows  which   terminate  the  deep 
pools  of  mill-tails,  weirs,  or  sluice  gates. 
They  swim  in  schools,  spawn  in  February 
and  March,  and  are  in  season  from  July 
to  February.     They  usually  go  up  to  the 
spawning    grounds    above     Teddington 
Weir  in  what  are  called  shifts,  and  begin 
about  the  middle  of  February.    The  balls 
of  the  ground-bait  maybe  made  of  pollard, 
only  thrown  in  much   smaller  than   for 
roach.      A  little  greaves   chopped   very 
fine    will   add    to    the    attraction ;    but 
beware  of  over  ground-baiting,    or  you 
may  surfeit  the  fish  to  the  loss  of  your 
sport.     Your  hook  may  be  rather  larger 
than  that  for  roach,  and  tied  on  drawn 
gut.     The  best  bait  is  a  small  red-worm, 
gentles,  caddis,   paste,   &c.       Fly-fishing 
for  dace   is  excellent    practice.      If  the 
angler  can  take  two  out  of  three  rises  he 
must  be  an  adept,  as  the  fish  come  at 
the  fly  in  a  very  mincing  and  touch-and- 
go  manner.    The  natural  house-fly  is  an 
attractive  bait,    but   it   requires   care   in 
throwing   the   line   to   prevent   it    being 
whipped  off  the  hook.     The  small  black 
palmer,  the  soldier,  the  black  gnat,  and 
indeed  almost  any  fly  of  delicate  make 
will  be  taken  by  the  dace  in  summer. 

Datchet,  Buckinghamshire,  on  the 
left  bank,  from  London  41J  miles,  from 
Oxford  70J  miles  ;  a  station  on  the 
Windsor  branch  of  the  South  Western 
Railway,  24  miles  from  Waterloo  ;  trains 
take  about  an  hour.  Population,  1,100. 
Soil,  chiefly  gravel.  A  pleasantly  and 
prettily  situated  village,  with  good  houses, 
and  agreeable  neighbourhood,  though 
sometimes  uncomfortably  liable  to  floods. 
It  is  sometimes  called  Datchet  St.  Helen's, 
from  the  fact  of  there  having  been  here 
at  one  time  a  branch  establishment  of 
the  nunnery  of  St.  Helen's,  Bishopsgate. 
The  buildings  themselves  have  entirely 
disappeared,  but  the  garden  walls  are 
still  standing. 

Datchet  Mead  is  a  well-known  place 
for  anglers,  and  is  known  to  all  the 
world  in  connexion  with  certain  dis- 
agreeable experiences  of  the  immortal 
Sir  John  Falstaff. 

The    parish    church    is  dedicated    to 


St.  Mary  the  Virgin.  It  was  originally- 
built  about  1350,  but  nothing  of  the  old 
structure  remains  except  the  east  wall 
window  of  the  chancel.  The  present  fine 
building  consists  of  nave,  aisles,  transept, 
chancel,  and  organ  chamber,  and  was 
erected  in  i860.  Nearly  all  the  windows 
are  filled  with  stained  glass.  Among  the 
charities  of  the  village  is  Barker's  Bridge 
House  Trust,  which,  under  a  scheme 
sanctioned  by  the  Charity  Commissioners, 
provides  for  the  lighting  of  the  village, 
the  maintenance  of  the  foot-paths,  land- 
ing-places, and  similar  works.  Ditton 
Park,  the  seat  of  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch, 
is  about  half  a  mile  from  the  church. 

This  is  perhaps  as  good  a  reach  as 
any  on  the  river  for  roach-fishing.  Anglers 
are  not  permitted  on  the  tow-path  of  the 
Home  Park.  Off  the  •*  Bells  of  Ouseley  " 
is  a  fine  shallow  for  the  fly,  and  is  upon 
a  warm  day  literally  alive  with  handsome 
chub  and  dace.  Trolling  and  spinning 
may  be  practised  with  success  for  jack 
and  perch  right  away  down  to  Bell  Weir 
Lock,  in  the  weir  of  which  very  handsome 
trout  are  taken  every  season. 

Inns. — "Manor  House"  and  "  Royal 
Stag." 

Places  of  Worship. — St.  Mary  the 
Virgin,  and  Baptist  Chapel. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  and  tele- 
graph). Mails  from  London,  7.20  a.m., 
12.15  p.m.  Mails  for  London,  10  a.m., 
3.50  and  7.5  p.m.     Sunday,  10  a.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Victoria  J  mile  ; 
down,  Albert  \  mile.  Locks,  up,  Romney 
ij  mile  ;  down,  Old  Windsor  if  mile. 

Fares  to  Waterloo,  ist,  3/9,  5/6 ;  2nd, 
2/9,  4/-;  3rd,  1/11. 

Deptford  Reach,  about  a  mile  long, 
from  the  end  of  Limehouse  Reach  to 
Greenwich  Ferry.  Bearings  S.S.E.  and 
E.N.E. 

Destitute    Sailors'    Asylum,     10, 

Well-street,  E.,  known  to  mercantile  Jack 
as  "The  Straw  House,"  was  originally 
established  in  the  year  1827,  since  which 
period  it  has  been  the  means  of  dispens- 
ing shelter,  food,  and  partial  clothing, 
together  with  medical  advice  when  neces- 
sary, as  also  spiritual  counsel  to  desti- 
tute sailors  of  all  creeds  and  tongues. 
The  public  cannot  do  better  than  refer 


53  DAT— DOG 

any  destitute  sailor  who  may  apply  to 
them  for  relief— or  any  tramp  or  men- 
dicant professing  to  be  a  destitute  sailor 
— to  the  Destitute  Sailors'  Asylum,  where, 
if  he  be  really  a  sailor,  and  really  desti- 
tute, he  will  be  sure  of  receiving  a  fort- 
night's maintenance,  with  the  gift  of 
certain  articles  of  clothing  ;  while  every 
exertion  will  be  made  to  get  him  a  ship. 
The  directors  very  justly  point  out  that 
by  communicating  this  fact  to  seamen  in 
real  want,  a  much  greater  boon  will  be 
conferred  upon  them  than  by  pecuniary 
relief,  while  the  great  evil  of  money- 
giving  to  mere  impostors  will  be  avoided. 

Distances  (Index  Table  of).— (See 
next  page. ) 

Doggett's  Coat  and   Badge.— This 

wager  for  young  watermen  out  of  their 
time  was  instituted  by  Thomas  Doggett, 
the  well-known  actor  at  Drury-lane 
Theatre,  at  the  first  anniversary  of  the 
accession  to  the  throne  of  George  I., 
August  1,  1715.  Doggett's  prize  was  an 
orange-coloured  coat  and  silver  badge, 
on  which  were  emblazoned  the  horse  of 
Hanover,  and  at  his  death  he  bequeathed 
a  sum  of  money  to  be  devoted  to  further 
prizes.  At  present  the  Fishmongers' 
Company,  who  administer  Doggett's 
trust,  give  £6  6s.  to  the  winner  in  ad- 
dition to  the  coat  and  badge,  the  prizes 
for  the  fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth  men  re- 
spectively, £2  2s.,  £1  us.  6d.,  and^i  6s. 
The  second  man  receives^  $s.,  and  the 
third  ^3  3-r. ,  derived  from  various  sources. 
The  original  conditions  of  the  wager 
were  that  the  six  competitors  to  whom  it 
was  limited  should  be  chosen  by  lot  from 
the  whole  body  of  men  who  should  put 
down  their  names  as  desirous  of  rowing. 
This  arrangement  was,  although  not 
until  the  lapse  of  a  very  great  number  of 
years,  deemed  to  be  unfair,  and  would-be 
competitors  now  row  three  trial  heats 
from  Putney  to  Hammersmith,  the  first 
and  second  in  each  heat  being  entitled  to 
row  in  the  final,  which  takes  place  on 
August  ist  when  not  on  a  Sunday. 

The  course  is  against  tide,  from  the 
"Swan"  at  London  Bridge,  to  the 
"  Swan  "  at  Chelsea,  when  the  current  is 
strongest,  according  to  the  original  con- 
ditions, and  when  the  race  is  really  rowed 
under  these  circumstances  it  is  a  "stifnsb 
pull  " 


54 


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55 


DOG— DOR 


The  race  in  1884  resulted  as  follows  : 
Final  Heat,  August  1. 

Charles  Phelps,  Putney     1 

Alfred  Thos.  Redknap,  Richmond  2 
Charles  Bowie,  Richmond  ...  3 

Charles  Bradshaw,  Deptford       ...  4 
James  Crick,  Horsleydown  ...  5 

George  Daniel  Evans,  Deptford  ...  6 

The  following  is  a  list  of  winners  since 
the  introduction  of  trial  heats  : 

1870  R.  Harding,  Blackwall. 

1871  T.  J.  Mackinney,  Richmond. 

1872  T.  G.  Green,  Hammersmith. 

1873  H.  Messum,  Richmond. 

1874  R.  W.  Burwood,  Wapping. 

1875  W.  Phelps,  Putney. 

1876  C.  T.  Bulman,  Shadwell. 

1877  J.  Tarryer,  Rotherhithe. 

1878  T.  E.  Taylor,  Hermitage  Stairs. 

1879  H.  Cordery,  Putne}\ 

1880  W.  J.  Cobb,  Putney. 

1881  G.  Claridge,  Richmond. 

1882  H.  A.  Audsley,  Waterloo. 

1883  James  Lloyd,  Wandsworth. 

1884  Charles  Phelps,  Putney. 
Dorchester,     Oxfordshire,     on     the 

Thame,  about  a  mile  from  its  junction  with 
the  Thames,  which  some  people  delight 
to  call,  up  to  this  point,  the  Isis,  fondly 
imagining  that  the  name  Tamesis  is  a 
compound  of  Thame  and  Isis.  The 
quaint  conceit  of  Warton  that 

Beauteous  Isis  and  her  husband  Thame, 
With  mingled  waves  for  ever  flow  the  same, 

is  probably  to  some  extent  responsible  for 
this  delusion,  a  hallucination  further  en- 
couraged by  Drayton,  who  expresses  the 
same  idea  in  somewhat  more  high-flown 
language.  The  Thame  is  not  a  com- 
fortable river  for  boats,  and  visitors  to 
Dorchester  from  the  river  would  do  well 
to  leave  their  boats  in  charge  of  the 
keeper  of  Day's  Lock  and  to  take  the 
footpath  across  the  fields,  some  twenty 
minutes'  walk.  The  path  passes  by  some 
interesting  Roman  remains  called  the 
Dyke  Hills,  evidently  portions  of  an  ex- 
tensive fortified  camp  which  rested  upon 
the  Thame  at  one  extremity  and  the 
Thames  at  the  other,  and  being  protected 
by  the  rivers,  then  probably  running 
through  much  marsh  land,  must  have 
been  of  great  natural  as  well  as  artificial 
strength. 

Dorchester,  an  unimportant  village  on 
the  Oxford  coach  road,  is  distant  from 


Oxford  about  eight  miles,  from  London 
fifty.     Population,  1,050.     Soil,  alluvial. 
It  is  somewhat  surprising  to  find  in  so 
small  a  village  so  fine  a  church  as  that  of 
St.   Peter  and  St.   Paul,  Dorchester,  but 
in  truth   the  village  has  a  very  ancient 
ecclesiastical  history.     So  far  back  as  630 
it  is  recorded  that  Birinus  here  baptized 
Cynegils,  the  king  of  Wessex,  of  which 
Dorchester  was  once  the  capital,  and  the 
authority  of  the  venerable  Bede  is  adduced 
to  prove  that  the  city  called  Dorcinca  was 
the  seat  of  many  fine  churches.     These 
are  also  mentioned  by  William  of  Malmes- 
bury,  but  it  would  seem  that  shortly  after 
his  time  the  line  of  bishops  of  Dorchester 
came  to  an  end,  and  that  its  ecclesiastical 
brilliance  rapidly  waned.     In  1554  the 
abbey  church   was  bought  by  Richard 
Bewforest  for  ^140,    and    by    him    be- 
queathed to   the   parish.     The   present 
church  is  the  building  in  question,  and 
represents  the  work  of  many  architects. 
The   north   wall   of    the   nave   and   two 
arches  in  the  interior  are  probably  part 
of  the  old  Saxon  cathedral.     The  rest  of 
the  fabric  has  been  built  at  subsequent 
periods,  as  may  easily  be  seen  from  the 
different  styles   of    architecture   peculiar 
to  the  successive  periods  down  to  the  late 
Tudor    porch.      It    was    last    restored, 
although  not  completed,  by  Sir  Gilbert 
Scott,  and  is  a  most  remarkable  building. 
Restoration  is  still  in  progress.    A  number 
of  carved  fragments  of  stone  have  been 
collected  from  a  house  under  repair  in  the 
village,  and  are  now  in  the  church  awaiting 
the  time   when  they  can  be  again  in- 
corporated in  the  fabric.     A  fine  window 
in  the  west  front,  now  bricked  in,  might 
advantageously  be  opened,   but  the  fact 
of  the  nave  being  closed  by  the  tower 
will  always  necessarily  give  a  somewhat 
sombre,  not  to  say  grim,  appearance  to 
this  part  of  the  church.     The  church  is 
entered  on  the  south  side  from  the  hand- 
some churchyard  by  a  fine  stone  porch 
with  timbered  roof,  outside  which,  on  the 
left,  is  a  mutilated  cross,  the  head  of  which 
has  been  restored.     The  curious  in  such 
matters  may  compare  this  cross  with  that 
standing  by  the  great  yew  in  the  church- 
yard at  Iffley.    At  the  south-west  angle  of 
the  church  opposite  the  cross  is  a  buttress 
with  two  canopied  niches  for  statues.   On 
the  right  of  the  entrance  from  the  porch 
is  the  font,  a  Norman  work  of  lead,  ex- 
hibiting the  figures  of  the  Apostles  minus 


DOR— DOR  66 

Judas,  in  excellent  preservation.  On 
the  south  side  is  a  chapel,  or  ante-church, 
in  which  some  singular  carvings  round 
one  of  the  pillars  should  be  noticed,  and 
which  is  now  used  for  the  Sunday  morn- 
ing celebration  and  occasionally  for  other 
services.  From  here  a  pointed  arch  leads 
into  the  south  aisle,  which  contains  at 
the  east  end  a  lady-chapel,  the  altar  in 
which  is  a  memorial  to  the  late  Bishop  of 
Winchester.  Here  is  a  remarkably  fine 
groined  roof,  lofty  and  of  the  most 
graceful  proportions.  The  roof  of  the 
nave,  which  is  also  of  magnificent  pro- 
portions, is  supported  by  beautiful 
clustered  columns.  In  the  lady-chapel 
will  be  found  four  recumbent  life-size 
monumental  figures,  one  of  which  repre- 
sents a  most  truculent  Crusader,  lying  in 
a  singular  attitude,  with  legs  crossed  and 
apparently  in  the  act  of  drawing  his  sword. 
If  this  figure  be  a  portrait  it  is  certain 
that  the  sculptor  did  not  flatter  his 
model.  The  other  three  monuments  are 
of  great  antiquity,  and  one,  that  of  a 
knight  in  armour,  said  to  be  of  the 
Segrave  family,  is  especially  worthy  of 
careful  inspection.  A  tablet  on  the 
floor  of  the  lady-chapel  in  memory  of 
Thomas  Day,  who  died  in  1693,  has 
this  curious  epitaph  : 

Sweet  Death  he  Came  in  Hast 
&  said  his  glass  is  run, 
Thou  art  ye.  man  i  say 
See  what  thy  God  has  done. 

To  the  amateur  of  brasses  it  must  be  a 
source  of  lasting  regret  that  so  few 
remain  of  what  must  at  one  time  have  been 
among  the  most  magnificent  specimens 
in  the  country.  The  church  may  be  said 
to  be  carpeted  with  their  remains.  In  the 
lady-chapel  is  a  small  brass  in  fair  preser- 
vation of  Richard  Bewforest  and  his  wife, 
and  in  the  chancel  is  one  of  a  bishop  in 
cope  and  with  crozier  with  the  inscription;: 
a  Here  lyeth  Sir  Richard  Bewfforeste.  I 
pray  thee  give  his  sowl  good  rest."  On 
the  south  side  of  the  chancel  is  a  stone 
which  bears  witness  to  the  existence  at 
one  time  of  a  very  important  brass  of  a 
full-length  figure  under  a  canopy  with 
much  elaborate  ornamentation,  which 
must  have  been  fine  indeed.  One  of  the 
curious  devices  in  this  is  reproduced  on 
the  end  of  a  carved  oak  seat  in  front  of 
the  organ,  also  commemorating  Sir 
Richard  Bewforest.      The    sedilia    and 


piscina  in  the  chancel  are  elaborate  in 
design,  and  opposite  to  them  on  the 
north  side  is  the  renowned  Jesse  window, 
which  is  surely  unique  of  its  kind.  It  is 
in  the  form  of  a  genealogical  tree  spring- 
ing from  the  body  of  Jesse  himself,  and 
bearing  stone  effigies  of  the  line  of  David  ; 
the  crowning  figure  of  our  Lord  has  un- 
fortunately been  destroyed.  The  stained 
glass  of  the  window  itself  works  with  the 
design.  The  window  dates  from  the  14th 
century.  Leaving  the  church  by  the  west 
door  the  path  to  the  village  passes  under 
a  lych-gate,  overshadowed  by  a  glorious 
chestnut.  Dorchester  Church  lies  a  little 
out  of  the  way  of  any  but  enthusiastic 
sightseers,  but  should  certainly  be  visited 
if  for  the  Jesse  window  alone. 

The  old  Grammar  School,  endowed  by 
the  Fettiplace  family,  no  longer  exists  as 
such,  but  has  been  converted,  With  the 
approval  of  the  Education  Commissioners, 
into  a  National  School  for  boys.  The 
building  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  part 
of  the  old  monastery  (probably  the  re- 
fectory), established  by  Alexander,  Bishop 
of  Lincoln,  in  1140.  The  massive  wall 
of  the  south  side  of  the  building,  the  rude 
but  substantial  beams  and  quaint,  closed- 
up  fire-places,  bespeak  its  antiquity. 
There  is  a  Cottagers'  Horticultural  Society 
in  Dorchester,  instituted  in  1869,  which 
offers  many  prizes  for  competition  at  its 
annual  shows. 

Day's  Lock  and  Weir,  as  well  as  right 
away  down  past  the  entrance  to  the 
Thames,  has  in  recent  years  risen  in 
estimation  for  the  yield  of  fish.  Barbel, 
jack,  and  perch  are  plentiful.  It  is  one 
of  the  few  places  on  the  Thames  in  which 
the  angler  is  almost  certain  to  get  from 
one  to  half-a-dozen  fine  tench  in  a  day's 
general  fishing  :  this  applies  almost  as 
low  as  Shillingford. 

FAik. — Easter  Tuesday. 

Inns. — "  Fleur  de  Lis,"  opposite  the 
church,  and  "White  Hart,"  up  the 
village. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Peter  and 
St.  Paul  (Abbey  Church),  and  Roman 
Catholic  Church. 

Post  Office  Arrangements.— Post 
Office  (money  order,  savings  bank,  and 
telegraph),  near  the  church.  Mails  from 
London,  7.30  a.m., 2.45  p.m.  (to  callers)  ; 
Sundays,  7.30  a,m.  Mails  to  London, 
10.45  a.m.,  6.35  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  11.35 
a.m. 


67 


DOR— DRO 


Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Clifton  Hamp- 
den 2.\  miles  ;  down.Shillingford  2§  miles, 
Locks,  Day's  ;  up,  Clifton  2J  miles  ;  down, 
Bensington  4  miles.  Ferries,  Shilling- 
ford  and  Day's  Lock.  Raihvay  Station, 
Cullham  (which  see  for  fares). 

"  Dreadnought."  —  (See  Se amen  s 
Hospital  Society.) 

Drowning.— Methods  of  treatment 
recommended  by  the  Royal  Humane 
Society.  Directions  for  restoring  the 
apparently  dead. 

I.  If  from  Drowning  or  other 
Suffocation  or  Narcotic  Poisoning. 
— Send  immediately  for  medical  assist- 
ance, blankets,  and  dry  clothing,  but 
proceed  to  treat  the  patient  instantly, 
securing  as  much  fresh  air  as  possible. 
The  points  to  be  aimed  at  are  :  first,  and 
immediately,  the  restoration  of  breathing  ; 
and  secondly,  after  breathing  is  restored, 
the  promotion  of  warmth  and  circulation. 
The  efforts  to  restore  life  must  be  perse- 
vered in  until  the  arrival  of  medical 
assistance,  or  until  the  pulse  and  breath- 
ing have  ceased  for  at  least  an  hour. 

Treatment  to  Restore  Natural  Breathing. 

Rule  i. — To  maintain  a  Free  Ent?-ance 
of  Air  into  the  Windpipe. — Cleanse  the 
mouth  and  nostrils  ;  open  the  mouth  ; 
draw  forward  the  patient's  tongue,  and 
keep  it  forward  ;  an  elastic  band  over 
the  tongue  and  under  the  chin  will 
answer  this  purpose.  Remove  all  tight 
clothing  from  about  the  neck  and  chest. 

Rule  2. — To  adjust  the  Patient's  Position. 
— Place  the  patient  on  his  back  on  a  flat 
surface,  inclined  a  little  from  the  feet 
upwards  ;  raise  and  support  the  head 
and  shoulders  on  a  small  firm  cushion 
or  folded  article  of  dress  placed  under 
the  shoulder-blades. 

Rur,E  3. — To  imitate  the  Movements  of 
Breathing. — Grasp  the  patient's  arms 
just  above  the  elbows,  and  draw  the 
arms  gently  and  steadily  upwards,  until 
they  meet  above  the  head  (this  is  for 
the  purpose  of  drawing  air  into  the 
lungs),  and  keep  the  arms  in  that 
position  for  two  seconds.  Then  turn 
down  the  patient's  arms,  and  press 
them  gently  and  firmly  for  two  seconds 
against  the  sides  of  the  chest  (this  is 
with  the  object  of  pressing  air  out  of 
the  lungs.  Pressure  on  the  breast- 
bone   will    aid    this).       Repeat    these 


measures  alternately,  deliberately,  per- 
severingly,  fifteen  times  in  a  minute, 
until  a  spontaneous  effort  to  respire  is 
perceived,  immediately  upon  which 
cease  to  imitate  the  movements  of 
breathing,  and  proceed  to  induce  circu- 
lation and  warmth  (as  below).  Should 
a  warm  bath  be  procurable,  the  body 
may  be  placed  in  it  up  to  the  neck, 
continuing  to  imitate  the  movements  of 
breathing.  Raise  the  body  in  twenty 
seconds  in  a  sitting  position,  and  dash 
cold  water  against  the  chest  and  face, 
and  pass  ammonia  under  the  nose. 
The  patient  should  not  be  kept  in  the 
warm  bath  longer  than  five  or  six 
minutes.  But  it  is  preferable  that  arti- 
ficial respiration  and  friction  of  the 
limbs  and  body  with  dry  flannel  or 
cloths  should  be  first  had  recourse  to, 
and  that  the  warm  bath  should  not  be 
employed  till  there  is  proof  of  respira- 
tion having  been  restored. 
Rule  4. — To  excite  Inspiration. — During 
the  employment  of  the  above  method 
excite  the  nostrils  with  smelling-salts, 
or  tickle  the  throat  with  a  feather.  Rub 
the  chest  and  face  briskly,  and  dash 
cold  and  hot  water  alternately  on 
them. 

Treatment  after  Natural  Breathing  has 
been  restored. 

Rule  5. — To  induce  Circulation  and 
Warmth. — Wrap  the  patient  in  dry 
blankets  and  commence  rubbing  the 
limbs  upwards,  firmly  and  energeti- 
cally. The  friction  must  be  continued 
under  the  blankets  or  over  the  dry 
clothing.  Promote  the  warmth  of  the 
body  by  the  application  of  hot  flannels, 
bottles  or  bladders  of  hot  water,  heated 
bricks,  &c,  to  the  pit  of  the  stomach, 
the  armpits,  between  the  thighs,  and  to 
the  soles  of  the  feet.  On  the  restora- 
tion of  life,  when  the  power  of  swallow- 
ing has  returned,  a  teaspoonful  of 
warm  water,  small  quantities  of  wine, 
warm  brandy  and  water,  or  coffee, 
should  be  given.  The  patient  should 
be  kept  in  bed,  and  a  disposition  to 
sleep  encouraged.  During  reaction 
large  mustard  plasters  to  the  chest 
and  below  the  shoulders  will  greatly 
relieve  the  distressed  breathing. 

II.  If  from  Intense  Cold.— Rub 
the  body  with  snow,  ice,  or  cold  water. 
Restore  warmth   by  slow   degrees.      In 


DRO-EAS  68 

these  accidents  it  is  highly  dangerous  to 
apply  heat  too  early. 

III.  If  from  Intoxication.  —  Lay 
the  individual  on  his  side  on  a  bed  with 
his  head  raised.  The  patient  should  be 
induced  }o  vomit.  Stimulants  should  be 
avoided. 

IV.  If  from  Apoplexy  or  from 
Sunstroke. — Cold  should  be  applied  to 
the  head,  which  should  be  kept  well 
raised.  Tight  clothing  should  be  removed 
from  the  neck  and  chest.  Stimulants 
should  be  avoided. 

Appearances  mhich  generally  indicate 
Death. — There  is  no  breathing  or  heart's 
action  ;  the  eyelids  are  generally  half- 
closed  ;  the  pupils  dilated ;  the  jaws 
clenched  ;  the  fingers  semi-contracted  ; 
the  tongue  appearing  between  the  teeth, 
and  the  mouth  and  nostrils  are  covered 
with  a  frothy  mucus.  Colour  and  pallor 
of  surface  increases. 

General  Observations.— On  the  restora- 
tion of  life,  a  teaspoonful  of  warm  water 
should  be  given  ;  and  then,  if  the  power 
of  swallowing  be  returned,  small  quanti- 
ties of  warm  wine  or  weak  brandy  and 
water,  warm  ;  the  patient  should  be  kept 
in  bed,  and  a  disposition  to  sleep  en- 
couraged, except  in  cases  of  apoplexy, 
intoxication,  and  coup-de-soleil.  Great 
care  is  requisite  to  maintain  the  restored 
vital  actions,  and  at  the  same  time  to 
prevent  undue  excitement.  The  treat- 
ment recommended  by  the  society  is  to 
be  persevered  in  for  three  or  four  hours. 
It  is  an  erroneous  opinion  that  persons 
are  irrecoverable  because  life  does  not 
soon  make  its  appearance,  as  cases  have 
come  under  the  notice  of  the  society  of  a 
successful  result  even  after  five  hours' 
perseverance  ;  and  it  is  absurd  to  suppose 
that  a  body  must  not  be  meddled  with 
or  removed  without  permission  of  a 
coroner. 

East  and  West  India  Docks  are 
situated  at  Blackwall  between  the  West 
India  Dock  and  Blackwall  stations  of  the 
London  and  Blackwall  Railway.  The 
former  of  these  stations  is  the  best  for 
persons  having  business  at  the  general, 
police,  customs,  wharfingers,  or  other 
offices,  or  on  board  of  vessels  lying  in  the 
greater  part  of  the  West  India  Import 
Dock,  the  West  India  Export  Dock,  or 
the  South-West  India  Dock.  For  those 
at  the  eastern  extremity  of  these  docks, 


the  Millwall  Junction  station  will  be 
found  nearer,  as  also  for  the  North  Lon- 
don Railway  Companies'  Docks,  the 
Blackwall  Basin,  and  the  new  dock  in 
course  of  formation  by  the  Midland  Rail- 
way Company,  but  not  forming  part  of 
the  East  and  West  India  Dock  Company's 
system,  and  the  extreme  western  ex- 
tremity of  the  East  India  Import  Dock. 
For  the  South-West  India  Docks  and 
Basin,  passengers  should  change  at  Mill- 
wall  Junction  ;  and,  proceeding  by  tram- 
car,  alight  at  South  Dock  station.  For 
the  East  India  Export  Dock,  the  greater 
part  of  the  East  India  Import  Dock,  and 
the  East  India  Dock  Basin,  the  best  station 
is  that  of  Blackwall. 

East  Blyth  Buoy.— A  16-foot  conical 
buoy,  made  of  iron,  and  painted  with 
black  and  white  stripes.  It  is  situated  in 
Sea  Reach,  nearly  opposite  the  Chapman 
Light,  on  the  edge  of  the  Blyth  Sand, 
and  marks  a  depth  of  water,  at  low  water 
spring  tide,  of  21  feet.  It  is  moored 
with  18  fathoms  of  chain. 

East  Molesey,  in  Surrey,  on  the  right 
bank  opposite  Hampton  Court,  the  Hamp- 
ton Court  railway-station  being  in  the 
parish.  The  distance  from  London  is 
23J  miles,  from  Oxford  88J  miles.  Popu- 
lation, 2,500.  Soil,  light  and  gravelly. 
The  village  of  Molesey  is  practically  part 
of  Hampton  Court,  with  which  it  is  con- 
nected by  an  iron  bridge,  and  is  chiefly 
interesting  to  excursionists  from  the  point 
of  view  of  refreshments.  Here  the  Mole 
empties  itself  into  the  Thames,  and  hard 
by  to  the  north-west  is  Molesey  Hurst, 
where  Hampton  Races  take  place.  The 
old  church  of  St.  Mary,  which  was  a 
curious  specimen  of  an  old  riverside 
church,  was  partly  destroyed  by  fire  in 
1863 ;  the  present  church,  consisting  of 
chancel,  nave,  and  north  aisle,  was  built 
in  1865.  A  good  brass  in  memory  of 
Anthonie  Standen,  cupbearer  to  Lord 
Darnley,  father  of  James  I.,  has  teen 
preserved.  Near  the  church  is  an  old 
inn,  "The  Bell,"  which  is  said  to  have 
been  in  the  "good  old  times"  much 
patronised  by  highwaymen. 

Hotels. — "Castle"  and  "Prince  of 
Wales." 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Mary's,  and 
Wesleyan  Chapel. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Po3t  Office 
(money  order,   savings  bank,   and  tele- 


graph).  Mails  from  London,  6.45  and 
9.50  a.m.,  2.30  and  8  p.m.  Sunday,  6.45 
a.m.  Mails  for  London,  8.40  and  11.50 
a.m.,  3.25  and  8  p.m.     Sunday,  10  a.m. 

Nearest.— (See  Hampton  Court). 

Fares. — [See  Hampton  Court). 

Eel-Pie  Island.— An  Island  of  seven 
acres  offTwickenham,  once  in  high  repute 
with  picnic  parties,  but  now  rather  out  of 
vogue.  The  island  is  close  to  the  Orleans 
Club,  and  a  fine  view  of  Richmond  Hill 
is  to  be  obtained  from  it.  Opposite, 
almost  entirely  concealed  by  trees,  is 
Ham  House,  the  seat  of  the  Earls  of 
Dysart.  The  river  about  here  is  incon- 
veniently shallow  at  low  tide,  notwith- 
standing the  persistent  efforts  of  the 
Conservators  to  maintain  a  channel  by 
dredging.  Nearest  Post  and  Telegraph 
Offices  and  Railway  Station,  Twickenham 
(which  see). 

Eels  have  greatly  fallen  off  in  individual 
size  and  collective  numbers  of  late  years 
in  the  Thames,  which  is  attributed  to 
the  obstacles  opposed  to  their  carrying 
out  their  natural  habit  of  making  for 
the  estuary  to  spawn,  to  gain  which 
they  have  to  encounter  the  metro- 
politan sewage,  concentrated  by  the 
junction  of  the  Crossness  and  Bark- 
ing outfalls.  There  is  little  doubt  but 
that  here  they  are  poisoned  in  the  bad 
water,  in  company  with  other  migratory 
fish  that  seek  the  ocean,  and  add  to  the 
polluted  character  of  the  stream.  For- 
merly, when  no  such  impediment  re- 
tarded their  course,  they  performed  their 
functions,  and  their  young  made  their 
way  up  the  river  in  myriads,  to  populate 
every  ditch  and  tributary  of  the  river 
proper,  and  were  seen  in  a  black  line  on 
either  side  of  the  river,  the  procession 
reaching  for  miles.  Their  appearance 
was  termed  "eel-fair,"  and  the  inhabi- 
tants on  the  banks  used  to  resort  with 
sieves  and  pails  to  bail  them  out  without 
interruption,  and  make  a  species  of  cake 
of  them  by  compression.  It  is  a  moot 
question  whether  the  parent  eels  ever 
returned  to  their  old  quarters.  Naturalists 
aver  that  at  the  season  of  migration  they 
are  endowed  with  a  thicker  skin  than 
common,  probably  to  fit  them  for  the 
dangers  they  may  have  to  encounter. 
Dr.  Giinther  and  other  celebrated  ichthy- 
ologists have  long  since  determined  the 
eel  to  be  oviparous— the  apparent  young 


59  EAS— EGH 

found  occasionally  in  them  having  proved 
to  be  parasitical  worms.  Thus  the  eel 
fishery  of  the  Thames  has  greatly  fallen 
off,  and  those  that  are  now  caught  in 
small  quantities  by  "weels,"and  wicker 
baskets  termed  "pots,"  are  either  much 
smaller  in  size  or  the  grig  species — a 
much  less  worthy  description  of  the 
genus.  Lampreys  and  lamperns  from 
the  same  cause  have  almost  entirely  dis- 
appeared, and  the  same  observation 
applies  to  the  smelt,  which  formerly  came 
up  in  vast  shoals  to  spawn  off  Chiswick 
and  Strand-on-the-Green,  driving  by  their 
ravenous  nature  and  their  mouths  full  of 
formidable  teeth  all  other  fish  off  the 
grounds  selected  by  them.  Special  leave 
to  net  smelts  was  formerly  granted  by  the 
Conservancy,  as  it  required  nets  of  a 
smaller  mesh,  but  this  concession  is  rarely 
sought  for  now  by  the  fishermen,  on 
account  of  the  almost  entire  absence  of 
these  fish.  The  supply  of  eels  to  the 
metropolis  and  the  hotels  along  the 
Thames  is  mostly  from  Holland.  The 
Dutch  "busses" — very  picturesque  vessels 
from  Holland — may  be  seen  any  day  off 
Billingsgate  at  anchor,  waiting  with  their 
wells  of  eels  upon  the  requirements  of 
the  market.  The  vitality  of  the  eel  is 
proverbial,  and  the  difficulty  of  depriving 
it  of  life  great ;  but  if  the  eel  be  struck 
upon  the  tail,  in  which  is  concealed  a 
lymphatic  gland  or  "second  heart,"  he 
dies  immediately. 

Egham,  Surrey. — Though  not  actually 
on  the  bank,  the  parish  of  Egham  im- 
pinges on  the  Thames,  and  is  connected 
with  Middlesex  by  Staines  Bridge  ;  but 
from  the  river  the  nearest  approach  is 
from  Bell  Weir  Lock,  which  is  distant 
from  the  post-office  and  church  about 
10  minutes'  walk  across  the  fields,  the 
pathway  leaving  the  towing-path  a  few 
yards  below  the  "Anglers'  Rest  Hotel." 
From  the  post-office  to  the  railway-station 
is  about  seven  minutes'  walk.  Flys  meet 
the  trains.  It  is  a  station  on  the  South 
Western  Railway,  21  miles  from  Waterloo. 
The  average  time  of  the  railway  journey 
is  about  an  hour.  Egham  is  a  small 
town  in  a  pretty  country,  with  many 
large  houses  and  parks  surrounding  it, 
but  offers  in  itself  little  special  attraction. 
It  consists  of  a  long  street  containing  a 
few  decent  shops.  North  of  the  town  is 
Runnymede,  and  a  race-meeting  is  held 
on  it  annually  ;  the  course  being  an  oval 


EGH-EGH 

flat,  not  quite  two  miles,  with  a  straight 
mile.  Egham  Races  have  considerably 
declined  in  interest  and  popularity  of 
late  years. 

At  the  back  of  the  town  is  Cooper's 
Hill,  so  well  known  in  connection  with  Sir 
John  Denham's  poem,  which  has  been, 
perhaps,  as  frequently  quoted  as  any 
copy  of  verses  in  the  language,  and  has 
obtained  a  certain  popularity  far  beyond 
its  deserts.  It  would  seem  that  Somer- 
ville  was  poking  his  fun  when  he  described 
Denham  as  "a  tuneful  bard,"  and  his 
song  as  being  "sublimely  sweet."  Pope 
goes  even  farther,  and  speaking  of 
Cooper's  Hill,  which,  by-the-bye  with 
rather  a  stretch  of  poetic  license,  he  calls 
a  mountain,  says  : 

Here  his  first  lays  majestic  Denham  sung. 

Whatever  the  merits  of  Sir  John  Denham's 
poem  may  be,  however,  there  can  be  no 
doubt  of  the  beauty  of  the  view  from 
Cooper's  Hill,  and  the  ascent  of  Pope's 
"mountain"  may  be  recommended  to 
all  visitors  to  Egham.  At  the  present 
time  Cooper's  Hill  has  become  known  as 
the  seat  of  the  Royal  Indian  Engineering 
College  (see  Cooper's  Hill).  Among 
the  numerous  pleasant  excursions  in  the 
neighbourhood  is  that  to  Virginia  Water, 
which  is  in  this  parish. 

The  church  is  a  very  plain  brick  build- 
ing, with  a  rather  mean  little  belfry,  and 
within  is  also  very  plain,  with  a  small 
chancel,  nave,  with  pews  and  galleries. 
Over  the  altar  is  a  painting  respecting 
Elijah  raising  the  widow's  son,  a  good 
work  of  R.  Westall,  R.A.  On  the  right 
of  the  altar  is  a  marble  mural  monument 
in  memory  of  G.  Gostling,  who  died 
1820,  by  Flaxman,  R.A.  In  this  a  classi- 
cally draped  mourning  female  figure  leans 
against  the  pedestal,  surmounted  by  an 
urn,  and  bearing  a  medallion  bust  of  the 
deceased.  On  the  other  side  of  the 
chancel  this  is  balanced  by  a  corre- 
sponding monument  to  Lydia  Gostling, 
with  the  difference  that  the  female  figure 
is  represented  with  an  anchor  presumably 
intended  for  that  of  Hope.  Above  the 
monument  to  G.  Gostling  is  a  tablet, 
with  three  figures  in  alto  relievo,  to  other 
members  of  the  Gostling  family,  from 
the  chisel  of  E.  H.  Baily,  R.A.  High  on 
the  east  wall,  under  the  south  gallery,  is 
a  brass  with  four  kneeling  figures,  and 
the  inscription  :  "  Anthony e  Bond,  gent., 


60 


once  cittezen  and  writer  of  the  Court 
Letter  of  London,  1576  : 

Christ  is  to  me  as  lyef  on  earthe  and  death  to 

me  is  gayne 
Because  I  wish  through  him  alone  saluacione 

to  obtayne 
So  bryttle  is  the  state  of  man  so  soone  yt  dothe 

decaye 
So  all  the  glory  of  this  world  must  pas  and  vade 

away. 

Close  by  is  a  tablet  to  the  memory  of 
the  Rev.  T.  Beighton,  45  years  vicar  of 
Egham,  who  died  1771,  with  an  epitaph 
signed  D.  Garrick  : 

Near  half  an  age,  with  every  good  man's  praise, 
Among  his  flock  the  shepherd  pass'd  his  days  ; 
The  friend,  the  comfort,  of  the  sick  and  poor, 
Want  never  knock'd  unheeded  at  his  door. 
Oft  when  his  duty  call'd,  disease  and  pain 
Strove  to  confine  him^but  they  strove  in  vain  : 
All  mourn  his  death,  his  virtues  long  they  try'd, 
They  knew  not  how  they  lov'd  him  till  he  dy'd  ; 
Peculiar  blessings  did  his  life  attend, 
He  had  no  foe,  and  Camden  was  his  friend. 

The  great  little  David's  "Camden  was 
his  friend "  has  a  considerable  family 
resemblance  to  the  oft-quoted  epitaph 
which  records  how  the  deceased  "was 
first  cousin  to  Lady  O'Looney  and  of 
such  is  the  kingdom  of  Heaven."  Dr. 
Johnson  pronounced  this  to  be  the  best 
epitaph  in  the  English  language,  but 
then  even  Dr.  Johnson  was  not  always 
right.  On  the  east  wall,  under  the  north 
gallery,  is  a  curious  painted  marble  bust 
of  Thomas  Foster,  a  justice  of  the  Com- 
mon Bench  in  the  times  of  James  I.  and 
Charles  I.  and  II.,  afterwards  of  the 
Queen's  Bench.  The  learned  judge  wears 
a  red  tippet  and  a  chain,  and  on  his 
flowing  locks  is  a  flat  cap,  presumably 
the  black  cap.  He  died  in  1663,  aged  74, 
Hard  by  is  a  tablet  to  Richard  Kellefet, 
J595»  " a  most  faithfvll  servant  to  hir 
majestie,  chief  groome  in  hir  removing 
Garderobe  of  beddes  and  yeoman  also  of 
her  standing  Garderobe  of  Richmount." 
On  the  wall  of  the  stairs  to  the  north 
gallery  is  a  very  good  and  interesting 
monument  to  the  two  wives  of  Sir  John 
Denham,  father  of  the  poet  :  Cicile  (for- 
merly wife  of  Richard  Kellefet),  and 
Ellenor,  who  died  in  childbed  of  a 
daughter  who  was  buried  with  her.  The 
monument  is  of  stone  and  marble,  with 
two  three-quarter  length  female  figures 
in  the  centre.  One  of  these,  Cicile,  no 
doubt,    still  wears  widow's    mourning  ; 


while  Lady  Ellenor,  who  was  married  to 
Sir  John  Denhani  when  he  was  Chief 
Justice  in  Ireland,  is  represented  with  a 
child  in  her  arms.  Below  is  an  odd  little 
painted  figure  of  a  boy,  possibly  intended 
for  the  poet  himself.  In  the  churchyard 
is  an  elevated  granite  grave,  where  a 
Mrs.  Pocock  lies  above  ground,  it  is 
said  to  ensure  to  her  survivors  some 
property  which  was  to  be  held  by  them 
"so  long  as  she  should  be  above  ground." 

On  the  left  of  the  road  to  Stroude  is  a 
stone  marking  the  old  Roman  road. 

Strode's  Charity,  Egham,  is  an  institu- 
tion consisting  of  almshouses  and  school, 
founded  by  Henry  Strode,  Esq.,  in  the 
year  1747,  and  liberally  endowed  by  him 
with  landed  property,  of  which  he  made 
the  Coopers'  Company  of  London  trustees. 
The  institution  includes  almshouses, 
school,  chapel,  master's  house,  with 
spacious  lawn  and  gardens,  and,  opening 
to  the  High-street,  is  one  of  the  principal 
ornaments  of  the  thriving  town  of  Egham. 
The  benefits  of  Strode's  Charity  are  con- 
fined to  the  parish. 

Bank.— Ashby  &  Co. 

Dispensary.— High-street. 

Fair. — May  29. 

Hospital.  — Cottage  Hospital,  Egham- 
hill  (eight  beds). 

Inns.  — "Angler's  Rest,"  Bell  Weir 
Lock  ;  "  Catherine  Wheel,"  High-street. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  John  the 
Baptist  and  St.  Jude's  Chapel  of  Ease  ; 
and  Congregational  &  Wesleyan  Chapels. 

Police.— Station,  Egham-hill. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  High-street,  opposite 
church.  Mails  from  London,  7  and  10.5 
a.m.  and  4.55  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  7  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  8.40  and  n  a.m.,  3.10 
and  7.15  p.m. ;  Sunday,  7.15  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges  (from  Bell  Weir 
Lock),  up,  Albert  3J miles  ;  down,  Staines 
about  1  mile.  Locks,  up,  Old  Windsor 
3  miles :  down,  Penton  Hook  2f  miles. 
Railway  Station,  Egham. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  :  1st,  3/8,  $\6 ;  2nd, 
2/6,  4/-;  3rd,  1/9,  3/3. 

Embankments.— (See  Albert  Em- 
bankment, Chelsea,  and  Victoria 
Embankment). 

Erith,  Kent,  on  the  right  bank.  From 
London  i6|  miles. — A  station  on  the 
North  Kent  line  15J  miles  from  Charing 


61  EGH— ERl 

Cross ;  trains  take  about  an  hour.  The 
straight  road  from  the  station  to  the  river 
is  about  300  yards,  and  the  pier  is  distant 
ten  minutes'  walk.  A  fly  meets  the  trains. 
Population,  8,289.  The  soil  is  principally 
gravel  and  chalk.  Erith  is  not  a  parti- 
cularly interesting  village,  lying  in  the 
bight  between  Erith  Reach  and  Erith 
Rands.  It  faces  the  flat  marshes  of 
Essex,  but  the  country  behind  it  is  pretty 
and  well  wooded,  affording  many  pretty 
walks  in  a  pleasant  part  of  Kent.  There 
are  few  good  houses  in  the  old  part  of 
the  village,  but  a  good  deal  of  building, 
principally  of  villas,  has  of  late  years  been 
going  on  above  the  station,  and  this  is 
the  most  desirable  part  of  Erith  for 
residential  purposes.  There  is  a  small 
pier  which  is  occasionally  used  by  the 
steamboats,  and  an  attempt  at  an  espla- 
nade and  garden  was  at  one  time  made, 
by  private  enterprise,  along  the  river  bank 
to  the  eastward,  but  it  cannot  be  said 
that  the  effort  was  crowned  with  success. 
The  principal  importance  of  Erith,  from 
the  river  point  of  view,  is  that  it  is  a 
popular  Thames  yachting  station,  the 
headquarters  of  the  Erith  and  Corinthian 
Yacht  Clubs,  and  a  favourite  point  for 
starting  sailing  matches. 

There  is  a  public  hall  in  Pier-road, 
capable  of  seating  over  600  persons,  which 
can  be  hired  for  balls,  concerts,  dramatic 
and  other  entertainments,  public  meet- 
ings, &c.  ;  terms  for  hire  may  be  obtained 
of  the  secretary.  The  Avenue  Hall  is 
in  connection  with  the  Congregational 
Church,  and  is  used  for  classes,  lectures, 
&c,  having  sitting  room  for  about  200 
persons.  There  is  also  a  Masonic  Hall 
(in  the  Pier-road),  seating  250,  which  is 
fully  licensed  for  music,  dancing,  &c. 
The  "Cornwallis  "  Lodge  of  Masons  meets 
here. 

The  parish  church  (St.  John  the  Bap- 
tist) is  noteworthy  for  its  ancient  tower, 
now  elaborately  shored  up,  and  for  some 
interesting  monuments  and  brasses.  The 
most  important  of  the  former  is  the  monu- 
ment of  Chantrey  to  Lord  Eardley  and 
the  altar-tomb  of  the  Countess  of  Shrews- 
bury (1568).  The  brasses  of  John  Aylmer 
and  his  wife  (1435),  of  John  Mylner  and 
"  Margaret  and  Benet  his  wyves"  (1511), 
and,  earliest  of  all,  that  to  the  memory 
of  Roger  Sender  (1425),  will  interest  the 
antiquary.  The  old  steps  to  the  rood- 
screen    are    curious.      In    the    Norman 


ERI— ETO 


62 


chancel  of  this  church  took  place  the 
meeting  between  the  Barons  and  the 
Commissioners  of  King  John  after  the 
grant  of  Magna  Charta. 

BANK. — London  and  County. 

Fire. — The  engine-house  is  in  the 
Avenue-road,  not  far  from  the  pier. 

Hospital.— Cottage  Hospital,  Cray- 
ford-road.  8  beds.  With  this  is  con- 
nected the  Provident  Dispensary,  with 
1,500  members. 

Hotel. — "  Prince  of  Wales,"  Avenue- 
road. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  John  the 
Baptist,  and  Christ  Church  ;  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church  of  St.  Fidelis,  and 
Congregational,  Baptist,  Primitive  Metho- 
dist, and  Wesleyan  Chapels. 

Police-station. — Bexley-road,  near 
railway-station. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
insurance),  High-street.  Mails  from 
London  at  8  and  11.30  a.m.,  3.30  and 
7  p.m.,  and  (Saturdays)  9.30  p.m.  None 
on  Sunday.  Mails  for  London  at  8.40 
and  11.20  a.m.,  4.55,  8.55,  and  10.50 
p.m.     Sunday,  10.20  p.m. 

Fares  to  London  (Charing-cross):  1st, 
2/6,  3/9 ;  2nd,  1/10,  2/9 ;  3rd,  1/3,  2/3. 

Erith  Rands,  a  mile  ?nd  a  half  in 
length  from  Erith  to  Crayfordness  at  the 
top  of  Long  Reach.  There  is  a  ferry  from 
Erith  to  Cold  Harbour  Point  opposite. 
The  Rand  Hill  Shoal  is  in  the  middle  of 
the  reach.   Bearings,  E.S.E.  and  W.N. W. 

Erith  Reach  runs  for  a  mile  and  a 
half  from  Halfway  Reach  to  Erith. 
Bearings,  N.N.E.  and  S.S.W. 

Erith  Yacht  Club,  Headquarters, 
Club  House,  Yacht  Gypsy,  Erith.— The 
object  of  this  club  is  the  encouragement 
of  amateur  yacht  sailing.  It  is  managed 
by  commodore,  vice-commodore,  rear- 
commodore,  treasurer,  secretary,  and  a 
committee  of  thirteen,  all  of  whom  are 
elected  in  February.  Election  is  invested 
in  the  committee.  Annual  subscription, 
£1  15-.;  entrance,  £1  IS.  Yachts  of  10 
tons  entered  for  club  races  must  have  the 
Yacht  Racing  Association  certificate  of 
measurement.  Yachts  under  10  tons  are 
measured  according  to  the  R.T.Y.C. 
rule.  Burgee  red,  with  red  Maltese  cross 
on  white  shield. 

Eton,  Bucks,  on  the  left  bank,  from 
Oxford  68^  miles,  from  London  43  miles. 


Population,  3,500.    But  for  its  connection 
with  the  greatest  public  school  in  England, 
Eton  is  a  place  of  but  little  importance. 
In  1800,  Mark  Antony  Porney  bequeathed 
funds  for  the  education  of  45  boys  and  45 
girls.     Porney's  Institution  is  now  com- 
bined with  the  National  School  for  the 
children  of  the  parish  of  Eton  and  Eton 
Wick.     There  is  also  a  charity  called  the 
Eton  Poor  Estate,  for  apprenticing  seven 
or  eight  boys  from  the  Free  School  in 
each  year.     Eton  College  should  by  all 
means  be   seen.     The  oldest  portion  of 
the  buildings  dates  from  1523,  and  com- 
prises two  quadrangles  and  the  cloisters. 
What  is  known  as  Upper  School  is  on 
the  west,  on  an  arcade  by  Sir  Christopher 
Wren  ;    on  the   south   is   the   chapel,  a 
beautiful  building  in   the  perpendicular 
style,  greatly  resembling  that  at  King's 
College,     Cambridge,     to     which     Eton 
College  was   affiliated    by  its    founder, 
King  Henry  VI.     The  chapel  and  ante- 
chapel  contain  the  tombs  of  many  cele- 
brated personages  ;   a  marble  statue  of 
the  founder,  by  Bacon  ;  and  monuments 
to   Provosts   Goodall    and    Sir  Thomas 
Murray.     The  glass  in  the  east  window 
is  by  Willement.      There   are  two  me- 
morial windows  to  Etonians  who  perished 
in  the  Crimea.      There   are   also  a  few 
brasses  dating  from  1489.     The  College 
Library  contains   over    20,000  volumes, 
and  is  strong  in  ancient  MSS.     North  of 
the  college   are    the    extensive  playing- 
fields  divided  by  Poet's  Walk,  and  bor- 
dered by  the  Thames.     To  describe  the 
manners  and  customs  of  Eton  boys  pro- 
perly would  occupy  much  more  space 
than  could  here  be  afforded.     Any  one 
desirous    of    knowing    all    about    Eton 
College  should  turn  to  the  pages  of  Mr. 
Maxwell  Lyte's  admirable   history  pub- 
lished by  Messrs.  Macmillan.     A  bright 
little  book,  called  "A  Day  of  My  Life  at 
Eton,"  will  also  be  found  amusing  and 
instructive. 

The  following  statement  of  fees,  &c, 
is  given  on  the  authority  of  "  Cassell's 
Educational  Year  Book,"  but  with  refer- 
ence to  collegers,  it  may  be  observed  that, 
in  answer  to  a  question,  one  of  the  officials 
of  the  college  writes  :  "The  cost  to  the 
parent  of  a  colleger  would  be  for  school 
expenses  under  ^30.  The  other  expenses 
are  optional,  and  consist  of  tradesmen's 
accounts  for  clothing,  washing,  &c.  At 
an  average,   these  expenses  amount  to 


about  ^30,  making  about  ^60  in  all." 
As  modified  by  recent  statutes,  the  Col- 
lege Foundation  will  consist  of  provost, 
head  master,  lower  master,  not  under 
seventy  scholars  and  two  chaplains.  The 
endowment  is  said  to  be  over  ^20,000 
a  year.  Foundationers  or  "  Collegers  : " 
about  twelve  vacancies  a  year.  Election 
on  last  Monday  in  July.  Candidates 
must  be  between  twelve  and  fifteen.  For 
permission  to  compete  apply  to  the  clerk 
to  the  Governing  Body.  Competitive 
examination  of  candidates.  A  Foundation 
Scholarship  is  tenable  till  election  next 
following  scholar's  nineteenth  birthday. 
Foundation  scholars  are  educated  and 
lodged  in  college  during  term  at  the 
expense  of  the  college  ;  other  expenses  are 
purely  personal.  Oppidans  ("Town 
Boys"):  admission,  ten  to  fourteen.  En- 
trance examination  determining  boys' 
places  in  school.  By  fifteen,  an  Oppidan 
must  have  reached  the  fourth  form,  and 
by  sixteen  and  a  half  the  fifth  form,  ex- 
cept for  reasons  satisfactory  to  the  head 
master,  and  an  Oppidan  may  remain  in 
school  after  nineteen,  except  for  similar 
special  reasons.  Board  and  Fees  :  Oppi- 
dans may  live  with  parents  or  guardians  ; 
or  they  may,  with  special  permission  of 
the  Governing  Body,  obtained  on  written 
application  to  the  head  master,  lodge  with 
other  persons.  Otherwise,  they  are  lodged 
and  boarded  in  masters'  houses,  where 
each  boy  is  provided  with  a  separate 
room ;  two  brothers  may,  on  request  of 
parents  or  guardians,  share  the  same 
room.  Entrance  fee  (on  admission  to 
the  school)  ^10  10s.  Annual  payment 
to  the  School  Fund,  ^24.  Board  and 
lodging  in  most  houses,  100  guineas ;  in 
a  few  ^90  or  90  guineas.  Use  of  furni- 
ture, £2,  a  term.  Private  classical  tuition, 
20  guineas  a  year.  These  charges  include 
books,  stationery,  and  the  usual  sub- 
scriptions. Boys  learning  German  or 
Italian  before  reaching  mid-division  of 
the  fifth  form  pay  ^3  10s.  a  term  extra. 
Other  expenses  are  purely  personal. 
Scholarships  and  Exhibition :  I.  Tenable 
at  School.  As  soon  as  funds  permit,  ex- 
hibitions worth  ^50  a  year  will  be  offered 
to  the  competition  of  boys  between  four- 
teen and  sixteen .  Tenable  till  election  to 
foundation  or  till  nineteen.  II.  Tenable 
after  leaving:  "  Newcastle  "  Scholarship, 
/50  for  three  years,  tenable  at  either 
University.     Two  "Chamberlayne"  Ex- 


63  ETO— EWE 

hibitions,  ^50  for  four  years.  "Reynolds" 
Exhibitions,  ^48  for  four  years  at  Exetel 
College,  Oxford.  "Berriman"  Exhibi- 
tion, and  several  others,  with  two  post- 
masterships  at  Merton  College,  Oxford, 
tenable  for  four  years.  Vacant  scholar- 
ships and  exhibitions  are  decided  annually 
in  July,  by  an  examination  of  the  hundred 
highest  boys  in  the  school.  Three  or 
four  scholarships  at  King's  College,  Cam- 
bridge, are  open  yearly  to  competition  of 
Foundationers  and  Oppidans  alike. 

Hotels. — "Bridge  House,"  "Christo- 
pher," and  "Crown  and  Cushion." 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  John  the 
Evangelist. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph). 
Week-day  mails  from  London,  7  and 
10.30  a.m.,  2.30  and  6  p.m.  Mails  for 
London,  8.35  and  10.50  a.m.,  1.35,  3.50, 
9.25   p.m.     Sunday,  9.30  p.m. 

Nearest.—  (See  Windsor.) 

Fares.— (See  Windsor.) 

Eton  College  Boat  Club  consists  of 
92  members.  The  Monarch,  ten  oar, 
Victory,  and  Prince  of  Wales,  compose 
the  Upper  boats ;  Britannia,  Dread- 
nought, Thetis,  Hibernia,  St.  George, 
Alexandra,  and  Defiance  the  Lower 
boats.  The  Eton  eight  is  chosen  from 
the  best  oars  amongst  these  ooats,  and 
enters  at  Henley  for  the  Ladies'  Plate, 
and  sometimes  for  the  Grand  Challenge 
Cup.  Eton  has  won  the  Ladies'  Plate 
eight  times.  The  boating  season  com- 
mences with  the  1st  of  March,  and  ends 
with  the  end  of  the  summer  half.  Mr. 
C.  Barclay .  is'  Captain  of  the  Eton 
College  Boat  Club  for  1885.  Boat-houses 
just  above  Windsor  Bridge.  Colours  of 
the  eight,  light  blue,  white  cap. 

Eton  Excelsior  Boat  Club. — Elec- 
tion is  in  general  meeting  ;  three  black 
balls  in  five  exclude.  Entrance  fee,  $s.  ; 
subscription,  £1  ioj.,  in  three  monthly 
instalments  ;  hon.  members,  ioj-.  6d. 
Boat-house,  Goodman's.  Colours,  dark 
blue  and  amber. 

Ewelme,  a  village  in  Oxfordshire 
(excursion  from  Bensington  2  miles,  or 
from  Wallingford  4  miles).  Population, 
about  750.  The  road  to  Ewelme  from 
Wallingford  passes  through  Crowmarsh 
and  Bensington,  and  affords  a  pleasant 
drive  or  walk  along   leafy   roads,   and 


EWE-EWE  64 

past  many  good  houses.  Ewelme  itself 
is  a  very  pretty  little  village  in  a  hollow, 
and  gives  its  name  to  the  hundred  in 
which  it  is  situated,  and  is  formed  by  the 
combination  of  two  words,  one  Norman 
and  the  other  Saxon,  "Eau"  and 
"whelm,"  meaning  "the  outgush  of 
water,"  a  beautifully  clear  stream  of 
water  taking  its  rise  near  the  church. 
Chaucer,  whose  son  owned  the  manor 
by  his  marriage  with  Maud  ne'e  Burghersh, 
must  frequently  have  been  at  Ewelme, 
and  he  seems  to  have  had  this  stream  of 
water  in  his  mind,  as  also  the  name  of 
the  place  when  he  thus  describes  a  brook  ; 

In  world  is  none  more  clear  of  hewe, 
Its  waters  ever  fresh  and  newe, 
That  whelmeth  up  in  waves  bright, 
Its  mountenance  three  fingers  height. 

The  church  stands  on  a  hill,  and  is 
approached  from  the  road  through  an 
old  brick  gateway,  and  through  the 
cloisters  of  the  almshouses,  picturesque 
with  their  timbered  brick  walls,  high  red 
roofs,  and  elaborate  wood  carvings.  A 
flight  of  steep  steps  leads  thence  to  the 
west  door  of  the  church. 

The  church  is  of  the  perpendicular 
period,  and  contains  many  monuments 
of  great  beauty  and  interest.  Among 
these  is  the  alabaster  tomb  of  Alice, 
Duchess  of  Suffolk,  widow  of  the  un- 
fortunate Duke  who  was  beheaded  by  a 
skipper  with  a  rusty  sword  on  Dover 
beach  in  Henry  VI. 's  reign.  This  is 
placed  between  the  chancel  and  side 
chapel  of  St.  John,  and  is  surrounded  by 
small  full-length  angels  bearing  heraldic 
shields.  The  effigy  of  the  duchess  re- 
clines under  a  canopy,  and  below,  in  a 
sort  of  crypt,  is  an  ogglesome  representa- 
tion of  a  mouldering  human  body.  The 
curious  stone  carvings  above  the  tomb 
are  surmounted  by  pinnacles  with  angels 
— four  on  each  side.  The  tomb  of  her 
father,  Thomas  Chaucer,  and  his  wife 
Maud  (whose  sister  Margaret  was  third 
wife  of  John  of  Gaunt,  and  therefore 
aunt  by  marriage  of  King  Richard  II., 
and  by  virtue  of  which  alliance  the  royal 
arms  are  displayed  in  many  of  the  quar- 
terings  emblazoned  upon  the  tomb)  is  on 
the  north  side.  The  two  figures  are  on 
an  inlaid  brass  in  fine  preservation,  he  in 
complete  armoui  standing  on  a  unicorn, 
she  on  a  lion  rampant  a  queue  fourchee, 
the  Burghersh   device.      The  church  is 


dedicated  to  the  Blessed  Virgin,  and  the 
side   chapel,   with    its    beautiful    carved 
walnut  (or  chestnut)  roof,   to   St.  John 
the  Baptist.     This  south  chapel  and  the 
south  aisle  belong  to  the  thirteen  alms- 
men who  inhabit  the  hospital,  and  receive 
ios.  weekly  with  apartments.     The  hos- 
pital is  a  venerable   cloistered  building, 
adjoining  the   church,    founded    by   the 
Duke  and  Duchess  of  Suffolk,  and  en- 
dowed with   valuable   estates   in   Wilts, 
Hants,  and  Bucks.     It  is  intended  that 
these  shall  form  the  basis  of  a  grammar 
school,   when    the   property   shall    have 
recovered  from  the  improvident  manage- 
ment  of    four  centuries.      The    Regius 
Professor  of  Physic,  Oxford,  is,  ex  officio, 
master  of  the  hospital,  with  a  council  of 
twelve  other  trustees,  according  to   the 
provisions   of  a  scheme  framed  by  the 
Court  of  Chancery  in  i860.     The  manor- 
house,   when   the   Suffolk   property  was 
escheated  to  the  Crown,  became  a  royal 
residence  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII. 
and  of  Elizabeth.     A  road  overhanging 
the  common  is    still    known  as   Queen 
Elizabeth's  Walk.     On  the  attainder  ot 
Edmund,  Earl  of  Suffolk,  in  the  reign  of 
Henry   VIII.,   the    advowson    with    the 
manor  passed  into  the  possession  of  the 
Crown.    James  I.,  famed  for  inexpensive 
acts  of  generosity,  endowed  the  Regius 
Professorship  of  Divinity  in  the  University 
of  Oxford  with  the  Rectory  of  Ewelme, 
and  entailed   upon  the  parishioners   for 
two  centuries  and  a  half  a  series  of  digni- 
fied but  non-resident  rectors.     In  1871  a 
short  Act  was   passed  in  the  House  of 
Commons,    whereby    the    Rectory    was 
severed  once  more  from  the  Professorship, 
and  opened  out  for  the  acceptance  of  any 
Clergyman  of  the  Church  of  England. 
But  the   House   of  Lords   took  a  more 
restrictive  view  and  made  it  tenable  only 
by  members  of  the  Oxford  Convocation. 
The     church     contains     many    brasses. 
Among  these  may  be  mentioned  that  in 
the  St.  John's  Chapel,   in  front  of  the 
altar,  to  Anne,  wife  of  John  fTroste,  1585; 
that  to  Catherine  Palmer,    1599,   in  the 
north  of  the  chancel ;  and  that  dedicated 
to  "Rodolpho  Speiro,  qui  obiit,  1580," 
which  bears  a  coat  of  arms  and  Latin 
epitaph,    and  will  be  found  just  within 
the  painted  iron  rood  screen.     Of  older 
date  still  is  one  representing  the  figures 
of  a  knight  (once  pursuivant  at-arms  to 
King  Henry  Vlll.)  and  lady,  dated  1518. 


Fifteenth-century  brasses  are  represented 
by  that  of  William  Branvvhait,  a  half- 
length  in  cope,  &c.,  dated  1498  ;  and  one 
in  the  extreme  west  of  the  south  aisle, 
dated  1454.  In  the  middle  of  the  nave 
is  a  brass  of  Samuel  Brayle  with  inscrip- 
tion only,  dated  1469 ;  and  in  the  north 
aisle  is  another,  with  inscription  to 
Thomas  Vernon,  1471. 

Place  of  Worship.— Church  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order  and  savings  bank)  in  the 
village.  Mails,  through  Wallingford, 
arrive  at  7.30  a.m.  and  2.30  p.m.  ;  dis- 
patched at  6.30  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Lack,'-  arid  Railway 
Station,  Wallingford,  4  miles  (which  see). 

Excursions.— (See  Great  Western 
Railway  and  London  and  South 
Western  Railway.  ) 

Exmouth  Training  Ship.  Grays 
Thurrock.  Commander,  Captain  Bour- 
chier,  R.N.,  formerly  Captain-Superin- 
tendent of  the  Goliath.  (Office,  37,  Nor- 
folk Street,  W.C.).— On  the  destruction 
by  fire,  in  December,  1875,  of  the  Goliath 
training  ship,  which  had  been  founded 
and  carried  on  by  three  out  of  the  thirty 
London  Unions  for  about  six  years,  the 
managers  of  the  Metropolitan  Asylum 
Board,  at  the  request  of  the  Local  Govern- 
ment  Board,  undertook  to  provide  and 
manage  a  training  ship,  in  the  advantages 
of  which  the  whole  of  the  metropolitan 
unions  and  parishes  were  to  be  entitled 
to  participate,  and  towards  the  expenses 
of  which  all  now  contribute.  The  object 
of  the  ship,  which  provides  accommoda- 
tion for  600  lads,  is  to  take  healthy  and 
otherwise  suitable  boys,  from  the  ages  of 
12  to  15,  from  the  Metropolitan  Poor 
Law  schools,  educate  them,  and  train 
them  for  service  in  either  the  Royal  Navy, 
Army,  or  mercantile  marine. 

Eynsham,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left 
bank,  distant  from  Oxford  about  7  miles, 
a  station  on  the  Great  Western  Railway, 
o  miles  from  Paddington,  the  time 
occupied  by  the  fast  trains  being  about 
2J  hours.  Eynsham  is  a  sufficiently  un- 
interesting little  town  ;  situated  on  a  hill, 
about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the 
river,  which  is  here  spanned  by  a  hand- 
some bridge ;  and,  except  as  a  centre  for 
excursions,  headquarters  for  anglers,  or 
a    resting-place    for  oarsmen   travelling 


65  EWE— FIS 

between  Cricklade  and  Oxford,  offers  no 
attraction  to  the  visitor.  The  church  of 
St.  Leonard  is  an  old  stone  building  of 
considerable  size,  with  a  square  embattled 
tower,  and  presents  many  varieties  of 
architecture  to  the  examination  of  the 
student.  The  interior,  which  contains 
several  mural  monuments  and  a  brass  of 
1632,  is  chiefly  remarkable  for  the  arches 
which  divide  the  nave  from  the  aisles. 
There  are  also  Baptist  and  Methodist 
places  of  worship  in  the  town.  The  soil 
is  various,  and  the  population  about 
2,200. 

Fire. — Engine  opposite  the  church. 

Hotels.— "The  Swan"  and  "  Red 
Lion." 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings'  bank,  and  tele- 
graph), opposite  the  church.  Mails  from 
London  (via  Oxford)  6.48  a.m.,  12.30 
p.m.  Mails  for  London,  10.40  a.m.,  9p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Langley's  (or 
Ridge's  Weir)  foot,  about  7  miles,  and  New 
Bridge,  a  mile  farther;  down,  Godstow, 
2J  miles.  Locks,  up,  Pinkhill,  rather  more 
than  a  mile ;  down,  Godstow,  near  the 
bridge.    Ferry,  Bablock  Hithe,  3J  miles. 

Fares. — From  Eynsham  to  Padding- 
ton, 1st,  12/8, 21/3;  2nd, 9/6, 16/-;  3rd,  5/10. 

Falcon  Rowing  Club,  Oxford.— 
Number  of  members  not  limited.  Elec- 
tion by  ballot  of  general  meeting,  one 
black  ball  in  three  excludes.  Members 
proposed  and  seconded  at  one  meeting 
and  balloted  for  at  the  next,  except  in 
the  boating  season,  when  names  of  candi- 
dates are  posted  in  the  Barge  for  six  clear 
days  before  the  meeting  for  election. 
Headquarters,  King's  Arms  Hotel.  En- 
trance fee,  2S.  6d.  ;  subscription,  £1  ; 
honorary  members,  5s.  Colours,  black, 
blue,  and  yellow. 

Fish  Dinners.— The  typical  fish 
dinner  of  London  is  the  extraordinary 
entertainment  offered  at  Greenwich — 
perhaps  the  most  curious  repast  ever 
invented  by  the  ingenuity  of  the  most 
imaginative  hotel-keeper.  Many  courses 
of  fish  prepared  in  every  conceivable  way, 
followed  by  ducks  and  peas,  beans  and 
bacon,  cutlets,  and  other  viands,  so 
arranged  as  to  stimulate  a  pleasing,  if 
somewhat  expensive  thirst,  are  washed 
down  at  these  Gargantuan  feeds  by  the 
choicest  brands  at  the  highest  prices 
known  to  civilisation.     The  effect  at  the 

C 


FIS-FIS  66 

moment  is  eminently  delightful.  The 
sensation  experienced  when  the  bill  is 
produced  is  not  so  pleasurable,  and  it 
has  been  said  that  there  is  no  "next 
morning  headache "  like  that  which 
follows  a  Greenwich  dinner.  But  there 
is  no  doubt  that  a  Greenwich  dinner  is  a 
very  excellent  thing  in  its  way — especially 
if  you  happen  to  be  invited  to  dine  by  a 
liberal  friend,  who  knows  how  to  order 
it,  and  pay  for  it.  Only  two  houses  can 
be  recommended  for  this  kind  of  sport — 
the  "Trafalgar"  and  the  "Ship."  It 
may  be  noted  that  when  the  labours  of 
the  session  are  over,  the  Ministers  of  the 
Crown  dine  at  the  "Ship,"  and  con- 
gratulate each  other  on  their  continued 
existence  in  office.  A  fish  dinner  of 
quite  a  different  class,  at  which  eleven 
kinds  of  fish,  and  a  selection  of  joints 
are  included  in  the  bill  of  fare,  is  served 
twice  a  day — at  i  and  4— at  the  "  Three 
Tuns  Tavern,"  Billingsgate,  at  2s.  But 
although  the  price  is  low,  and  the  accom- 
modation a  little  rough,  the  dinner  is 
excellent.  Saturday  afternoon  during 
the  winter  months,  or  in  the  very  early 
spring,  may  be  specially  recommended 
for  this  excursion.  The  flavour  of  the 
old-fashioned  tavern  dinner  and  after- 
dinner  entertainment  still  hangs  about 
Billingsgate.  A  good  fish  dinner  is  also 
to  be  had  at  Purfleet  during  the  season. 

Fishermen.— The  Editor  of  this  Dic- 
tionary has  been  asked  in  so  many 
quarters  to  insert  a  list  of  trustworthy 
fishermen  at  the  various  fishing-stations, 
that  the  following  list  is  given.  As  the 
Editor  could  not  accept  the  responsibility 
of  himself  recommending  men,  unless 
personally  known  to  him,  the  list  has 
been  taken  from  the  report  of  the 
Thames  Angling  Preservation  Society, 
and  has  been  kindly  corrected  by  Mr. 
W.  H.  Brougham,  the  excellent  secre- 
tary. The  names  marked  with  an 
asterisk  are  those  of  men  employed 
as  bailiffs  and  under-bailiffs  by  the 
Angling  Associations  of  their  respective 
districts. 

Bray  :  George  Chapman. 

Chertsey  :  W.  Galloway,  T.  Taylor, 
jun.,  J.  Poulter,  Jas.  Haslett,  and  Henry 
Purss. 

Datchet  :  George  Keene,  G.  Bailey, 
and  *  James  Hoar. 


Goring  and  Streatley  :  *J.  Rush, 
Bartholomew,  J.  Saunders,  and  E.  Miles. 

Halliford  :  T.  Rosewell,  T.  Purdue, 
Edward  Rosewell,  and  E.  S.  Rosewell. 

Hampton  :  W.  Benn  and  Son,  J. 
Langshaw  and  Son. 

Hampton  Ct.  and  East  Molesey: 
W.  Milbourne,  T.  Davis,  J.  Smith,  Thos. 
Watford,  T.  Wheeler,  C  Stone,  C.  Davis, 
G.  Martin,  and  T.  Melbourne. 

Henley  :  W.  Parrott,  Alfred  Parrott, 
Edward  Vaughan,  E.Woodley,  H.  Allum, 
G.  Jerome,  F.  Potter,  and  G.  Hamilton. 

Isleworth  :  W.  Clark. 

Kingston  :  John  Johnson,  senior, 
John  Johnson,  junior,  B.  Pope,  E. 
Stevens,  and  J.  Wilkies. 

Laleham  and  Penton  Hook  :  Alfred 
Harris,  Frank  Harris,  William  Harris, 
and  G.  Harris. 

Maidenhead  and  Taplow  :  *H. 
Wilder,  *J.  Gill,  and  *G.  Winn. 

Marlow  :  Jas.  Hatch,  George  White, 
*R.  Shaw,  *T.  White,  W.  Shaw,  *Jas. 
White,  *H.  Rockell,  W.  Thorpe,  J. 
Sparkes,  George  Coster,  and  T.  Barnes. 

Moulsford  :  Frank  Strange,  Dawson, 
Cox,  and  Swadling. 

Oxford  :  A.  Beesley,  P.  Beesley,  and 
D.  Talboy. 

Pangbourne  :  G.  Ashley,  W.  David- 
son, R.  Albury,  F.  Albury,*T.  Lovegrove, 
and  J.  Champ. 

Reading  :  *R.  Mills,  *W.  Clarke,  *H. 
Knight,  Oldway,  W.  Moss,  and  J.  P. 
Hall. 

Richmond  :  G.  Howard,  J.  Bushnell, 
H.  Howard,  C.  Brown,  J.  Brown,  H. 
Wheeler,  Job  Brain,  H.  Mansell,  and  T. 
Young. 

Shepperton:  W.  Rogerson,  G.  Rose- 
well, A.  Purdue,  F.  Purdue,  G.  Purdue, 
and  D.  Hackett. 

Sonning  :  *W.  Hull,  *E.  S.  Lockley, 
and  J.  James  Bromley. 

Staines  :  T.  Fletcher,  J.  Keene,  senr., 
1.  Keene,  junr.,  Charles  Hone,  and  J. 
Tims. 

Sunbury  :  Thomas  Stroud,  Alfred 
Stroud,  J.  Stroud,  and  Edward  Clarke 
and  Sons. 

Teddington  :  Alexander  Kemp, 
Francis  Kemp,  T.  Sawyer,  Joseph  Bald- 


win,  B.  Stevens,  W.  Baldwin,  J.  Stevens, 
C.  Baldwin,  and  E.  Cripps. 
Thames  Ditton  and  Long  Ditton  : 

E.  Tagg,  A.  Tagg,   B.    Buttery,  and  H. 
C.  Hammerton. 

Twickenham  :  G.  Coxen,  John  Coxen, 
S.  Cole,  J.  Brand,  H.  Chamberlain,  E. 
Finch,  W.  Francis,  R.  Coxen,  S.  Mesley, 

F.  Coxen,  C.  Hennessey,  R.  Moffatt,  G. 
Chamberlain,  and  P.  Hammerton. 

Wallingford  :  Joseph  Gulston, 
Cloudesley,  T.  Turner,  and  Wm.  Moody. 

Walton  ;  Geo.  Hone,  George 
Rogerson,  Samuel  Rosewell,  G.  Hone, 
jun.,  and  R.  Watford. 

Wargrave  :  W,  Wyatt,  S.  Crampton, 
F.  Wyatt.  T.  King,  and  D.  Brown. 

Weybridge  ;  M.  House,  and  H.  Curr. 

Windsor  :  George  Holland  (Notting- 
ham George),  *James  Grey,  James  Bunce, 
John  Maisey,  junior,  Charles  Kempster, 
George  Plumridge,  Chas.  Smith,  Thomas 
Bunce,  and  George  Smith. 

Fishing,— It  may  be  well  for  the  sake 
of  simplicity  to  divide  the  fisheries  of  the 
Thames  into  three  divisions  :  i.  From 
Isleworth  down  the  river  to  the  Nore  ; 
2.  From  Isleworth  upwards  to  the  Staines 
Stone  ;  the  termination  westward  of  the 
jurisdiction  (including  the  first  division) 
of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Corporation  of 
the  City  of  London  ;  and,  3.  From  the 
Staines  Stone  to  Oxford,  familiarly 
known  as  the  Upper  Thames  waters. 
The  fisheries  below  Isleworth  to  the 
Nore  are  open  to  the  operation  of  the 
net,  regulated  by  certain  rules  and  ordi- 
nances which  are  too  long  to  quote  here, 
and  which  may  be  obtained  at  the  office 
of  the  Thames  Conservatory. 

These  "rules,  orders,  and  ordinan- 
ces "  were  made  law  by  Act  of  Parliament 
in  the  year  1785,  and  being  still  in  force, 
will  serve  to  show  what  was  the  condition 
of  the  fishery  at  that  period,  and  to  con- 
trast it  with  that  of  its  present  state. 
Salmon  have  entirely  ceased  to  enter  its 
waters.  Shad,  once  very  plentiful,  are 
very  rarely  taken.  Smelts,  which  used 
to  come  up  to  spawn  as  high  as  Chiswick 
and  Mortlake,  and  give  profitable  employ- 
ment to  the  fishermen,  are  no  longer  seen 
in  sufficient  numbers  to  pay  for  their 
capture.  Flounders,  common,  and  then 
considered  the  finest  in  England,  are 
almost  extinct ;  and  what  are  taken  seldom 


67  FIS— FIS 

exceed  two  or  three  inches  in  length. 
Soles  and  plaice,  with  the  banks  covered 
with  the  deposit  of  sewage  by  the  outfalls 
at  Crossness  and  Barking,  from  thence  far 
down  towards  the  Nore.  have  left  their 
once  clean,  gravelly  beds  and  scowers  ; 
and  the  fry  of  eels,  which  once  margined 
the  flow  from  the  ocean  far  into  the 
country  with  a  wide  and  dark  line  on 
either  side  of  the  river,  termed  "eel  fair," 
no  longer  attracts  crowds  down  to  the 
river's  banks  with  sieves,  small  mesh 
nets,  &c. ,  to  capture  them  in  thousands 
to  make  a  peculiar  kind  of  fish  cake. 

Lobsters  were  formerly  sufficiently 
numerous  in  the  Thames  to  justify  special 
enactments,  a  fact  not  recognised  at  the 
passing  of  the  Cromer  (Norfolk)  and 
South  Coast  Crab  and  Lobster  Fisheries 
Bills,  which  were  supposed  to  be  an 
innovation  of  a  novel  character  in  ocean 
legislation. 

With  regard  to  the  then,  and  subse- 
quent, presence  of  pike,  jack,  roach, 
perch,  dace,  barbel,  and  gudgeon,  the 
following,  from  angling  works,  will  be 
sufficient  to  prove  the  lamentable  de- 
generacy of  the  sport  of  angling  in  the 
metropolitan  district  and  its  vicinity. 
Salter,  dating  1841,  says  :  ,(It  was  not 
unusual  for  an  expert  angler  to  carry 
away  upwards  of  twenty  dozen  of  fine 
smelts  from  the  angling  stations  about 
Blackwall.  I  have  often  taken  five  or 
six  dozen  before  eight  o'clock  in  the 
morning."  He  likewise  recommends  the 
angler  to  fish  under  and  about  the  star- 
lings of  Battersea,  Westminster,  and 
Blackfriars  bridges.  The  writer  of  this 
has  fished  for  perch,  roach,  and  smelts 
from  the  starlings  of  the  old  London  Bridge 
and  from  a  boat  for  perch,  following  the 
tide,  as  low  as  Limehouse.  So  common 
was  this  practice,  that  a  waterman  in  a 
boat  in  the  Pool  used  to  draw  attention 
to  the  fact  of  his  having  live  shrimps  for 
sale  as  bait  by  the  ringing  of  a  bell. 
Crooked-lane  was  then  thought  to  be 
about  the  centre  of  the  London  angling 
stations,  which  accounts  for  the  congre- 
gation of  fishing-tackle  makers  there, 
which  at  one  period  amounted  to  13  in 
number.  A  favourite  pitch  for  roach  was 
"near  the  bed  of  rushes  off  Temple- 
gardens,"  another  from  Carey's  floating- 
bath  near  Westminster  Bridge,  and  a 
third  was  commanded  by  the  low  wall  of 
Cumberland-gardens,   at    the  mouth   of 

C  2 


FIS-FIS  68 

"the  pretty  river  Ephra,"  now,  alas!  a 
ditch.  In  fact,  little  or  nothing  appears 
to  now  remain  of  the  fishery  of  the  tidal 
waters  but  that  of  whitebait  and  shrimps. 
But  should  the  metropolitan  sewage  be 
carried  to  the  Maplin  Sands,  or  to  any 
point  free  of  contaminating  the  waters  of 
the  Thames,  there  is  every  reason  to 
believe  that  its  once  abundance  of  fish 
will  return  to  its  then  purer  waters.  With 
some,  the  constant  passage  of  steamboats 
is  assigned  as  an  additional  reason  for 
the  absence  of  the  salmon  and  other  fish, 
but  as  there  are  rivers  equally  frequented 
by  these  vessels  in  which  there  appears 
to  be  little,  if  any,  falling  off  in  the  visits 
of  the  salmon,  shad,  bass,  &c,  this 
theory  does  not  receive  much  attention. 

The  East  and  West  India  Docks  and 
the  Commercial  Docks  near  Deptford 
were,  within  a  comparatively  recent  date, 
famous  resorts  for  the  anglers.  Permis- 
sion to  fish  in  the  two  former  were  con- 
sidered a  great  favour,  and  the  tickets 
were  signed  by  the  governors  and  directors 
of  those  companies  ;  the  latter  was,  by 
payment,  only  granted  by  written  applica- 
tion, after  enquiries  had  been  made  in 
reference  to  the  respectability  of  the 
applicant.  The  perch  in  these  docks 
were  particularly  large  and  fine  in  flavour, 
they  obtaining  great  quantities  of  accept- 
able and  fattening  food  from  the  dis- 
charge of  the  various  vessels.  It  is  a 
question  now  whether  a  fish  could  sur- 
vive for  an  hour  in  the  waters,  so  foul 
and  polluted  are  they. 

Many  of  the  fishermen  have  left  the 
river  for  other  more  profitable  pursuits, 
and  there  has  scarcely  been  a  youth 
apprenticed  to  the  calling  of  a  fisherman 
for  the  last  few  years.  When,  however, 
a  flush  of  water  has  brought  down  the 
fish  from  the  preserved  districts  above 
into  the  tidal  way,  unauthorised  persons 
have  entered  into  netting,  apparently 
without  the  fear  of  the  interference  of  the 
authorities.  The  result  being  that,  in 
the  absence  of  supervision,  the  young 
and  fry  of  fish,  particularly  flounders,  are 
taken  of  less  size  than  a  crown  piece,  and 
thus  the  chances  of  the  revival  of  the 
stock  of  these  fish  is  considerably  lessened. 
During  heavy  and  continuous  floods, 
such  as  prevailed  in  the  autumn  and 
winter  of  1878,  and  the  spring  and  summer 
of  1879,  dace  are  met  with  in  shoals  as 
low  as  Putney,  and  then,  if  they  are  not 


immediately  swept  out  with  the  net,  the 
angler  from  the  tow-path,  or  the  fly-fisher 
wading  in  the  shallows  at  low  water,  often 
gets  a  dish  of  these  fish  (see  Whitebait 
and  Sturgeon). 

The  middle  waters  or  lower  angling 
districts  of  the  Thames,  which  extend 
from  Isleworth  to  Staines  Stone,  above 
Staines,  and  near  Bell  Weir,  Egham,  are 
presided  over  and  protected  by  a  very 
energetic  body  under  the  Conservancy 
jurisdiction,  called  the  Thames  Angling 
Preservation  Society,  with  London  offices 
at  7,  Ironmonger  Lane,  E.C.  The  Com- 
mittee, principally  composed  of  practical 
and  experienced  anglers,  meet  on  the 
first  Tuesday  in  each  month  at  three 
o'clock  ;  and  the  secretary,  Mr.  W.  H. 
Brougham,  is  in  attendance  every  Tues- 
day and  Friday  morning  between  the 
hours  of  ten  and  twelve  o'clock,  and 
oftener  when  necessary.  The  society 
dates  from  the  year  1838.  Rules  were 
drawn  up  which  may  be  obtained  of  the 
secretary ;  water-bailiffs  and  watchers 
were  appointed  at  various  stations  be- 
tween Richmond  and  Staines ;  and  fence 
months,  during  which  angling  was  re- 
stricted, were  ordained  for  trout,  from  the 
10th  September  to  the  31st  March.  The 
fence  months  for  pike,  jack,  roach,  dace, 
chub,  barbel,  gudgeon,  &c,  are,  under 
the  provisions  of  Mr.  Mundella's  Act,  41  & 
42  Vict.  chap.  39,  from  the  15th  March 
to  the  15th  June  inclusive.  The  regula- 
tions for  sizable  fish  are  as  follows : 
pike  or  jack,  18  inches ;  trout,  16  inches ; 
barbel,  13  inches  ;  chub,  10  inches  ;  bream, 
10  inches;  carp,  10  inches;  perch,  8  inches; 
tench,  8  inches ;  grayling,  7  inches ; 
roach,  7  inches;  flounders,  7  inches; 
dace,  6  inches ;  rudd,  6  inches ;  gud- 
geon, 4  inches.  The  measurement  is 
the  extreme  length  of  the  fish.  All 
persons  taking  fish  of  less  size  and 
weight  than  those  given  above  are  liable 
to  a  penalty  of  £$  for  each  offence.  The 
powers  given  to  the  river-keepers  are  to 
the  following  effect :  "  To  enter  any  boat, 
vessel,  or  craft  of  any  fisherman  or 
dredgerman,  or  other  person  or  persons 
fishing  or  taking  fish,  or  endeavouring 
to  take  fish  ;  and  there  to  search  for,  take, 
and  seize  all  spawn,  fry,  brood  of  fish, 
and  unsizable,  unwholesome,  or  unseason- 
able fish  ;  and  also  all  unlawful  nets, 
engines,  and  instruments  for  taking  or 
destroying  fish  as  shall  then  be  in  any 


such  boat,  vessel,  or  craft,  in  and  upon 
the  river ;  and  to  take  and  seize  on  the 
shore  or  shores  adjoining  to  the  said  river 
all  unlawful  nets,  engines,  and  instru- 
ments for  taking  and  destroying  fish  as 
shall  there  be  found." 

The  fish  at  present  native  to  the  waters 
above  Teddington  are  trout,  pike,  and 
jack— the  latter  so  named  when  pike  are 
under  31b. — perch,  roach,  dace,  carp, 
chub,  barbel,  tench,  gudgeon,  bleak, 
bream,  eels,  minnows,  pope,  or  ruff  (all 
of  which  see). 

To  those  who  would  enter  more  fully 
into  the  arcana  of  the  art,  we  suggest 
the  careful  perusal  of  Mr.  Francis 
Francis's  "  Book  on  Angling"  (Longman 
&  Co. ),  and  for  yet  more  minute  topo- 
graphical information  regarding  the 
swims,  Greville Fennell's  "Rail and  Rod" 
(Field  Office),  and  "Book  of  the  Roach" 
(Longman  &  Co.). 

Fishmongers'  Company  (The)  have 
built  their  hall  appropriately  on  the  north 
bank  of  the  Thames  at  London  Bridge. 
The  building  is  large  and  imposing,  with- 
out being  able  to  lay  claim  to  actual 
beauty.  Inside,  solid  comfort  rather 
than  elegance  has  been  realised.  The 
rooms  are  lofty  and  spacious,  and  the 
great  hall  is  rich  in  wood-carving  and 
armorial  bearings.  In  one  of  the  rooms 
is  a  capacious  chair,  made  out  of  the 
first  pile  that  was  driven  in  the  construc- 
tion of  Old  London  Bridge.  The  seat  of 
the  chair  is  stone,  part  of  the  stone  in 
fact  on  which  the  pile  rested,  and,  ac- 
cording to  all  accounts,  these  two  inter- 
esting relics  must  have  been  under  water 
for  upwards  of  six  hundred  and  fifty 
years.  Another  curiosity  on  which  the 
Fishmongers  set  much  store  is  the  dagger 
with  which  Sir  W.  Walworth,  Lord 
Mayor,  slew  Wat  .Tyler.  There  is  the 
usual  collection  of  portraits  of  kings 
and  queens  and  benevolent  liverymen, 
amongst  which  may  be  mentioned 
Beechey's  portrait  of  Lord  St.  Vincent  ; 
Mr.  Wells's  full-length  portrait  of  Lord 
Chancellor  Hatherley  in  his  robes  of 
office ;  and  an  exceedingly  fine  bust  in 
marble  of  General  Garibaldi,  who  was  a 
freeman  of  the  Company.  The  bust  is 
the  work  of  Signor  Spertini,  a  Milanese 
sculptor.  The  Fishmongers  used  in 
olden  time  to  be  the  object  of  popular 
rancour.  At  one  period  they  had  to 
appeal  to  the  king  for  protection,  and  in 


FIS— FLO 

1382  Parliament  enacted  that  no  Fish- 
monger should  be  elected  Lord  Mayor. 
Nowadays  they  are  justly  popular  for 
their  works  of  charity  and  excellent 
dinners.  Eighteen  Exhibitions  at  the 
Universities  are  in  the  hands  of  the 
Fishmongers,  and  six  presentations  to 
the  Blue  Coat  School.  As  a  body  the 
Fishmongers  profess  Liberal  opinions  in 
politics. 

Floods. — Many  reasons  have  been 
assigned  for  the  frequency  of  floods 
during  late  years,  amongst  these  are  the 
multiplication  of  locks  and  weirs  and  the 
inattention  of  those  who  have  the  manage- 
ment of  these  "stops"  in  not  letting  the 
inundations  pass  at  proper  times  and 
seasons.  There  may  be  some  truth  in 
this,  but  anyone  conversant  with  the 
Thames  cannot  fail  to  be  impressed  with 
the  fact  that  the  many  mills  on  the 
natural  outlets  of  the  river's  flow  have 
much  to  answer  for.  The  mechanism  of 
these  mills,  particularly  by  the  enlarge- 
ment of  their  undershot  wheels,  permits 
of  their  working  much  longer  during 
floods  than  formerly,  and  it  is  to  the 
interest  of  the  millers  to  keep  the  water 
as  high  as  possible  until  it  is  nearly  over 
the  axle,  and  then,  of  course,  the  power 
becomes  nil.  Then  they  may  be  careless 
of  consequences,  as  they  can  use  steam 
power,  the  larger  mills  having  now  shaft 
and  steam-engine  room  to  resort  to  in 
such  emergency. 

The  floods  below  the  locks  and  mills 
have  very  greatly  increased  during  recent 
years.  But  this  was  not  so  much  the 
case  while  Old  London  Bridge  stood. 
Our  forefathers  appear  to  have  studied 
most  carefully  this  subject  of  inundations, 
which  we  have  evidenced  in  the  building 
of  Old  London  Bridge.  This  structure 
served  the  threefold  purposes  of  weirs, 
mill-dams,  and  locks  ;  the  narrow  arches 
on  the  Southwark  side  were  capable  of 
being  closed  by  gates,  and  those  on  the 
City  side  were  blocked  by  the  water- 
works, which  extended  far  into  the  river. 
Thus  the  flow  of  water  up-stream  could 
be  regulated,  as  the  bridge  served  all  the 
purposes  for  which  it  was  designed.  (See 
E.  W.  Cooke's  etchings  of  Old  London 
Bridge;  Lyson's  "  London,"  &c.)  This 
judicious  obstruction  to  the  flow  occa- 
sioned a  fall  of  from  four  to  six  feet  of 
water  on  the  Pool  side,  the  presence  of 
which  at  certain    tides    influencepl    the 


FLO-GEN  70 

building  of  the  present  bridge  with  wide 
arches,  to  the  consequent  occasion  of  an 
influx  of  water,  which,  meeting  an  over- 
flood  of  accumulates  from  above,  causes 
the  inundations  which  are  now  so  fre- 
quent at  Lambeth  and  other  low-lying 
districts. 

Fog  Signals.— Under  the  Conservancy 
bye-laws  every  steam  vessel  when  the 
steam  is  up,  and  well  under  way,  shall  in 
all  cases  of  fog  use  as  a  signal  a  steam 
whistle,  which  shall  be  sounded  at  least 
every  three  minutes,  (a)  Sailing  vessels 
when  under  way  shall  in  like  manner  use 
a  fog  horn.  (b)  When  at  anchor  all 
vessels  shall  in  like  manner  use  a  bell. 
The  penalty  for  breach  of  these  bye-laws 
is  a  sum  not  exceeding  £$. 

Foreign  Cattle  Market,  Deptford. 
for  stock  from  infected  countries,  only 
allowed  to  be  landed  on  condition  of 
slaughter  before  removal.  It  occupies 
the  site  of  the  abandoned  dockyard,  and 
is  very  inconveniently  situated  for  its 
present  purpose,  at  an  out-of-the-way 
spot  on  the  wrong  side  of  the  river  ;  its 
purchase  by  the  Corporation  in  1871 
exciting  a  good  deal  of  comment. 

Formosa.— The  largest  island  on  the 
upper  Thames,  said  to  be  about  50  acres 
in  extent  ;  beautifully  situated  just  below 
Cookham  Lock,  opposite  the  Hedsor  and 
Cliveden  woods.  On  it  stands  a  hand- 
some house,  built  by  the  late  Sir  George 
Young,  with  well  laid  out  gardens  and 
pleasure  grounds. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Lock,  and 
Bridge  at  Cookham. 

Fortifications,— The  first  land  defen- 
ces above  the  Nore  are  at  Sheerness, 
where  forts  and  batteries  of  considerable 
power  guard  the  entrance  to  the  Med- 
way,  and  where  also  further  protection  is 
given  by  men-of-war  and  floating  bat- 
teries. At  ClirTe,  and  on  the  Lower 
Hope,  is  Cliffe  Fort ;  Coal-house  Fort  is 
a  little  higher  up  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river  ;  and  nearly  opposite  again,  on  the 
Kentish  side,  Shorne  Fort.  The  three 
last-mentioned  are  all  important  build- 
ings, very  strongly  armed,  and  would 
probably  prove  quite  equal  to  the  task 
for  which  they  are  intended.  There  are 
batteries,  earthworks,  and  other  defences 
at  Gravesend  and  Tilbury,  the  real 
strength  of  which  is  matter  for  conjecture. 


Galleon's  Reach  runs  nearly  north 
and  south,  rather  over  a  mile  from  Wool- 
wich to  Tripcock  Point.  At  the  Wool- 
wich end  is  a  ferry.  Bearings  N.E.  £  E., 
and  S.W.  J  W. 

General  Steam  Navigation  Com- 
pany, 80,  Great  Tower-street,  E.C.,  and 
14,  Waterloo-place,  S.W.     The  steamers 
of  the  General  Steam  Navigation  Com- 
pany start  from  and  arrive  at  Irongate 
and  St.  Katharine's  Wharf,  close  to  the 
Tower.     The  Home  Stations  are  Edin- 
burgh,  Hull,  Yarmouth,    Margate,    and 
Ramsgate.      The   Foreign   Stations   are 
Hamburg,  Tonning,  Harlingen,  Amster- 
dam,   Rotterdam,    Antwerp,    Bordeaux, 
Ostend,     Boulogne,     Havre,     Charence, 
Oporto,  Genoa,  Leghorn,  Naples,  Mes- 
sina, and  Palermo.     Through  passenger 
tickets  are  issued  to  Brussels,  Liege,  and 
Cologne,  via  Ostend  or  Antwerp,  and  to 
the   Pyrenees  and  the  south  of  France 
and    Spain,    via   Bordeaux.      The   pas- 
senger service  on  the  Hull,   Yarmouth, 
Margate  and  Ramsgate,  Boulogne,  and 
Havre  stations  is  suspended  during  the 
winter   months.     All  information   as  to 
fares,  times  of  starting,  &c,  can  be  ob- 
tained at  the  London  Orifices.   Passengers 
for  Oporto  or  Italian  ports  are  advised  by 
the  company  to  take  tickets  at  least  36 
hours  before  the  time  of  sailing.     Tickets 
for  inland  Continental  places,  other  than 
Paris,  must  be  purchased  in  advance,  at 
the  chief  office  in  Great  Tower-street,  City. 
When  vessels  start  at  or  before  8  a.m., 
or  arrive  very  late  at  night,  passengers 
can  embark  on  the  previous  evening,  or 
postpone  their  landing  until  a  convenient 
hour  in  the  morning.     Stewards  are  not 
allowed  to  take  fees.    Passengers  embark- 
ing or  landing  at  London  should  note  the 
number  on  the  badge  of  the  porter  who 
carries  the  baggage.     The  legal  charge 
for  each  package  carried  between  cab  and 
ship  is  2d.   The  Company's  Official  Hand- 
book says:    "Comfortable  waiting  and 
refreshment  rooms  have  been  established, 
and  placed  under  good  and  experienced 
management." 

Passengers  about  to  embark  should 
proceed  direct  to  Irongate  and  St. 
Katharine's  Wharf,  where  the  Company's 
steamers  start  from,  or  a  steam  tender 
conveys  passengers  and  their  luggage 
from  the  wharf  to  the  ship  free  of  charge. 
Vessels  engaged  in  the  Yarmouth,  Mar- 
gate,   and    Ramsgate    special    summer 


service  start  from  London  Bridge  Wharf. 
The  above  paragraph  does  not,  therefore, 
apply  to  passengers  by  those  vessels. 
The  tender  leaves  the  wharf  ten  minutes 
before  the  advertised  time  of  sailing  of 
the  ships.  Passengers  arriving  in  the 
Thames  from  Hamburg,  Antwerp,  and 
Havre,  between  8  a.m.  and  8  p.m.,  are 
landed  at  Irongate  and  St.  Katharine's 
Wharf  by  a  special  tender,  free  of  charge. 

One  hundredweight  of  personal  lug- 
gage is  allowed  free  of  freight  by  the 
Company's  steamers.  Missing  property 
should  be  applied  for  at  the  chief  office. 
There  is  a  left  luggage  office  at  Irongate 
and  St.  Katharine's  Wharf. 

The  nearest  Railway  Stations  to  the 
London  Bridge  Wharf  are  Cannon-st 
and  London  Br  (South  Eastern),  Fen- 
church-st  (Great  Eastern  and  North 
London),  and  Mansion  House  (District). 

The  nearest  Stations  to  Irongate  and 
St.  Katharine's  Wharf  are  Fenchurch-st 
(Great  Eastern  and  North  Lon.)  and 
Mark-lane  (Met.). 

Geology  of  the  Valley  of  the 
Thames.— i.  General  Remarks. — 
The  Thames  may  be  conveniently  divided 
into  three  parts :  the  upper,  where  the 
various  streams  of  the  Oolitic  districts  of 
Gloster  and  Oxon  combine  to  form  the 
Thames  proper;  the  middle,  where  the 
river  thus  formed  flows  through  the  Chalk 
and  the  Tertiary  beds  of  the  London  Basin, 
receiving  further  affluents  from  those 
formations,  until  it  reaches  the  third  and 
final  stage  of  a  tidal  stream,  still  of  course, 
with  tributaries. 

The  broad  valley  in  which  the  river 
flows  has  also  a  triple  character,  fairly 
agreeing  with  the  above  divisions  of  the 
stream.  In  the  higher  part  its  course  is 
cut  through  various  beds  of  the  Oolitic 
Series,  and  as  the  dip  of  these  is  at  a 
greater  angle  than  the  fall  of  the  river, 
and  generally  in  much  the  same  direction, 
higher  and  higher  beds  are  successively 
crossed  in  the  downward  course,  until 
those  beds  of  the  Cretaceous  series  below 
the  Chalk  are  in  their  turn  cut  through. 
The  middle  part,  beginning  with  the 
narrower  cut  through  the  Chalk  hills, 
extends  thence  eastward  across  the  wide 
expanse  of  the  Chalk,  and  of  the  over- 
lying Lower  Tertiary  beds,  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  London,  the  water  slope 
being  still  less  than  the  dip.  The  tidal 
Thames  crosses  the  same  formation  as 


71  GEN-GEO 

the  last  division,  with  some  local  differ- 
ences ;  for  owing  to  some  gentle  disturb- 
ances the  Chalk  is  brought  up  in  various 
places,  again  to  sink  beneath  the  surface. 

Accepting  the  above  threefold  division 
of  our  chief  river,  we  will  notice  the 
geology  of  its  valley,  beginning  with  the 
highest  division,  which,  however,  is 
geologically  the  lowest.  It  may  be  well 
in  the  first  place  to  give  a  general  notion 
of  the  formations  that  occur  in  the  course 
of  the  valley  (using  that  term  in  a  broad 
sense)  from  its  sources  to  its  mouth,  and 
this  may  be  seen  at  a  glance  from  the 
following  table,  in  which  the  formations 
are  arranged  according  to  age,  the  newest 
at  the  top.  The  letters  "  U,"  "  M,"and 
"L,"  show  in  which  of  the  three  sug- 
gested divisions  of  the  valley  (Upper, 
Middle,  and  Lower)  the  various  beds  are 
represented,  and  it  will  be  seen  that  only 
the  alluvium  and  Drift  occur  throughout, 
all  the  other  beds  being  limited  to  one  or 
two  of  the  divisions.  It  will  be  con- 
venient, therefore,  to  leave  the  notice  of 
these  newer  beds,  which  are  separated  by 
a  great  gap  from  the  rest,  to  the  last. 

Alluvium. — Marshland;  Mud,  peat, 
&c.  ;  U.  M.  L. 

Drift. — Valley  Drift:  Gravel,  sand,  and 
loam;  U.  M.  L.  Glacial Drift :  Boulder 
clay,  gravel,  and  sand  (?  U. )  M.  L. 

Older  Tertiaries. — Bagshot  Beds :  Sand, 
with  more  clayey  beds  in  the  middle 
part,  and  with  local  pebble-beds  in  the 
lower  part  ;  M.  L.  London  Clay ;  M.  L. 
Lower  London  Tertiaries:  i.  Oldhaven 
and  Blackheath  Beds  ;  pebble-beds  and 
sand;  L. — 2.  Woolwich  and  Reading 
Beds  ;  clay,  sand,  and  pebbles ;  M.  L. — 
3.  Thanet  Beds  ;  sand  and  loam  ;  L. 

Cretaceous  Series. — Chalk :  White  lime- 
stone, mostly  soft,  upper  part  with  flints ; 
M.  L.  Upper  Greensand :  Soft  sand- 
stone and  sand  ;  U.  Gault :  Bluish  clay ; 
U.  Lower  Greensand:  Sand,  with  occa- 
sional conglomerate,  U. 

Upper  Oolites. — Portland  Beds:  Lime- 
stone and  sand  ;  U.     Kimmeridge  Clay ; 

Middle  Oolites.  —  Coralline  Oolite  : 
Limestone  and  sand ;  U.   Oxford  Clay :  U. 

Lower  Oolites.  —  Cornbrash,  Forest 
Mardle,  and  Great  or  Bath  Oolite: 
Limestone  ;  U.  Inferior  Oolite :  Lime- 
stone, with  sand  at  the  base. 

Lias.—  Clay,  with  "marlstone"  above 
the  middle. 


GEO— GEO 


72 


2.    Upper  Thames.     To  a  little 
below     Wallingford.  —  With     the 
greater  part  of  this  division  of  the  river 
we  are  not  now  concerned  :  our  journey 
may  begin  at  Oxford.     It  may  be  noted, 
however,    that   above   this    city  all    the 
streams  that  make  up  the  Thames  have 
their   origin   in,  and   their  course  over, 
the    great    Liassic    and    Oolitic   series, 
excepting  a  few  small  streams  from  the 
Chalk    hills    south-west     of    Faringdon, 
forming  the  Cole.  The  so-called  ' '  Thames 
Head"  is  in  the  Great  Oolite  limestone, 
and  thence  the  main  stream  flows  west- 
ward  through   a  broad  vale  of  Oxford 
Clay,  receiving  many  tributaries  from  the 
north,   but  only  the  exceptional  streams 
above-noticed  on  the  south.     The  great 
excess    of    affluents    from   the   north   is 
probably   owing    to    the    more    or    less 
southerly  dip  of  the  various  divisions  of 
the    Oolitic    series,    which    consists    of 
alternations  of  clays  and  limestones  (with 
occasional  beds  of  a  more  sandy  nature). 
This  geological  structure    has    brought 
about    the  well-known  features    of   the 
district :     the    denudation,    or    wearing 
away,   of  the  harder  limestones  having 
given  rise  to  abrupt  hills  facing  north- 
wards,   with    gentle    "  dip-slopes "    (or 
slopes  in  the  same  direction  as  the  dip) 
southwards ;  whilst  the  softer  and  thicker 
clays  form  open  vales,  through  the  chief 
of  which   the  main   stream  runs.      The 
northerly  tributaries,  flowing  in  the  same 
direction  as  the  beds  dip,  but  at  a  less 
angle,  cut  through  the  series,   some,  as 
the  Evenlode  and  the  Cherwell,  starting 
in  the  Lias. 

At  Oxford  the  river  turns  southward, 
and  the  valley  is  somewhat  narrower, 
being  bounded  both  east  and  west  by 
prominent  hills,  formed  of  outlines  of 
Lower  Cretaceous  and  Upper  Oolitic 
beds  (Shotover  and  Cumnor  hills),  whilst 
the  lower  part  is  still  in  the  Middle 
Oolites.  The  lowest  formation  of  these 
last,  the  Oxford  Clay,  a  deposit  some 
hundreds  of  feet  thick  and  (from  its 
contained  fossils)  clearly  of  marine  origin, 
soon  dips  underground,  near  Iffley.  The 
overlying  Coralline  Oolite,  in  places  ioo 
feet  thick,  is  divisible  into  two  ;  the  lower 
part,  or  Calcareous  Grit,  consisting  of 
irregular  beds  of  more  or  less  calcareous 
sand  with  occasional  limestone  ;  whilst 
the  higher,  or  Coral  Rag,  is  a  limestone  in 
great  part  made  up  of  the  remains  of  corals. 


The  Coralline  Oolite  in  its  turn  dips 
underground  below  Sandford,  and  the 
river  then  crosses  the  vale  formed  by  the 
next  overlying  deposit,  the  Kimmeridge 
Clay,  but  soon  turns  westward  along 
the  foot  of  the  range  of  hill  from  Nune- 
ham  Courtney  to  Culham,  marked  by 
the  beautiful  wooded  mass  of  Nuneham 
Park.  This  hill  is  the  "  escarpment  "  (or 
bounding  ridge)  of  the  Lower  Greensand, 
which  here  rests  on  the  Kimmeridge 
Clay  ;  the  Portland  Stone,  which  comes 
between  those  formations  in  the  large 
outlier  of  Shotover  and  Cuddesdon, 
being  absent,  from  an  unconformity  or 
irregularity  of  deposit. 

At  Culham  the  river  turns  south-east- 
ward, the  Kimmeridge  Clay  sinks,  and 
on  the  left  side  is  the  Lower  Greensand 
tract  with  a  small  patch  of  Gault,  whilst 
the  last  alone  occurs  on  the  right  side. 
The  Lower  Greensand  is  here  a  sand 
often  ferruginous  and  coarse,  with  some- 
times a  fine  conglomerate,  as  in  the 
river-cliff  at  Clifton  Hampden.  A  few 
fossils  showing  a  marine  origin  have 
been  found  in  it,  whilst  those  of  the 
Shotover  outlier  bear  witness  to  local 
fresh-water  conditions.  At  Culham, 
owing  to  the  overlap  of  the  Gault,  the 
Lower  Greensand  is  only  a  few  feet  thick, 
and  the  two  similar  clays  of  the  Gault 
and  Kimmeridge  nearly  come  together. 

Below  Clifton  Hampden  the  Lower 
Greensand  sinks  beneath  the  surface, 
when  the  river  orosses  the  vale  of  the 
Gault,  receiving  the  Thame  at  Dorchester, 
and  runs  at  the  foot  of  the  Upper  Green- 
sand escarpment  from  Little  Wittenham 
to  Bensington.  This  formation  consists 
here  of  two  parts :  the  lower,  a  soft 
whitish  and  often  calcareous  sandstone, 
which  forms  a  marked,  though  small 
feature  in  the  landscape,  rising  sharply 
from  above  the  Gault  ;  the  upper,  a 
more  or  less  clayey  and  calcareous  Green- 
sand, some  twenty  feet  thick.  From 
Bensington  the  Thames  runs  south  across 
the  Upper  Greensand  for  about  three 
miles,  when  it  enters  the  boundary  of 
the  Chalk. 

3.  Middle  Thames.  From  near 
Wallingford  to  Richmond.  —  The 
Chalk  in  this  district  is  divisible  into  two 
main  parts,  the  lower  marked  by  an 
absence  of  flints,  whilst  in  the  upper 
these  are  generally  common  ;  the  junc- 
tion of  the  two  being  marked  by  a  hard, 


73 


GEO-GEO 


pale,  cream-coloured  bed  a  few  feet 
thick.  The  great  escarpment,  the  most 
marked  feature  cut  through  by  the 
Thames,  consists  chiefly  of  the  Lower 
Chalk,  the  Upper  Chalk  coming  on  near 
the  top  ;  but  southwards  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  gently  sloping  plateau  (a  dip-slope) 
is  formed  of  the  latter  division,  which  is 
only  cut  through  in  some  of  the  valleys. 
Thus,  although  the  Lower  Chalk  is  at 
least  as  thick  as  the  Upper,  yet  it  crops 
out  over  a  much  smaller  area.  The  total 
thickness  of  the  formation  here  may  be 
from  700  to  800  feet,  which  decreases  to 
650  under  London  (as  proved  by  the  few 
deep  wells  that  pass  through  it),  and 
then  increases  again  eastward.  Of  late 
years  the  Chalk  has  been  subdivided 
into  a  number  of  zones,  marked  chiefly 
by  the  general  occurrence  of  certain 
fossils,  but  partly  also  by  their  litho- 
logical  characters. 

Where  the  Thames  cuts  through  the 
great  escarpment,  it  runs  in  a  deep  and 
narrow  valley,  with  sharp  turfed  slopes  of 
great  beauty ;  and  in  its  course  through 
the  Chalk  district  it  is  usual  to  find,  on 
one  side  or  other,  a  high  sharp  slope, 
with  the  river  at  the  foot. 

The  Lower  Chalk  gradually  sinks,  from 
the  dip  being  still  at  a  greater  angle  than 
the  slope  of  the  ground,  but  occurs  in  the 
bottom  of  the  valley  nearly  as  far  as 
Pangbourne,  when  the  Upper  Chalk  only 
is  to  be  seen,  higher  beds  coming  on  in 
succession  lower  down  the  course  of  the 
river.  Below  Pangbourne  the  right  side 
of  the  valley  consists,  in  its  upper  part, 
of  a  large  Tertiary  outlier  (London  Clay 
and  Reading  Beds),  separated  only  from 
the  main  mass  of  those  formations  in  the 
town  of  Reading  by  the  cutting  out  of 
the  valley  of  the  Kennet.  Thence  the 
river  turns  north-eastward,  and  for  a  few 
miles  the  escarpment  of  the  above-named 
Tertiary  beds  forms  the  greater  part  of 
the  right  bank  of  the  valley,  the  Chalk 
being  cut  into  only  along  the  lower  part ; 
the  left  side,  on  the  other  hand,  consists 
of  a  dip-slope  of  chalk,  with  some  Tertiary 
outliers  on  the  high  ground. 

Near  Sonning  the  Thames  leaves  the 
direct  course,  along  the  foot  of  the 
Tertiary  escarpment  (towards  Maiden- 
head), and  makes  a  sharp  northerly  turn, 
somewhat  against  the  direction  of  the 
dip,  to  beyond  Henley,  and  in  consequence 
of  this  the  bottom  part  of  the  valley  is 


again  cut  down  into  the  Lower  Chalk. 
From  Remenham  the  river  makes  a 
second  sharp  turn,  when  it  flows  east  for 
some  miles  to  beyond  Little  Marlow, 
and  then  a  third,"  after  which  it  flows 
south  to  Bray,  where  it  for  the  first 
time  runs  over  Tertiary  beds.  The 
above  course,  which  may  be  roughly 
described  as  three  sides  of  a  square, 
seems  really  to  follow  the  line  of  a  former 
Tertiary  escarpment ;  for  the  two  well- 
marked  wooded  hills  between  Wargrave 
and  Maidenhead  (the  gently  conical  form 
of  which  can  be  clearly  seen  from  so  far 
as  Richmond)  are  parts  of  a  large  outlier, 
now  barely  separated  from  the  main  mass 
of  the  Tertiary  beds  at  Ruscomb,  and 
there  are  also  smaller  outliers  round  about, 
all  of  these  being  proofs  of  the  former 
extension  of  those  beds  over  the  Chalk. 
In  this  tract  there  are  fine  examples  of 
river-cliffs,  or  slopes,  notably  on  the  right 
bank  from  Wargrave  to  Henley,  and 
opposite  Great  Marlow,  and  on  the  left 
bank  from  Hedsor  to  Taplow,  including 
the  grand  sweep  of  Cliveden.  Clothed, 
sometimes  only  with  evergreen  turf,  but 
more  generally  with  mighty  masses  of 
beech,  these  great  chalk-slopes  form  some 
of  the  finest  scenery  in  the  south  of  Eng- 
land, their  sharpness  being  set  off  by  the 
tranquil  river  at  the  base,  and  by  the 
level  tract  of  marshland  or  the  nearly 
level  spreads  of  gravel  in  the  bottom  of 
the  valley. 

Below  Maidenhead  the  character  of 
the  valley  changes  :  instead  of  the  bold 
features  so  common  hitherto,  we  find 
long  gentle  slopes,  with  broad  tracts  of 
gravel  along  the  bottom,  often,  indeed, 
spreading  some  way  up  the  less  inclined 
side.  The  river  has  entered  the  Tertiary 
district,  and  therefore,  instead  of  having 
cut  a  channel  with  high  slopes,  as  in  the 
firmer  chalk,  it  has  made  a  broad  vale 
through  the  more  yielding  and  more 
easily  denuded  clays  and  sands.  At 
Windsor,  however,  there  is  an  exception 
to  this  for  nearly  a  mile,  and  an  old 
river-cliff,  on  which  the  castle  stands, 
rises  sharply  about  100  feet  above  the 
plain  on  the  north.  This  is  owing  to  an 
uprise  of  the  beds,  whereby  the  Chalk 
has  been  brought  to  a  higher  level  than 
it  would  otherwise  have  had,  and  its 
denudation  has  resulted  in  the  formation 
of  the  usual  feature. 

Hence  the  river  turns  south-east,  and 


GEO— GEO  74 

for  a  few  miles  the  right  bank  of  the 
valley  consists  of  the  London  Clay  slope 
of  Windsor  Park,  crowned  at  the  highest 
part  above  Egham  by  Bagshot  Sand. 
The  valley  then  broadens  still  more,  and 
is  marked  on  the  left  side  by  the  occur- 
rence of  a  vast  spread  of  gravel  and  loam, 
from  beneath  which  the  London  Clay 
rises  up  northwards  to  the  high  ground 
of  Harrow,  with  its  small  outliers  of 
Bagshot  Sand.  On  the  right  side  the 
London  Clay  sinks,  and  that  part  of  the 
valley  is  formed  of  the  more  picturesque, 
though  often  barren,  slopes  of  the  Bag- 
shot  Sand.  At  Chertsey  the  river  takes 
a  general  easterly  course,  which  it  keeps 
to  Thames  Ditton,  before  reaching  which 
place  the  London  Clay  again  crops  out ; 
and  then  it  turns  north,  the  right  bank 
of  the  valley  being  formed  by  the  fine 
wooded  slope  of  London  Clay  (an  old 
river-cliff)  along  the  western  edge  of 
Richmond  Park. 

4.  Lower  Thames.  Below  Rich- 
mond.— We  have  now  reached  the  point 
where  the  river  becomes  tidal,  though  for 
some  way,  of  course,  the  rise  and  fall  of 
the  tide  is  but  slight.  From  Richmond 
the  Thames  again  takes  an  easterly  course, 
which  it  then  keeps  throughout — that  is 
to  say,  in  its  general  direction  :  as  a  matter 
of  detail  the  course  is  in  a  series  of  curves 
from  north  to  south  in  the  plain  of  gravel 
or  of  marsh,  sometimes  varied  by  a 
straighter  cut.  The  higher  parts  of  the 
flanks  of  the  valley,  on  both  sides  from 
Richmond  to  London,  are  formed  of 
London  Clay,  with  cappings  of  Bagshot 
Sand  at  Hampstead  and  Highgate  hills 
on  the  north,  and  of  gravel  on  the  south. 
The  clay  here  reaches  a  thickness  of 
about  400  feet,  with  marine  fossils 
throughout. 

The  beds  now  rise  slightly,  until  in  the 
far  east  of  London  the  Lower  London 
Tertiaries  crop  out  from  beneath  the 
London  Clay.  It  is  to  be  noted  that 
this  set  of  beds  reappears  with  a  different 
character  from  that  shown  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Reading,  where  the  middle 
division  alone  seems  to  occur,  and  con- 
sists of  mottled  clays  and  sands,  some 
fifty  feet  thick,  and  almost  without  a 
trace  of  fossils.  Here  on  the  other  hand 
we  have  nearly  a  full  development  of  this 
interesting  triple  series  ;  the  fine  compact 
Thanet  Sand,  forty  feet  and  more  thick, 
without  fossils;    the  sand,  pebbles,  and 


highly  fossiliferous  clays  of  the  Woolwich 
Beds,  often  crowded  with  well-preserved 
shells  of  estuarine  kinds,  as  may  be  well 
seen  in  the  large  pits  at  Lewisham  and 
Charlton  ;  and  the  sandy  pebble  beds  of 
Blackheath,  sometimes  with  shells  of 
much  the  same  kind  as  those  of  the 
Woolwich  Beds.  The  Chalk,  too,  again 
crops  out,  though  only  over  small  areas, 
on  the  southern  side  from  Deptford  to 
Woolwich.  This  side  has  marked  features 
from  Greenwich  to  Erith,  caused  by  the 
generally  sharp  denuded  slope  of  the 
Lower  London  Tertiaries,  especially  of 
their  highest  division,  the  Blackheath 
Beds,  the  top  of  which  on  the  other  hand 
forms  the  plateau  or  terrace  of  Blackheath, 
Plumstead  Common,  &c. ,  above  which  the 
London  Clay  rises  to  the  mass  of 
Shooter's  Hill.  Along  the  base  of  the 
Tertiary  hills  there  runs  a  fault,  of  com- 
paratively small  throw  on  the  west  near 
Lewisham,  but  for  the  rest  of  its  course 
to  Erith  with  a  downthrow  south  of  100 
feet  or  more,  so  that  the  pebble  beds 
which  form  the  high  plateau  above-men- 
tioned are  found  also  in  the  bottom  of 
the  valley. 

On  the  north  from  London  the  valley 
has  a  gentle  slope,  and  along  the  lower 
part  there  is  a  broad  spread  of  gravel, 
from  between  which  the  London  Clay 
rises  to  the  high  ground  of  Epping  and 
Hainault  Forests  and  of  Havering, 
at  which  last  place  that  formation  is 
capped  by  a  small  outlier  of  Bagshot 
Beds,  which  occur  in  greater  force  farther 
east  at  Brentwood,  and  consist  in  the 
lower  part  of  sand  and  in  the  upper  of 
pebble-beds  just  like  those  (older  than 
the  London  Clay)  at  Blackheath,  &c. 

Below  Erith  the  Thames  leaves  the 
Tertiary  beds  and  the  Chalk  again  rises 
to  the  surface.  On  the  north  it  appears 
at  Purfleet,  and  forms  the  hill  thence  to 
Grays  Thurrock,  with  small  but  well- 
marked  outliers  of  Thanet  Sand  on  the 
top  ;  whilst,  from  a  local  northerly  dip,  the 
Tertiary  beds  come  on  above  the  Chalk  in 
the  small  tributary  valley  to  the  north  ; 
and  they  then  spread  over  the  hill  east- 
ward to  Little  Thurrock,  just  east  of 
which  place  the  Chalk  sinks  below  the 
surface  to  appear  again  for  the  last  time 
along  the  edge  of  the  marsh  at  East 
Tilbury.  Here  the  Lower  London  Ter- 
tiaries have  an  exceptionally  broad  out- 
crop  (much    hidden    by  gravel)  to   the 


75 


GEO-GEO 


higher  ground  of  Orsett,  and  are  finally- 
lost  sight  of  at  Standford-le-Hope,  beyond 
which  this  side  of  the  valley  consists  of 
London  Clay,  capped  by  a  mass  of  Bag- 
shot  Sand  round  Hadleigh,  whence  the 
ground  slopes  gently  eastward  until  at 
Southend  (where  the  river  comes  up  to 
the  clay  cliffs  at  high  tide)  and  beyond  is 
a  sheet  of  the  gravel  and  brick-earth  that 
sinks  farther  east  to  the  flats  of  Shoebury. 

On  the  south  below  Erith,  where  the 
Darent  joins  the  Thames,  the  valley  is  in 
chalk  with  a  large  Tertiary  outlier  above, 
forming  the  wooded  mass  of  Swanscomb 
Park  Hill,  besides  smaller  outliers,  the 
most  marked  of  which  is  Windmill  Hill, 
Gravesend.  In  this  neighbourhood  there 
are  huge  chalk-pits  near  the  edge  of  the 
marshes,  as  also  on  the  opposite  side  at 
Purfleet  and  Grays. 

Round  Higham  the  Tertiary  beds  crop 
out  from  beneath  the  marsh,  and  at  Cliffe 
the  Chalk  rises  up  northwards  from  be- 
neath these,  is  cut  off  sharply  (as  a  river- 
cliff)  along  the  southern  edge  of  the 
marsh,  and  then  finally  sinks  eastward  at 
Cooling.  The  Tertiary  beds  here,  there- 
fore, lie  in  a  slight  trough.  The  range 
of  hill  south  of  the  last  two  places,  which 
forms  the  boundary  of  the  valley,  is 
formed  of  London  Clay,  from  beneath 
which  crop  out  in  succession,  in  the  lower 
grounds  to  the  north,  the  Oldhaven  Beds, 
here  thin  and  chiefly  sand,  the  Woolwich 
Beds,  still  with  estuarine  shells,  and  the 
Thanet  Sand.  These  three  divisions  all 
disappear  beneath  the  surface  on  the 
north  of  High  Halstow,  when  the  London 
Clay  hills  with  their  patches  of  gravel 
alone  divide  the  valley  of  the  Thames 
from  that  of  the  Medway,  the  two  joining 
round  the  Isle  of  Grain  ;  and  the  com- 
bined rivers  then  flow  into  the  sea,  with 
the  alluvial  flats  of  Foulness,  &c. ,  on  the 
north,  and  on  the  south  the  cliffs  of 
Sheppey,  which  consist  chiefly  of  London 
Clay,  but  at  the  highest  parts  have  a 
capping  of  Bagshot  Sand  and  gravel. 

5.  Newer  Deposits.—  Besides  the 
formations  already  noticed  through  which 
the  valley  of  the  Thames  has  been  cut, 
and  which  succeed  each  other  in  almost 
regular  order,  we  find  also  a  set  of  beds 
of  a  much  more  irregular  kind,  lying 
indifferently  on  any  of  the  other  forma- 
tions, occurring  at  all  levels  in  the  valley, 
and  often  hard  to  classify.  Of  these  beds 
those  known  as  "  Glacial  Drift"  are  the 


oldest,  and  they  get  their  name  from 
the  fact  that  icy  conditions  must  have 
prevailed  during  the  time  at  which  they 
were  deposited. 

On  the  high  grounds  near  Oxford 
there  are  gravels  of  uncertain  age,  but 
certainly  older  than  the  gravels  at  lower 
levels  in  the  valley,  and  it  is  possible  that 
these  (full  of  pebbles  from  rocks  that  are 
found  in  the  north)  may  be  of  Glacial 
age,  relics  of  a  once  wide-spread  deposit 
now  mostly  destroyed  by  denudation. 
Again,  on  some  of  the  chalk  hills,  as  well 
as  on  the  outliers  and  high  grounds  of 
the  Tertiary  beds,  there  are  patches  of 
gravel  that  may  also  be  of  this  age  ;  in- 
deed, in  the  case  of  the  pebble-gravel  (of 
flint  and  quartz)  that  occurs  in  small 
patches  on  some  of  the  Tertiary  hills  (Ash- 
ley, Bowsey,  Hampstead,  and  Shooter's) 
it  seems  likely  that  we  have  a  still  older 
deposit,  perhaps  equivalent  to  that  of  like 
character  which  comes  between  the  Drift 
and  the  Crag  series  in  parts  of  Suffolk. 

A  large  spread  of  gravel  on  the  high 
ground  north  of  Windsor  has  been  classed 
as  Glacial,  what  little  evidence  that  there 
is  as  to  age  pointing  in  that  direction  ; 
and  it  is  possible  that  other  masses  at 
much  the  same  level  on  the  southern  side 
of  the  river  are  of  the  same  age. 

Below  London,  on  the  Essex  side  of 
the  river,  the  bed  which  is  the  marked 
characteristic  of  the  Glacial  Drift  comes 
(from  the  north  where  it  is  in  force)  to  the 
edge  of  some  of  the  hill-tops.  This  bed 
is  the  well-known  Boulder  Clay  :  a  bluish 
clay  full  of  stones,  sometimes  large 
masses,  but  mostly  small  roughly-rounded 
pieces  of  all  kinds  of  rock,  but  here 
chiefly  of  chalk,  the  surfaces  of  the  stones 
scratched  in  the  same  way  as  those  of  the 
stones  in  the  deposits  of  existing  glaciers. 
It  is  clear  from  the  nature  of  the  Boulder 
Clay  that  it  has  been  brought  by  ice  from 
the  north  ;  but  in  what  form  the  ice  did 
this  is  a  moot  point  amongst  geologists  : 
some  of  whom  will  hear  of  nothing  but  a 
vast  mass  of  land  ice,  or  great  ice-sheet 
as  it  is  called  ;  whilst  others  invoke  a 
fleet  of  countless  bergs  floating  south- 
wards from  ice-capped  northern  lands  ; 
and  a  third  party  swear  by  coast-ice.  It 
is  to  be  noted  that  the  Boulder  Clay,  the 
highest  member  of  the  Glacial  Drift, 
does  not  occur  on  the  southern  side  of 
the  Thames,  but  ends  off  near  the  northern 
side  from  London  eastward. 


GEO-GEO 


7B 


The  most  important  division  of  the 
Drift,  as  far  as  the  Thames  Valley  is  con- 
cerned, is  that  known  as  Post-glacial, 
by  which  is  meant  a  set  of  gravels  and 
loams  newer  than  the  Glacial  Drift  of  the 
district.  Such  deposits  occur  all  along 
the  course  of  the  river,  and  are  of  great 
interest,  from  their  yielding  in  places 
bones  of  huge  animals,  of  genera  now 
extinct  in  this  country,  such  as  elephant, 
hippopotamus,  and  rhinoceros,  associated 
sometimes  with  flint  implements  made  by 
man.  From  the  shells  of  freshwater  and 
land  species  found,  and  from  the  disposi- 
tion of  the  gravels  and  brick-earths  in  the 
valley,  it  is  clear  that  the  beds  have  been 
formed  by  the  river,  though  under  different 
conditions  from  those  we  now  see.  The 
stream  must  have  been  more  powerful  to 
transport  the  coarser  material  of  the 
gravel ;  and  it  is  inferred  that,  at  the 
time  these  beds  were  formed,  our  island 
was  part  of  Europe,  and  the  Thames  a 
tributary  of  a  larger  Rhine.  The  land 
was  then  at  a  higher  level  and  the  climate 
colder,  so  that  from  the  consequent 
greater  condensation  of  vapour  there  was 
a  greater  rainfall,  and  therefore  a  greater 
waterflow  and  a  more  swiftly-running 
stream;  sometimes,  too,  wide -spread 
floods  occurred,  resulting  in  the  deposit 
of  broad  tracts  of  loam. 

These  gravels  and  loams  are  not  con- 
fined to  the  present  bottom  of  the  valley, 
but  also  occur  in  terraces  at  various 
heights  on  its  flanks.  These  terraces  are 
old  valley-bottoms  ;  and  after  the  deposi- 
tion of  the  gravel  of  the  highest  (then  the 
bottom  of  the  valley),  the  river  has  cut  its 
way  deeper  through  its  former  bed,  until, 
a  second  period  of  comparative  rest 
having  arrived,  it  has  again  deposited 
gravel  at  a  lower  level — to  be  in  its  turn 
cut  through,  and  another  still  lower 
deposit  formed.  The  succession  of  gravel- 
flats  at  various  levels  may  be  well  seen  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  river  between  Cook- 
ham  and  Maidenhead,  where  the  terraces 
are  well  marked. 

It  is  not  until  the  Thames  enters  the 
Tertiary  district,  near  Maidenhead,  that 
this  Valley  Drift  occurs  over  any  large 
area.  Where  the  valley  is  narrow,  as  in 
the  Chalk  tract,  there  is  small  room  for 
the  river-gravel  ;  but  where  it  broadens 
out  they  spread  far  and  wide,  hiding  the 
formations  below  almost  completely  in 
the  lower  grounds,   and   forming  great 


flats,  as  is  the  way  with  gravels.  Below 
London  again,  on  the  southern  side, 
where  the  Chalk  rises  up,  the  gravel  is 
less  extensive. 

The  best  places  to  see  the  loam,  or 
brick  earth,  are  at  the  great  brick-yards 
of  Erith,  Crayford,  and  Ilford,  noted  for 
the  number  of  bones  and  shells  that  have 
been  found  in  them.  The  equally  well- 
known  pits  at  Grays  are  now  for  the  most 
part  abandoned. 

All  the  old  parts  of  London  are  built 
on  these  beds.  Forming  a  dry  soil,  but 
with  water  easily  accessible  (flowing  out, 
indeed,  in  old  times,  in  the  many  springs 
whose  names  we  still  keep),  these  gravel- 
terraces  gave  our  ancestors  one  of  the 
finest  of  sites,  free  from  floods,  and  yet 
close  to  a  tidal  stream,  the  water-way  to 
the  world. 

After  the  period  of  the  river-gravels, 
when  the  land  had  sunk  somewhat,  when 
our  island  was  separated  from  the  main- 
land, and  when  the  conditions  approxi- 
mated to  those  of  the  present  time,  the 
smaller  and  more  sluggish  river  became 
unable  to  transport  great  quantities  of 
coarse  material  and  to  form  gravel  ;  its 
enfeebled  power  was  equal  only  to  mean- 
dering in  the  bottom  of  its  valley,  cutting 
a  channel  through  the  gravel  thereof,  and 
depositing  the  layers  of  mud  and  silt  of 
the  alluvial  flats  that  fringe  the  stream  in 
most  parts  of  its  course. 

In  the  upper  and  middle  divisions  of 
the  Thames,  and  in  the  higher  part  of 
the  lower  division,  these  level  tracts  of 
meadow  and  marsh  are  comparatively 
narrow,  and  it  is  remarkable  that  this  is 
especially  the  case  in  the  Tertiary  district 
above  London,  where  the  alluvium  is 
generally  a  mere  narrow  strip  on  one  side 
of  the  stream. 

Below  London,  however,  it  is  very 
different,  and  on  either  side  of  the  broad 
river  there  are  wide  flats  of  rich  pasture- 
land,  all  some  feet  below  high-water 
mark,  over  which  the  water  used  to  flow, 
until  ages  ago  it  was  embanked  and  kept 
to  its  present  channel.  In  this  broad 
alluvial  tract  there  is  a  most  interesting 
bed,  rarely,  however,  to  be  seen,  forming 
the  bottom  of  the  alluvium.  It  is  a  layer 
of  peat,  with  trunks  and  branches  of 
trees,  known  generally  as  "the  sub- 
merged forest,"  and  it  gives  evidence 
that  the  last  movement  of  the  land  was 
one  of  slight    depression,  as  the  trees 


77 


GEO— GOR 


could  hardly  have  grown  in  their  present 
position,  many  feet  below  high-water 
mark. 

6.  Formation  of  the  Valley. — In 
common  with  the  valleys  of  our  other 
rivers,  that  of  the  Thames  has  been 
formed  by  denudation  :  it  has  been  cut 
out  by  the  slow,  long-continued,  cease- 
less action  of  the  river,  ever  tending  to 
deepen  and  widen  its  channel,  aided 
greatly  by  the  action  of  rain  on  the 
slopes,  and  in  the  limestone  districts  by 
the  solvent  power  of  carbonated  water. 
There  is  no  great  gap  or  open  fissure 
formed  by  the  giving  way  of  the  earth, 
no  sign  of  disruption  or  sudden  violent 
action.  That  disturbances  of  the  beds 
have  had  some  effect  in  the  formation  of 
the  valley  is  not  however  questioned,  but 
their  effect  has  been  merely  to  direct  in 
some  cases  the  course  which  the  denuding 
agents  should  follow,  by  making  a  certain 
course  easier  than  any  other.  Thus, 
where  the  Thames  cuts  through  the  great 
chalk  range  below  Wallingford,  there 
are  signs  of  some  disturbance,  for  the 
strike  or  general  trend  of  the  beds 
changes  from  a  direction  about  west  to 
east  to  one  about  south-west  to  north- 
east ;  but  none  the  less  has  the  valley 
been  formed  by  the  cutting  away  of  the 
chalk.  Again,  though  from  Greenwich 
to  Erith  a  fault,  or  fracture,  with  the 
displacement  of  the  beds  occurs,  and  may 
have  greatly  aided  the  erosive  action  of 
the  old  river,  yet  none  the  less  has  that 
part  of  the  valley  been  formed  by  the 
wearing  and  carrying  away  of  a  vast 
mass  of  beds,  hundreds  of  feet  thick. 

When  we  look  across  the  wide  valley 
of  our  chief  river,  and  realise  the  facts 
that  all  the  material  which  once  filled  it 
has  been  slowly  loosened  and  carried 
away  by  actions  like  in  kind  to  those 
now  going  on  around  us,  though  to  a 
large  extent,  perhaps,  greater  in  power, 
and  that  this  work  has  been  done  merely 
in  the  very  latest  of  the  many  great 
geological  periods,  we  may  begin  to  have 
a  glimmering  of  the  immensity  of  time 
that  must  have  been  taken  up  by  the 
never-ceasing  processes  of  denudation 
and  deposition  that  have  built  up  the 
successive  sedimentary  formations  which 
compose  the  greater  part  of  our  earth. 
The  destruction  of  rocks  in  one  part  has 
yielded  material  for  the  formation  of 
newer  rocks  elsewhere ;  and  these  actions, 


accompanied  by  upward  and  downward 
movements  in  slow  succession,  have  gone 
on  side  by  side  for  countless  ages. 

Godstow.— Of  the  "  house  of  Nunnes 
beside  Oxford,"  as  Stow  calls  it,  in  which 
Fair  Rosamond  was  buried,  nothing  now 
remains  but  some  ivy-covered  walls  and 
its  association  with  the  story,  or  rather 
the  legend,  of  the  lady  who  was  certainly 
no  better  than  she  should  have  been,  but 
who  almost  as  certainly  never  had  that 
interview  with  Queen  Eleanor  and  a 
bowl  and  a  dagger  which  was  for  so 
many  years  accepted  as  an  historical  fact. 
Travellers  who  wish  to  inspect  the  ruins 
will  find  them  on  the  Berkshire  shore, 
while  those  who  are  more  interested  in 
refreshing  the  inner  man  will  find  a  snug 
little  house  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
bridge.  At  Godstow,  which  is  3J  miles 
from  Oxford,  is  a  lock  as  well  as  a  bridge. 

Goring,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left  bank. 
A  station  on  the  Great  Western  Railway, 
45  miles  from  Paddington ;  trains  take 
about  ij  hours.  The  station  is  a  few 
minutes'  walk  from  the  river.  From 
London  85  miles,  from  Oxford  26^  miles. 
Population,  926.  Soil,  light,  on  gravel 
and  chalk.  Goring  is  a  village  situated 
in  a  most  picturesque  part  of  the  valley 
of  the  Thames.  The  scenery  around  is 
deservedly  admired.  It  consists  of  gently 
rising  hills  which  recede  from  the  river, 
and  are  clothed  with  woods  and  cornfields. 
The  banks  of  the  river  are  divided  into 
a  succession  of  verdant  meadows.  The 
river,  here  crossed  by  a  long  wooden 
bridge  (toll  id. ),  is  much  resorted  to  in 
the  summer  for  fishing,  and  for  picnic 
parties.  This  part  of  the  valley  of  the 
Thames,  owing  to  the  fertility  of  the  soil 
and  its  attractive  features,  has  been  settled 
from  the  earliest  times.  Traces  of  Roman 
villas  and  utensils  have  been  occasionally- 
found  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  old 
Roman  road  called  "  Icknild-street  "  is 
believed  to  have  crossed  the  Thames  near 
Goring.  The  church,  which  is  almost  on 
the  banks  of  the  river,  and  is  dedicated 
to  St.  Thomas  A'Becket,  is  a  very  in- 
teresting structure.  It  is  supposed  to 
have  been  built  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II. , 
and  to  have  been  enlarged  in  that  of 
King  John.  It  contains  some  interesting 
specimens  of  Norman  and  Early  English 
architecture.  It  was  connected  with  an 
Augustinian    nunnery,    traces   of  which 


GOR— GRA  78 

are  found  to  the  south  and  west  of  the 
church.  There  was  a  priory  about  two 
miles  north-east  of  the  village,  the  re- 
mains of  which  are  built  into  a  farmhouse 
called  Elvingdon.  There  are  some  ex- 
cellent brasses  in  the  church.  On  the 
right  of  the  altar  will  be  found  four  with 
full-length  male  and  female  effigies  at- 
tended by  their  three  sons  and  five 
daughters.  They  are  in  excellent  order, 
and  are  probably  of  the  time  of  Mary, 
although  they  bear  no  date.  A  full- 
length  of  a  lady  under  a  canopy  in  the 
north-aisle  is  dated  1401,  and  an  inscrip- 
tion on  a  brass  to  Henry  de  Aldryngton, 
between  the  nave  and  north  aisle,  bears 
date  1375.  A  charity  school,  maintained 
by  Alnutt's  Charity,  is  at  the  extreme 
east  end  of  Goring  parish,  this  part  of 
the  parish  is  called  Goring  Heath. 
Alnutt's  Charity  was  founded  by  a  gentle- 
man of  that  name,  and  endowed  by  him 
in  1724.  There  are  twelve  houses  or 
rooms  for  almsmen,  a  school  for  twenty- 
seven  boys  from  the  parishes  of  Goring, 
Checkenden,  and  South  Stoke,  and  one 
for  girls.  The  boys  are  clothed  and 
apprenticed  by  the  Charity  at  the  age  of 
fourteen.  A  few  boys  and  girls  are  ad- 
mitted into  the  schools  on  the  payment 
of  a  weekly  fee  of  3d.  There  is  also  an 
almshouse  in  Goring  village,  founded  by 
Richard  Lybbe,  of  Hardwick,  in  the 
parish  of  Whitchurch,  in  the  year  17 14. 
It  admits  four  old  men,  two  from  Goring, 
one  from  Checkenden,  and  one  from 
Whitchurch.  The  range  of  the  Chiltern 
Hills  commences  with  Goring.  There 
are  several  beautiful  and  extensive  views 
in  the  parish,  while  the  air  is  extremely 
fresh  and  bracing. 

The  angling  in  the  reaches  of  the  sister 
villages,  Streatley  and  Goring,  is  at  times 
all  that  can  be  desired.  The  fisher  may 
make  his  choice  of  waters,  from  the  sharp 
and  swift  to  the  slow  and  deep.  Pike, 
perch,  roach,  dace,  gudgeon,  and  eels 
are  abundant. 

Inns.— "The  Miller  of  Mansfield," 
"The  Queen's  Arms,"  "The  Sloane 
Hotel." 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Thomas 
A'Becket,and  Lady  Huntingdon's  Chapel. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph).  — 
Mails  from  London,  week  days  and  Sun- 
days, 7.5  a.m.  and  12.5  p.m.     Mails  for 


London,  9.50  a.m.,  7.30  p.m.;  Sundays, 
5.40  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  Goring ;  up,  Wal- 
lingford  6  miles.  Locks,  up,  Cleeve  f  mile/ 
down,  Whitchurch  4  miles.  Ferries,  up, 
Moulsford  2  miles ;  down,  Basildon  1  \ 
mile.     Railway  Station,  Goring. 

Fares  to  Paddington  :  1st,  7/10,  14/- ; 
2nd,  5/11,  10/6 ;  3rd,  3/9. 

Grain,  Isle  of.— A  grazing  district, 
bounded  by  the  Thames  and  Medway, 
and  opposite  Sheerness,  which  is  about  a 
mile  and  a  half  distant.  An  important 
portion  of  the  defences  of  the  Thames 
and  Medway  is  furnished  by  the  forts  and 
batteries  on  the  island.  Being  very  diffi- 
cult of  access,  the  Isle  of  Grain  is  very 
little  visited,  and,  indeed,  offers  but  scant 
attraction.  The  island  is  connected  with 
the  North  Kent  Railway  at  Higham,  the 
terminus  in  the  Isle  of  Grain  being 
Port  Victoria  [which  see). 

Grain  Spit  Buoy,— A  6-foot  can- 
buoy,  made  of  wood,  and  painted  black. 
It  is  situated  on  the  Grain  Spit,  on  the 
Kentish  side  to  the  entrance  to  the  Med- 
way, and  marks  a  depth  of  water,  at  low 
water,  spring  tide,  of  8  feet.  It  is  moored 
with  6  fathom  of  chain.  The  weight  of 
the  sinker  is  8  cwt.  The  Grain  Spit  Buoy 
belongs  to  the  Trinity  House. 

Gravesend,  Kent,  on  the  right  bank, 
from  London  27  miles.  A  station  on  the 
North  Kent  Railway,  24  miles  from 
Charing  Cross.  Express  trains  take  about 
an  hour.  The  station  is  close  to  the 
centre  of  the  town,  and  about  10  minutes' 
walk  from  the  Town  Pier.  Flys  meet  the 
trains.  There  is  another  route  from 
Tilbury  to  Fenchurch-street,  by  express 
about  45  minutes.  Ferry  steamers  ply 
between  Tilbury  station  and  the  wharf  in 
West-street.  Population,  20,413.  Soil, 
chalky.  Gravesend,  anciently,  according 
Domesday  Book,  Gravesham,  is,  owing 
to  its  position  as  the  gateway  of  the  port 
of  London,  one  of  the  most  important 
towns  on  the  river.  All  foreign-going 
ships  are  compelled  to  stop  here  and 
take  on  board  pilots,  and,  on  home- 
ward voyage,  Custom  House  officers. 
The  river  here  narrows  to  the  width  of 
about  half  a  mile,  and  the  narrow 
channel  is  day  and  night  full  of  ship- 
ping of  every  class  and  description, 
from  the  stately  ironclad  to  the 
fussy    tug,    from    the    clean-cut    China 


79 


GRA-GRA 


clipper  to  the  picturesque  if  clumsy  Dutch 
galliot,  and  from  the  graceful  schooner 
yacht  to  the  ungainly  hay-barge.  The 
shipping  in  the  reach  brings  many 
visitors  to  Gravesend,  for  although  it  is 
no  longer  the  custom,  as  it  was  extensively 
some  years  ago,  for  emigrants  and  other 
travellers  to  embark  and  disembark  at 
Gravesend,  it  is  still  a  convenient  place 
for  the  last  God-speed  on  the  outward 
voyage  or  the  first  welcome  home.  It  is 
well  to  remark  in  this  connection  that  the 
Gravesend  waterman  is  a  personage  in  any 
dealings  with  whom  it  is  desirable  to 
keep  the  weather-eye  open.  Fancy  fares 
are  almost  invariably  demanded,  and  the 
smallest  opportunity  of  laying  the  blame  of 
the  overcharge  on  the  state  of  the  weather 
or  of  the  water  is  taken  the  utmost  advan- 
tage of.  There  is,  however,  no  reason 
why  there  should  be  any  real  difficulty  in 
regard  to  this  matter.  A  table  of  fares, 
with  special  regulations  for  luggage,  is 
issued  by  the  Corporation  of  Gravesend, 
and  to  it  watermen  are  bound  to  adhere. 
The  list  will  be  found  at  the  end  of  this 
article.  From  the  river  Gravesend,  un- 
like most  riverside  towns,  presents  an 
attractive  appearance.  The  town  rises 
rapidly  from  the  riverside  to  the  hill 
which  is  crowned  with  the  well-known 
windmill ;  and  the  cliffs  towards  Rosher- 
ville  and  Northfleet,  and  the  well-wooded 
rising  ground  towards  Chalk  and  Cob- 
ham,  "add  greatly  to  the  beauty  of  the  view. 
Gravesend  has,  since  the  days  of 
Elizabeth,  been  incorporated  as  a  muni- 
cipal borough,  and  the  town  is  governed 
by  a  mayor,  six  aldermen,  and  eighteen 
councillors.  Courts  of  Quarter  Session 
are  held  here  ;  the  present  Recorder  is 
Standish  Grove  Grady,  Esq.  The  Par- 
liamentary borough  was  constituted  by 
the  Act  of  1867,  and  includes  the  parishes 
of  Gravesend  and  Milton  and  a  portion 
of  Northfleet.  The  number  of  voters  on  the 
register  in  1880  was  3,286.  The  borough 
is  at  present  represented  by  Sir  Sydney 
Waterlow,  a  Liberal.  The  principal  streets 
are  High-street,  Harmer-street,  Wind- 
mill-street, and  the  Milton  and  New 
roads,  some  of  which  contain  good 
shops.  The  most  favourite  residential 
portions  of  the  town  are  along  the  Milton- 
road,  on  the  cliffs  about  Rosherville,  and 
at  the  streets  at  the  back  of  the  town, 
which  cluster  about  Windmill  Hill  and 
lead  into  the  open  country. 


The  town-hall,  where  the  business  of 
the  municipality  is  transacted,  and  where 
petty  and  quarter  sessions  are  held,  is  a 
handsome  building  in  the  High-street, 
and  behind  it  is  the  market-place  extend- 
ing to  Queen-street. 

There  are  four  piers  :  the  Rosherville, 
just  below  the  well-known  gardens — this 
is  a  landing-stage,  and  nothing  more  ; 
the  ferryboat-pier  in  West-street ;  the 
Town  Pier,  at  the  bottom  of  High-street 
(toll  for  promenade  id.),  which  combines 
the  business  of  a  steamboat-pier  and 
landing-stage,  with  a  somewhat  feeble 
effort  in  the  direction  of  bazaar  keeping. 
This  pier  is  covered  in,  and  is  occasionally 
utilised  for  amusements,  as  is  also  the 
case  with  the  Royal  Terrace  Pier,  still 
lower  down  the  river,  which  stands  in  well- 
arranged  grounds  of  its  own.    (Toll,  2d.) 

Gravesend  belongs  to  the  Chatham 
military  district.  There  are  extensive 
barracks  in  Wellington-street,  Milton, 
and  a  rifle  range  in  Denton  Marsh,  on 
the  east  of  the  town,  which  was  for  a 
time  closed,  but  which,  after  many  diffi- 
culties and  some  litigation,  has  been 
again  restored  to  its  original  objects. 
The  forts  at  Tilbury,  New  Tavern  Fort  at 
Gravesend,  as  well  as  Shorne  Fort,  are 
included  in  the  Gravesend  district.  The 
1st  Administrative  Brigade  and  the  1st 
corps  of  that  brigade  of  Kent  Artillery 
Volunteers  have  their  headquarters  in  the 
town.  The  office  of  the  Customs  Depart- 
ment is  close  to  the  river  at  the  bottom  of 
Harmer-street.  The  pilot-station  is  at  the 
Terrace  Pier,  and  the  harbour-master's 
office  and  that  of  the  mercantile  marine 
are  in  Whitehall-place,  where  also  are 
the  offices  of  the  London  and  St. 
Katharine  and  Victoria  Docks,  that  of 
the  East  and  West  India  Docks  being  in 
Milton-place. 

There  is  a  theatre  in  the  New-road, 
which  does  not  appear  to  be  overburdened 
with  patronage,  and  the  pretty  and 
attractive  gardens  at  Rosherville  are 
mainly  supported  by  excursionists—  (see 
Rosherville  Gardens.)  The  public 
hall  is  in  New-road,  nearly  opposite  the 
theatre,  and  contains,  besides  reading- 
room,  club-room,  and  refreshment  de- 
partment, a  large  hall,  which  is  available 
for  entertainments,  lectures,  &c.  The 
assembly-room,  in  Harmer-street,  can  be 
hired  for  one  night  at  ^3  3*. ,  and  for  two 
nights  at  ^5  5s.,  including  gas.     There 


GKA-  GRA  80 

is  also  a  lecture-hall  at  Milton.  The  free 
library  and  reading-room  is  in  Church- 
street.  The  reading-room  of  the  St. 
Andrew's  Waterside  Mission  is  at  the 
foot  of  the  Town  Pier,  and  is  open  on 
week-days  from  9  to  9,  and  on  Sundays 
from  2  to  6.  The  Gravesend  Club,  which 
has  its  quarters  at  the  Nelson  Hotel,  New- 
road,  numbers  about  seventy  members. 
Entrance,  £1  is.;  subscription,  £1  is. 
Election  is  by  ballot  of  members  ;  one 
black  ball  in  ten  excludes. 

Gravesend  is  well  supplied  with  schools, 
and  one  of  the  handsomest  buildings  on 
the  hill  above  Milton  is  Milton  Mount 
College,  an  institution  founded  in  1870 
by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Guest  for  the  training 
of  the  daughters  of  Congregational 
ministers.  The  college  is  intended  to 
give  a  high  literary  culture  at  low  terms, 
especially  to  those  young  ladies  who  pur- 
pose becoming  teachers.  The  school 
depends  for  its  support  on  subscriptions 
as  well  as  on  the  payments  of  pupils.  In 
connection  with  the  college  is  Milton 
Congregational  Church  and  Lecture 
Hall,  in  which  several  societies  in  asso- 
ciation with  the  church  hold  their 
meetings. 

At  Gravesend  are  the  headquarters  of 
the  Nore  Yacht  Club  at  the  New  Falcon 
Hotel;  and  of  the  New  Thames  Yacht 
Club,  who  have  a  club-house  at  Clifton 
Marine  Parade ;  and  most  of  the  impor- 
tant races  of  the  leading  London  yacht 
clubs  finish  in  Gravesend  Reach. 

Masonic  lodges  are  held  at  the  Town 
Hall  and  at  the  Old  Falcon  Hotel. 

Varchall's  Charity.  —  This  trust  is 
shortly  as  follows  :  David  Varchall,  an 
old  inhabitant  of  Gravesend,  by  his  will 
dated  15th  September,  1703,  left  certain 
property  lying  by  the  waterside  in  trust, 
after  his  wife's  death,  to  raise  out  of  the 
rents  ^20  yearly,  to  be  paid  quarterly  to 
the  master  of  the  Free  School  (now  the 
National  School)  for  ever  to  teach 
twenty  poor  boys,  of  whom  ten  were 
to  be  sent  from  Gravesend  and  ten 
from  Milton  by  the  churchwardens  and 
parishioners  of  each  parish.  Also  to  lay 
out  a  sum  of  money  to  buy  clothes  for 
these  twenty  poor  boys,  and  to  pay  the 
surplus  to  buy  clothes  for  so  many  other 
poor  people  in  Gravesend  and  Milton, 
as  the  respective  churchwardens  and 
parishioners  should  think  fit.  The  rents 
of  the  properties  now  yield  a  surplus 


averaging  about  ;£  100  per  annum,  which 
is  divided  equally  between  the  parishes, 
and  about  Christmas  the  Vestries  examine 
each  applicant  for  clothes,  and  send  a 
list  of  approved  persons  to  the  clerk,  who 
gives  them  each  a  ticket  authorising  them 
to  receive,  at  any  shop  in  their  own 
parish,  useful  clothing  to  the  extent  of 
so  many  shillings ;  these  are  collected 
and  paid  by  the  trustees.  There  is  a 
notice  appended  to  the  ticket  that  if  the 
ticket  be  used  for  any  other  goods  except 
clothes  (such  as  liquor,  &c.)  it  will  not  be 
paid.  By  a  decree  in  Chancery  the 
number  of  trustees  is  fixed  at  fourteen — 
seven  for  each  parish  ;  five  to  be  a 
quorum.  Vacancies  are  to  be  filled  up 
by  the  trustees,  but  so  that  there  be 
never  less  than  five  trustees. 

Pinnock's  Charity. — Henry  Pinnock, 
of  Milton  next  Gravesend,  gentleman, 
by  his  will  dated  the  13th  of  August, 
1624,  gave  and  bequeathed  unto  the  poor 
people  of  the  parishes  of  Gravesend  and 
Milton  the  sum  of  ^3,  to  be  distributed 
indifferently,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
churchwardens  and  overseers  of  the  said 
parishes,  without  any  other  dole.  Like- 
wise he  gave  and  bequeathed  unto  the 
churchwardens  and  overseers  of  the 
parishes  of  Gravesend  and  Milton  afore- 
said, for  ever,  for  the  time  being,  certain 
messuages  or  tenements  with  gardens  in 
Milton  aforesaid  ;  so  that  the  said  church- 
wardens and  overseers  do  term  the  said 
messuages  for  ever  by  the  name  of  "Saint 
Thomas's  Houses,"  and  do  for  ever  con- 
vert, take,  employ,  and  keep  the  same 
houses,  with  their  appurtenances,  to  and 
for  the  only  use  and  behoof,  and  for  the 
better  relief  and  maintenance  of  such 
poor  decayed  people  as  shall  from  time 
to  time  be  or  dwell  in  the  said  parishes, 
and  to  no  other  use,  intent,  or  purpose. 
He  further  bequeathed  unto  the  said 
churchwardens  and  overseers  two  acres  of 
marsh  ground,  and  other  hereditaments 
at  Grays  Thurrock,  in  Essex,  to  the  only 
use  and  stock  of  the  said  poor  of  Milton 
and  Gravesend,  and  to  keep  them  at 
work  ;  and  that  the  trustees  shall,  during 
their  natural  lives,  have  the  placing  and 
displacing  of  the  ancient  poor  people, 
into  and  out  of  the  said  houses.  There 
are  now  ten  tenements  called  ' '  Saint 
Thomas's  Houses,"  and  four  more  are 
in  course  of  erection  out  of  funds  derived 
from  charitable  legacies.     The  present 


poor  people  who  are  occupants  number 
37.  With  a  view  of  establishing  a  fund 
for  the  endowment  of  the  charity  and  in 
memory  of  the  late  Prince  Consort,  a 
fund  was  established  in  1863  called  "  The 
Albert  Memorial  Endowment  Fund," 
which  now  consists  of  nearly  ^1,400 
Consols,  the  income  of  which  is  divided 
equally  between  the  inhabitants  of  the 
houses. 

The  Orphans'  Home,  South-street, 
West-square,  London,  and  35,  Harmer- 
street,  Gravesend,  was  opened  in  1867 
for  10  children.  There  are  now  214 
orphans  within  its  shelter — 65  in  the 
Branch  Home,  Harmer-street,  Graves- 
end,  the  rest  in  the  Parent  Home,  West- 
square,  London.  The  Gravesend  family 
consists  of  the  little  ones  and  the  delicate 
ones  of  the  flock,  with  a  few  older  and 
stronger  girls  to  do  the  work  of  the 
house.  There  is  no  assured  income, 
and  no  funded  property  belonging  to  the 
institution.  There  are  no  managing 
expenses ;  the  services  of  the  architect, 
the  legal  adviser,  the  medical  attendants, 
the  secretary,  and  superintendent,  are  all 
given  gratuitously  ;  so  that  every  penny 
which  is  contributed  to  the  Home  goes 
direct  to  the  support  of  the  children. 
The  average  cost  of  each  child's  main- 
tenance is  ;£  15  a  year.  More  than  a 
hundred  orphans  are  awaiting  their  turn 
for  admission. 

The  Children's  Home,  Milton,  for  the 
rescue  and  nurture  of  orphan  and  ne- 
glected children,  is  a  certified  industrial 
school,  providing  accommodation  for  150 
boys.  In  connection  with  the  Children's 
Home,  Bonner-road,  London  ;  Edgworth, 
Lancashire  ;  and  Hamilton,  Canada. 

Many  pleasant  excursions  may  be 
made  from  Gravesend,  some  of  the 
prettiest  country  in  the  county  lying 
within  easy  reach.  The  woods  of  Cob- 
ham  should  certainly  be  visited,  especially 
in  the  season  when  the  rhododendron 
thickets  are  in  bloom.  But  at  all  times 
of  the  year  the  woods  are  beautiful. 
Cobham  Hall,  the  seat  of  the  Earl  of 
Darnley,  is  an  interesting  Elizabethan 
building,  containing  a  fine  picture 
gallery  and  a  very  perfect  gilded  music- 
room  attributed  to  Inigo  Jones.  Cobham 
church  also  presents  many  points  of 
interest.  Fine  views  are  obtained  on  the 
road  from  Gravesend  to  Rochester  (7 
miles)  over  Gad's   Hill.      Maidstone    is 


81  QRA-GRA 

about  three-quarters  of  an  hour  from 
Gravesend  by  the  North  Kent  Railway, 
and  a  little  beyond  Maidstone  are  the 
celebrated  Farleigh  and  Wateringbury 
hop-gardens.  In  the  summer  the  steamer 
can  be  taken  to  Southend  or  Sheerness, 
from  which  latter  point  steamers  run  up 
the  Medway  to  Rochester  and  Chatham. 

Banks. — London  and  County,  and 
London  and  Provincial,  both  in  High- 
street. 

Fair. — October  24th. 

Fire. — The  Volunteer  Brigade  consists 
of  captain,  superintendent,  and  ten  mem- 
bers. Three  manual  engines,  two  hand, 
hose  and  reel.  Hydrants  are  fixed 
throughout  the  town.  Fire-engines, 
escapes,  and  fire-annihilators  are  kept  at 
the  Town  Hall. 

Hotels.  —  "  Clarendon,"  "  Falcon," 
"Old  Falcon,"  "  Rosherville,"  all  facing 
the  river. 

Places  of  Worship. — Christ  Church, 
Milton  next  Gravesend ;  Holy  Trinity 
Church,  Milton  next  Gravesend  ;  St. 
George's  (parish  church  of  Gravesend) ; 
St.  James's  Church,  London-road ;  St. 
Mark's,  Rosherville;  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Paul  (parish  church  of  Milton) ;  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church  of  St.  John's, 
Milton-road ;  Waterside  Mission,  St. 
Andrew's;  Bethel  (for  sailors  and  water- 
men, Danes,  Norwegians,  and  Swedes), 
West-street.  Gravesend  also  contains 
Congregational,  Free  Church,  Primitive 
Methodist,  Baptist,  Presbyterian,  and 
Wesleyan  Chapels,  and  a  Jewish  Syna- 
gogue. 

Police. — The  station  is  at  the  Town 
Hall  in  High-street. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  144  and  145,  Milton-road. 
Mails  from  London,  8  a.m. ,  2.5,  5.  io,  and 
10.45  p.m.  Mails  for  London,  9.30  a.m., 
1,  4,  8,  and  12  p.m.  Receiving  offices,  80, 
High-street,  38,  New-road,  27,  Wrotham- 
road,  and  at  Denton.  There  is  also  a 
telegraph-station  at  the  Terrace  Pier. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Steamboat- 
pier  and  Ferry,  Gravesend. 

Fares  to  Charing  Cross  :  1st,  3/6,  4/6  ; 
2nd,  2/8,  3/6  ;  3rd,  2/1,  3/-.  To  Fenchurch- 
street  (via  Tilbury) :  1st,  2/6,  3/9;  2nd, 
i/n,  2/10;  3rd,  1/4,  2/-. 


GRA-GRA  82 

Gravesend  Watermen's  Fares, 
between  Broadness  Point  and  Gray's,  and 
Lower  Hope  Point  below  Gravesend. — 
Over  the  water  directly,  and  to  and  from 
any  steamboat,  ship,  or  vessel,  opposite, 
or  near  to  any  public  plying  place  between 
Broadness  Point  and  Grays,  and  Lower 
Hope  Point  aforesaid,  both  inclusive,  one 
person,  is.  ;  exceeding  one,  6d.  each. 
From  the  Town  Quay  to  or  from  Gladdish's 
Wharf  on  the  west,  and  to  and  from  all 
steamboats,  ships,  vessels,  and  places 
lying  and  being  between  the  same,  and 
from  the  Town  Quay  to  and  from  all 
steamboats,  ships,  vessels,  and  places 
lying  and  being  between  the  same,  one 
person,  is.  ;  exceeding  one,  6d.  each. 
From  the  Town  Quay  at  Gravesend, 
westward,  to  or  from  any  steamboat, 
ship,  vessel,  or  place  between  it  and 


For  one 

person. 

The  Red  Lion  Wharf....     i    6 

Northfleet  Creek 2     6 

Broadness  Point  or  Grays    3    6 


Exceeding 

one. 
s.    d. 

0  9  each 

1  3     ,, 
1     9     » 


From  the  Town  Quay  at  Gravesend, 
eastward,  to  and  from  any  steamboat, 
ship,  vessel,  or  place  between  it  and 


For  one 
person. 
s.    d, 

Denton  Mill 1     6 

Shorne  Mead  Battery    . .     26 

Coalhouse  Point 3    6 

Halfway  Lower  Hope  . .     50 
Lower    Hope     Point 
Battery 6    6 


Exceeding 

one. 
s.    d. 

0  9  each 

1  3  » 
1  9  » 
26,, 

I     3     3      » 


Watermen  bringing  the  same  passengers 
or  any  of  them  back  from  any  steamboat, 
ship,  vessel,  or  place,  to  be  paid  only  one 
half  the  fare  above  stated  by  such  person 
or  persons  for  the  back  passage.  The 
above  fares  in  all  cases  to  include  pas- 
sengers' luggage  or  baggage,  not  exceed- 
ing fifty-six  pounds  for  each  passenger. 
All  beyond  that  weight  to  be  paid  for  at 
or  after  the  rate  of  6d.  for  each  fifty-six 
pounds.  Watermen  detained  by  pas- 
sengers stopping  at  steamboats,  ships, 
wharves,  and  other  places,  to  be  paid  for 
time  or  distance,  according  to  the  rate 
herein  set  forth  respectively,  at  the  op- 
tion of  the  waterman. 

For  a  full  boat-load  of  passengers'  lug- 
gage or  baggage,  the  same  fare  as  for 


carrying  eight  passengers  :  for  half  a  boat- 
load, the  same  fare  as  four  passengers. 

Time  for  a  pair  of  oars.— For  the  first 
hour,  2J-. ;  for  the  second  hour,  is. ;  and 
for  each  succeeding  hour,  is.  For  the 
day,  the  day  to  be  computed  from  7 
o'clock  in  the  morning  to  5  o'clock  in  the 
evening  from  Michaelmas  Day  to  Lady 
Day,  and  from  6  o'clock  in  the  morning 
to  8  o'clock  in  the  evening,  from  Lady 
Day  to  Michaelmas  Day,  12s. 

Gravesend  Hackney  Coach  Fares, 

to  be  affixed  in  a  conspicuous  position  in 

the  interior  of  every  carriage  licensed  by 

the  Urban  Sanitary  authority. 

By  distance — From   the  Town  Ter-  s.  d. 
race,  or  Commercial  Piers,  to  the 
North  Kent   Railway  Station,   or 
vice  versa      ...         ...         ...         ...10 

From  the  piers  or  railway  station  to 
Rosherville  Gardens,  or  Pier,  or 
Perry-street...  1  6 

To  Springhead  26 

From  the  King-street  stand  to  the 
Denton  boundary,  or  any  place 
between  the  west  side  of  Wind- 
mill and  High  streets,  and  south 
of  the  old  Dover-road ;  or  to  the 
Rosherville  boundary,  or  any  place 
between  Windmill  and  High- 
streets,  and  south  of  the  Old- 
road   ...        1  6 

From  the  piers  or  railway-station 
into  Old  Dover-road,  Constitution- 
crescent,  Leith  Park,  West  Hill, 
Shrubbery,  South  Hill,  White 
Hill  roads,  or  Old  Sun-lane  ..  1  6 

Except  in  the  above  cases,  for  any 
distance  not  exceeding  one  mile, 
ij-.  :  for  every  additional  half- 
mile,  6d.  Half  back  fare  if  the 
parties  return  in  the  same  carriage. 

By  time — Between  6  a.m.  and  10  p.m. 
for  every  hour  or  any  less  time, 
from  the  time  of  hiring  to  the 
nearest  stand  after  discharged     ...  2  6 

Half-fare  additional  may  be  charged 
between  10  p.m.  and  6  a.m.  When  more 
than  two  persons  may  be  and  are  carried, 
6d.  to  be  paid  for  every  additional  person 
for  the  whole  hiring.  Two  children  under 
ten  years  of  age  to  be  counted  as  one 
adult ;  a  single  child  under  ten  free.  No 
driver  to  carry  more  than  six  persons  in 
a  carriage  drawn  by  horses,  or  more  than 
two  in   one  drawn  by  mules  or  asses. 


Luggage  free  up  to  twenty-eight  pounds  ; 
over  that  weight,  2d.  for  every  additional 
fourteen  pounds,  or  fractional  part  thereof. 
Carriage  drawn  by  a  goat  to  carry  only 
three  children  under  six  years. 

Gravesend  Reach  is  about  three 
miles  and  a  half  in  length,  and  runs  from 
Northrleet  to  Coal  House  Point.  The 
first  lighthouse  of  the  Trinity  House  is 
at  Northfleet.  Bearings  E.S.E.  and 
W.N.W. 


Grays  Thurrock,  a  small  town  on  the 
left  (Essex)  bank,  rather  more  than  23 
miles  from  London  Bridge  ;  a  station  on 
the  London,  Tilbury,  and  Southend  Rail- 
way, 20^  miles  from  London  ;  the  trains 
average  about  three-quarters  of  an  hour. 
Population,  exclusive  of  the  training-ships, 
about  4,000.  Light  soil  on  chalk.  The 
principal  trade  of  Grays  is  in  bricks,  and, 
especially,  lime  and  cement. 

The  cruciform  church  is  dedicated  to 
St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul.  It  contains  a 
tablet  to  the  memory  of  the  schoolmaster 
and  boys  of  the  training  ship  Goliath, 
who  were  drowned  during  the  fire  which 
destroyed  that  ship  in  1876.  About  a 
century  ago,  Wm.  Palmer,  Esq.,  left 
property  in  London,  now  amounting  to 
about  ^900  per  annum,  for  the  purposes 
of  education  in  Grays,  and  a  few  years 
ago,  at  the  cost  of  about  £7,000,  schools 
were  erected  to  accommodate  140  boys 
and  75  girls,  who  obtain  their  education 
at  a  small  charge. 

The  training  ships  Exmouth  and  Shaftes- 
bury {which  see)  are  moored  in  the  river  off 
Grays.  The  former  is  under  the  Metro- 
politan Asylums  Board,  the  latter  under 
the  London  School  Board.  A  new  police- 
station  was  opened  in  1880. 

Bank. — London  and  Provincial. 

Hotels.— "  The  King's  Arms"  and 
st  The  Railway." 

Places  of  Worship.— Church  of  St. 
Peter  and  St.  Paul,  Congregational 
Church,  and  Chapels  of  the  Primitive 
and  United  Methodist. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
insurance) .  Mails  from  London ,  6. 50  an d 
7.15  a.m.,  6  p.m. ;  Sundays,  9  a.m.  For 
London,  12.10  a.m.,  4.45,  and  9  p.m.; 
Sundays,  4.30  and  9  p.m. 

Nearest  Steamboat  Pier,  Rosherville, 


83  GRA— GRE 

about  3  miles,  and  Tilbury,  a  little  lowei 
down  on  the  Essex  side ;  Railway  Station, 
Grays. 

Fares  to  London  :  1st,  2/3,  3/9  ;  2nd, 
1/8,  2/10  ;  3rd,  1/1,  2/-. 

Great  Marlow  (see  Marlow). 

Great  Western  Railway.— Horses 
and  Carriages. — Horses  and  carriages 
are  conveyed  to  or  from  Windsor,  Taplow, 
Maidenhead,  Bourne  End,  Great  Marlow, 
Henley,  Reading,  Pangbourne,  Goring, 
Wallingford,  Abingdon,  and  Oxford,  and 
horses  only  to  and  from  Cookham.  They 
are  conveyed  by  certain  trains  only,  for 
which  see  time-tables.  In  no  cases  are 
horses  or  carriages  conveyed  by  trains 
which  run  to  or  from  Bishop's-road 
Station,  or  to  or  from  the  Metropolitan 
line.  The  rates  from  Paddington  to  the 
stations  on  the  river  are  as  under  : 


from 

paddington 

STATION 

Horses. 

Carriages. 

X 

If  property  . 
of  one  person 

•5 

V 

« 

TO 

2 

3 

n 

Windsor    .... 

Taplow 

Maidenhead.. 

Cookham  

Bourne  End.. 
Great  Marlow 

Henley 

Reading   .... 
Pangbourne . . 

Goring 

Wallingford . . 

Abingdon 

Oxford 

s.    d. 

8  6 

9  0 
9    6 

10  0 

11  0 

12  6 
12   0 

12  0 

13  6 

14  6 
16    6 
18   0 
18    9 

s.    d. 

13  6 

14  0 
14    6 
i5    6 
16    6 

18  0 

19  6 
19   0 

22  0 

23  6 
27    6 

36  0 

37  6 

s.    d. 

20  0 

21  0 
21    9 

23  3 

24  9 

27  0 

«9    3 

28  6 
33    0 
35    3 
4i    3 
54   0 
56    3 

s.    d. 

11  O 

12  O 
12     6 

14     O 
l6     O 
l6     O 
l8     O 

18  O 

19  O 
22     0 

24  O 

25  O 

s.     d. 

11  0 
9    0 
9    6 

14    0 

16  0 

12  0 

12  0 

13  6 

H     3 

17  0 

24  0 

25  0 

Previous  intimation  should  be  given  to 
the  station-master  when  horses  or  carriages 
are  about  to  be  sent,  so  that  the  necessary 
vehicles  may  be  obtained  and  put  in 
readiness  by  the  time  the  horses  or 
carnages  are  brought  to  the  station. 

Compartments  Retained.— Com- 
partments, in  carriages  of  any  class,  are 
reserved  for  families  or  parties  of  friends 
who  are  desirous  of  travelling  together. 
Application  should  be  made  beforehand 
to  the  superintendent  of  the  line,  or  the 
station-master  at  Paddington,  as  passen- 
gers  cannot   depend    upon    getting    an 


GRE-GRE  84 

empty  compartment  after  they  arrive  at 
the  station,  if  no  previous  notice  has  been 
given.  The  number  of  the  party  should 
always  be  stated. 

Cloak  Rooms. — Passengers'  luggage 
can  be  deposited  in  the  cloak  rooms  at 
Paddington,  Westbourne-park,  and  other 
stations  on  the  line.  The  charge  which 
the  company  makes  for  warehousing 
passengers'  luggage,  which  has  been,  or 
is  about  to  be  conveyed  on  the  railway,  is 
zd.  for  each  package  for  any  period  not 
exceeding  three  days,  and  id.  additional 
per  package  for  every  day  or  part  of  a 
day  after  three  days. 

Cheap  Tickets  for  Picnic  and 
other  Pleasure  Parties. — Between 
May  i  and  October  31  of  every  year,  1st, 
2nd,  and  3rd  class  return  tickets  at  re- 
duced fares  are  issued  from  all  London 
stations  to  bona  fide  pleasure  or  picnic 
parties  of  not  less  than  six  1st  class,  or 
ten  2nd  or  3rd  class  passengers.  The 
tickets  are  available  for  use  on  the  day  of 
issue  only  ;  they  are  not  issued  to  London 
in  any  case,  nor  from  London  to  any 
place  more  than  thirty  miles  distant. 
In  order  to  obtain  these  tickets  it  is 
necessary  that  application  should  be 
made  for  them  at  least  three  clear  days 
before  the  excursion  is  proposed  to  be 
made,  and  the  letter  of  application  must 
specifically  state  that  the  party  is  ex- 
clusively a  pleasure  party,  and  give  the 
following  information  : 

1.  The  probable  number  of  the  party. 

2.  The  class  of  carriage  for  which   the 

tickets  are  required. 

3.  The  stations  from  and  to  which   the 

party  will  travel. 

4.  The  date  of  the  proposed  excursion, 

and  the  trains  by  which  the   party 
intend  to  go  and  return. 

The  application  may  be  addressed 
either  to  the  general  manager,  the  super- 
intendent of  the  line,  the  superintendent 
of  the  London  division  (Paddington),  or 
the  station-master  at  Paddington.  The 
power  of  refusing  any  application  is  re- 
served ;  but  if  it  be  granted,  a  letter  of 
authority  will  be  sent  to  the  applicant, 
on  production  of  which  at  the  booking- 
office  of  the  station  from  whence  the  party 
travels  the  necessary  tickets  will  be  issued. 
The  fares  are  generally  about  a  single 
fare  and  a  quarter.      From  Paddington 


to  the  undermentioned  stations  on  the 
Thames  they  are  as  under  : 


Paddington  to 

I  St 

Class. 

2nd 
Class. 

3rd 
Class. 

Brentford 

Windsor  

Taplow 

s.    d. 
1   11 

4  9 

5  0 

5  5 

6  3 
6     7 

s.     d. 
1     6 
3     7 

3  9 

4  1 

4  7 

5  0 

s.    d. 

1  X 

2  3 
2     5 
2      7 

2  IO 

3  0 

Maidenhead    

Cookham  

Bourne  End    

Anglers'  Tickets.— Cheap  3rd  class 
return  tickets  to  the  undermentioned 
stations  are  issued  from  all  London 
stations  by  all  3rd  class  trains  to  anglers 
who  are  bond  fide  members  of  anglers' 
clubs,  and  who  produce  their  cards  of 
membership  at  the  time  of  taking  their 
tickets.  The  fares  Irom  Paddington  are 
as  under  : 


s. 

d. 

s.    d. 

Maidenhead    .. 

a 

7 

Cookham 

.      2  10 

Taplow.. 

2 

S 

Bourne  End     . 

•     3    0 

Twyford 

3 

3 

Pangbourne     . 

.     4     4 

Henley.. 

3 

9 

Goring  . . 

.     4     9 

Great  Marlow. . 

3 

4 

Anglers'  tickets  are  in  all  cases  "re- 
turn" tickets,  and  are  available  for  three 
days. 

Outside  Porters  for  Transfer  of 
Luggage. — Where  two  stations  belong- 
ing to  separate  companies  are  adjacent  to 
each  other,  out-porters  are  appointed  to 
convey  passengers'  luggage  from  one 
station  to  the  other  at  fixed  charges. 

The  Bishop's-road  and  Praed-street 
Stations  adjoin  the  Paddington  Station, 
and  the  authorised  charge  for  the  con- 
veyance of  luggage  from  one  to  the  other 
is  2d.  per  package. 

At  Reading  the  stations  of  the  Great 
Western  and  South-Eastern  Companies 
adjoin.  The  charges  for  the  transfer 
of  luggage  are  : 

X. 

Single  packages      . .         . .         . .         . .  o 

Two  or  more  packages,  not  exceeding 

£  cwt.  each  . .         . .         . .         . .  o 

Each  package  exceeding  £  cwt. . .         . .  o 

Large  quantities,  per  ton 2 

At  Oxford  transfer  porters  convey 
luggage  between  the  Great  Western  and 
North  Western  Stations  at  fixed  charges, 
under  the  control  of  the  station-masters. 

The  fares  charged  for  through  tickets 
do  not  in  any  case  include  the  conveyance 
of  luggage  between  the  stations. 


85 


Cheap  Saturday  to  Monday 
Tickets. — On  Saturdays  and  Sundays 
ist  and  2nd  class  return  tickets  to 
Windsor  are  issued  at  Paddington, 
Kensington,  Uxbridge-road,  Westbourne- 
park,  Aldgate,  Bishopsgate,  Moorgate- 
street,  King's  Cross,  and  stations  on  the 
Metropolitan  Railway  between  Aldgate 
and  Edgware-road  inclusive  ;  also  from 
Hammersmith,  Shepherd's  Bush,  Lati- 
mer-road,  and  Notting-hill,  available  for 
the  return  journey  till  the  Monday  fol- 
lowing inclusive.  Fares  from  either  of 
the  above-mentioned  stations  :  ist  class, 
4-f.  6d.  ;  2nd  class,  3s.  6d.  Similar  tickets 
are  also  issued  from  Mansion  House, 
Charing  Cross,  Victoria,  and  all  Stations 
on  the  District  Railway  between  Mansion 
House  and  Hammersmith  inclusive,  also 
from  Kensington  (High-street),  West 
Brompton  and  Walham  Green,  via 
Ealing  only,  available  for  the  same  period 
and  at  the  same  fares. 

Similar  tickets  are  also  issued  on  Satur- 
days only  from  Victoria,  Battersea, 
Chelsea,  and  West  Brompton,  available 
for  return  during  the  same  period  and  at 
the  same  fares. 

On  Saturdays  and  Sundays  cheap  ist 
and  2nd  class  return  tickets  to  Henley 
are  issued  at  Paddington,  Kensington, 
Uxbridge-road,  Westbourne-park,  Ham- 
mersmith, Shepherd's  Bush,  Latimer- 
road,  and  Notting-hill,  available  for  the 
return  journey  till  the  following  Monday 
inclusive.     Fares:  ist  class,  ys.  6d.\  3rd 


ORE-GRE 

class,  5-r.  Also  from  Aldgate,  Bishops- 
gate,  Moorgate-street,  King's  Cross,  and 
stations  on  the  Metropolitan  Rai-lway  be- 
tween Aldgate  and  Edgware-road,  in- 
clusive; and  from  Mansion  House, 
Blackfriars,  Charing  Cross,  Victoria,  and 
all  stations  on  the  District  Railway,  be- 
tween Mansion  House  and  Gloucester- 
road  inclusive;  via  Earl's  Court  and 
Westbourne-park  only.  Fares  :  ist  class, 
8s. ;  2nd  class,  55-.  6d. 

Tickets  are  also  issued  on  Saturdays 
only  from  Victoria,  Battersea,  Chelsea, 
and  West  Brompton,  available  for  return 
during  the  same  period.  Fares  :  ist 
class,  js.  6d.  ;  2nd  class,  55. 

These  tickets  must  be  used  on  the 
down  journey  on  the  date  of  issue,  but 
are  available  for  return  journey  by  any 
train  on  Sunday  or  Monday. 

Boats  and  Canoes  are  conveyed  at 
the  risk  of  the  owner  by  passenger  trains 
at  rates  which  may  be  obtained  of  the 
station-masters.  In  cases,  however, 
where  the  crew,  not  less  than  four  in 
number,  travel  with  the  boat,  the  charge 
for  the  latter  will  be  reduced  one-third  ; 
but  in  order  to  obtain  this  reduction 
previous  application  must  be  made  to 
the  superintendent  of  the  line. 

The  reduction  is  made  only  one  way 
if  the  crew  accompany  the  boat  only  one 
way ;  but  is  made  both  ways  if  they 
accompany  the  boat  both  going  and 
returning. 


SEASON  TICKET  RATES 

First  Class. 

Second  Class. 

Paddington 
to 

Twelve     Nine 

Six 

Three 

Two    J   One 

Twelve 

Nine 

Six 

Three 

Two 

One 

months,  months. 

months. 

months. 

months,  month. 

i 

months. 

months. 

months. 

months. 

mnths. 

~£s.d. 

month. 

£  s  d.\£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d.  £  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  S.d. 

£  s.d. 

£s.d. 

Brentford  .. 

15    0  0      .. 

900 

5  10  0 

..      |     .. 

II    00 

700 

400 

. . 

, . 

Windsor    . . 

24    0  0,20    0  0 

14    0  0 

7  10  0 

5    503    00 

1800 

15    0  0  10  10  0 

5  12  6 

3  17  62  50 

Taplow  .... 

25  10  0J22    0  0 

14  150 

8  10  0 

6  10  0  3  15  0 

J9    5o 

16  10  0,11    0  0 

6    76 

4  17  62  17  6 

Maidenhead 

26  15  0)23    0  0 

15    50 

8  17  6 

6  15  04    0  0 

20    2  6  17    5  o'n  12  6 

6  12  6 

5    0  0)3    00 

Cook  ham  .. 

29  15  0:25  10  0 

17    0  0 

9  150 

7  1004    7  6j 

22    5  0  19    5  o|i2  15  0 

7    5o 

5  12  6J3    5  0 

Bourne  End 

30  10  0J26    5  0 

17  10  0 

10    0  0 

7  15  o|4  10  0, 

22  15  0  19  15  0J13    2  6 

7  10  0 

5  15  °3    7  6 

Gt.  Marlow 

35    0  030    5  0 

20    5  0 

11  10  0 

9    oo!5    5  ° 

26    5  0122  15  0,15    2  6 

8  150 

6  12  6J3  18  6 

Shiplake    . . 
Henley  ..  ) 
Reading.,  J 

34    5  0  29  15  0 
36    0031    00 

19  150 

20  15  0 

11  10  0 
11  17  6 

8  15  o'5    0  oj 

9  2  6C5   Q 

25  150 
27    0  0 

22  5  0  14  17  6 

23  5OI5  lo° 

8  120 
8176 

6  10  03  176 
6  12  63  17  6 

Pangbourne 

39    5  0  32  10  0 

54    0  0 

14  10  0 

IO  15  O.5   IO  O 

29  10  0 

24  10  0,19  100 

10    0  0 

7  10  o'4    2  6 

Goring   .... 
Wallingford 
Radley  .... 

41  10034    50 

25  10  0 

15    50 

II      5  05  15   O; 

3i    50 

26    0  0  20  10  0 

10  10  0 

7  15  04    50 

47    5© 

.. 

29    0  0 

17  10  0 

.. 

35  100 

I23  10  0 

12    00 

. . 

52    0  0 

.. 

32    00 

19    50 

.  . 

39    SO 

..      25150 

13    So 

■  m 

Abingdon  . . 
Oxford   .... 

53  wo 

.. 

33    00 

19  15  0 

.  . 

40    5  0      . .       26  10  0 

13  100 

. . 

#  # 

56  150 

. . 

35    00 

21    00 

\\ 

42  15  0      ..      128    =;  0 

14  10  0 

Government 

1 

duty  extra 

1 
I 

CRE-6RE 

88 

SEASON  TICKET  RATES. 

First  Class. 

Second  Class. 

FARRINGDON 

Street 

to 

Twelve 

Nine 

Six 

Three 

Two 

One 

Twelve 

Nine 

Six 

Three 

Two 

One 

months. 

months. 

months. 

months. 

months. 

month. 

months. 

months. 
£  s.d. 

months. 

months. 

ninths. 

month. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  S.d. 

£  s.d. 

£s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£s.d. 

£s.d. 

Erentford  . . 

1800 

15  100 

10   5  0 

600 

4  12  6 

2  12  6 

13  10  0 

11  10  0 

7  150 

4  10  0 

3    7  6 

200 

Windsor     . . 

26  10  0 

21  17  6 

15    50 

8    26 

5  150 

3    5o 

20  0  0 

16  10  0 

11  10  0 

6    264    50 

2  10  0 

Taplow 

29  10  0 

25  10  0 

17  10  0 

10    0  0 

7  150 

476 

22   5  0 

19    00 

12  150 

776 

5  12  6 

350 

Maidenhead 

30150 

26    5  0 

17  12  6 

10    2  6 

7  176 

4  12  6 

22  17  6 

19  150 

13    76 

7  12  6 

5  17  6 

376 

Cookham  .. 

32  150 

28    50 

18  15  0 

10  15  0 

850 

4  15  0 

24  10  0 

21    50 

14    2  6 

8    26 

650 

3  12  6 

Bourne  End 

34  10  0 

29  10  0 

19  150 

1150 

8  150 

500 

25  150 

22    5  0 

14  176 

8  10  0 

6  10  0 

3  15  0 

Gt.  Mario w 

39  00 

33  10° 

22  10  0 

12  15  0 

10    0  0 

5  15  0 

29    50 

25    5  0 

16  T7  6    9  15  0 

776 

460 

Shiplake    . . 
Henley  ..  ) 
Reading..  ) 

38  10  0 

33    00 

22    0  0 

12  15  0 

9  150 

5  12  6 

28  15  0 

24  150 

16  10  0   9  10  0 

7    5o 

4    50 

40  0  0 

34  10  0 

23    0  0 

13    5o 

10    2  6 

5150 

30    0  0 

25  17  6 

17    50 

9176 

7  12  6 

4    7  6 

SEASON  TICKET  RATES. 

MOORGATE 

First  Class. 

Second  Class. 

Street 

or 

Bishops- 

Twelve 

Nine 

Six 

Three 

Two 

One 

Twelve 

Nine 

Six 

Three 

Two 

One 

gate  to 

months. 

months, 

months. 

months. 

months. 

month. 

months. 

months. 

months. 

months. 

mnths. 

month. 

£  s.d.\£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.2. 

£s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d. 

£  s.d.£  s.  d. 

£s.d. 

£s.d. 

Brentford  .. 

19    0016    70 

10  17  0 

6    7  0    4  17  6 

2  16  0 

14   50 

12   3  0 

8    40 

4i5o 

3  11  6 

226 

Windsor    . . 

26  10  0  21  17  6 

15    50 

8    2  6    5  15  0 

350 

20   0  0 

16  10  0 

11  100 

626 

4    5o 

2  10  0 

Taplow 

30  10  0*26    7  0 

18    2  0 10   708   00 

4  11  0 

23   00 

19  13  0 

13    40 

7  12  6 

5166 

3    7  6 

Maidenhead 

31  15  0  27    20 

18    5  0  10   968    26 

4  16  0 

23  12  6 

20    8  0 

13  16  6    7  17  6 

6    1  6 

3  10  0 

■Cookham  . . 

33  IS© 

29    2  0 

19    7  on    20   8  10  0 

4  18  6 

25    50 

21  18  0 

14  11  6    8    76 

690 

3  15  0 

Bourne  End 

35  100 

30    70 

20    7  011  12  0   9    00 

5    3  6 

26  10  0 

22  18  0 

15    6  6 

8  150 

6  14  0 

3  17  6 

Gt.  Marlow 

40    0  0 

34    7  0 

23    2  0  13    2  0  10    5  0 

51B6 

30    00 

25  18  0 

17    6  6 

10    0  0 

7  11  6 

486 

Shiplake    . . 
Henley  ..  ) 
Reading.,  j" 

39  100 

33  170 

22  12  0  13    2  0  10    0  0 

5  16  0 

29  10  0 

25    8  0 

16  19  0 

9150 

790 

476 

41    00 

35    70 

23  12  0 

13  12  010    7  6 

518  6 

30150 

26  10  6 

17  140 

10    2  6 

7  16  6 

4  10  0 

Pangbourne 

44    50 

38    50 

26  17  0  16    4  6J12    7  6 

726 

33    5o 

28  15  0 

21  14  0 

11    5  0 

8  15  0 

500 

Cheap  Day  Excursions.  —  Cheap 
Day  Excursion  Tickets  are  issued  by 
-certain  specified  trains,  from  May  1  to 
October  31,  to  the  following  places  from 
Paddington,  Westbourne-park,  Ken- 
sington (Addison-road),  Uxbridge-road, 
West  Brompton,  Chelsea,  and  Battersea. 
Also  from  Aldgate,  Bishopsgate,  Moor- 
gate-street,  Farringdon-street,  and  sta- 
tions on  the  Metropolitan  Railway- 
between  Aldgate  and  Edgware-road 
inclusive  ;  and  from  Hammersmith, 
Shepherd's  Bush,  Latimer-road,  and 
Notting-hill,  there  and  back,  in  3rd  class 
carriages,  at  the  following  fares  : 

s.  d. 


Windsor 
Maidenhead 
Taplow. . 
Cookham 


2  6 

3  o 
3  o 
3  6 


Bourne  End  . 
Great  Marlow. 
Henley.. 


s.  d. 

3     6 

3  \ 

3     6 


Cheap  Day  Excursion  Tickets  are  also 
issued  to  Windsor,  by  through  trains 
via  Ealing,  from  Mansion  House  and  all 
stations  on  the  District  Railway  between 
Mansion  House  and  Ealing  Common 
inclusive,  and  from  Kensington  (High- 
street)  and  stations  between  Putney 
Bridge  and  West  Brompton  inclusive,  at 
the  following  fares  : 

From  all  Stations  except  Acton  Green, 
Mill  Hill  Park,  and  Ealing  Common 

From  Acton  Green 

From  Mill  Hill  Park,  and  Ealing  Com- 


s.   d. 


Cheap  Day  Excursion  Tickets  to  the 
following  places  are  also  issued  from  the 
Mansion  House  and  all  stations  on  the 
District  Railway  between  Mansion  House 
and  Earl's  Court   inclusive,    from   Ken- 


sington  (High-street)  and  stations  be- 
tween Putney  Bridge  and  West  Brompton 
inclusive  (via  Earl's  Court  and  West- 
bourne-park)  at  the  following  fares  : 

Bourne  End    . . 


s.   d. 

Maidenhead    ..     3    ° 

Taplow..         ..30 

Cookham         ..     3     6 

These    tickets   are 


s.    d. 
3     6 
Great  Marlow..     3    6 
Henley..         ..     3    6 
only  available    by 


specified  trains  as  shown  on  handbills, 
copies  of  which  may  be  had  at  Padding- 
ton,  at  any  of  the  Great  Western  Stations 
or  Receiving  Offices  in  London,  and  also 
at  the  Metropolitan  and  District  Railway 
Stations.  Passengers  must  be  careful  to 
note  that  if  the  cheap  tickets  are  used  by 
any  other  than  the  specified  trains,  or  if 
the  journey  there  and'  back  be  not  com- 
pleted in  the  one  day,  the  full  ordinary 
fares  will  be  charged. 

Saloon  Carriages  . — Saloon  carriages 
constructed  to  carry  about  twenty-four 
passengers  (1st  class  only)  may  be  re- 
tained for  parties  of  not  less  than  eight 
passengers.  Application  should  be  made 
to  the  superintendent  of  the  line,  Pad- 
dington  Station,  some  days  before  the 
date  on  which  the  carriages  will  be  re- 
quired, as  the  number  is  limited,  and  in 
the  summer  there  is  often  a  great  demand 
for  them.  These  carriages  are  not  retained 
for  parties  holding  picnic  or  other  tickets 
issued  at  reduced  rates. 

Changing  to  and  from  the  Metro- 
politan Line. — Passengers  between  the 
Metropolitan  line  and  the  Great  Western 
Railway  change  either  at  Bishop's-road, 
Praed-street,  or  Westbourne-park.  Some 
of  the  main-line  trains  do  not  stop  at 
Westbourne-park,  and  therefore  persons 
not  fully  conversant  with  the  time-table 
will  do  well  to  change  at  Bishop's-road. 
Westbourne-park  is,  however,  more  con- 
venient for  passengers  coming  from  Ham- 
mersmith, Kensington,  or  the  Western 
suburbs  served  by  the  Metropolitan  trains 
running  through  that  station,  as  the 
change  is  made  by  simply  walking  from 
one  side  of  the  platform  to  the  other. 

The  Metropolitan  and  Metropolitan 
District  Extension  is  now  completed,  and 
trains  run  round  the  Circle  via  Praed- 
street,  Moorgate-street,  Aldgate,  Mansion 
House,  and  High-street,  Kensington.  Pas- 
sengers for  Paddington  by  those  trains  must 
change  at  Praed-street  Station.  Bishop's- 
road  communicates  with  the  Paddington 
Station  by  means  of  a  covered  way  ;  but 


87  GRE-GRE 

persons  passing  to  and  from  the  Praed- 
street  Station  must  cross  the  street. 

The  authorised  charge  for  conveying 
luggage  between  Paddington  andBishop's- 
road  or  Praed-street  is  2d.  per  package, 
irrespective  of  weight. 

Private  Broughams.  —  Broughams 
may  be  hired  at  the  Paddington  Station 
at  a  fixed  charge  of  for  the  first  hour,  3*. ; 
after  the  first  hour,  2s.  6d.  per  hour  ;  or 
at  is.  6d.  per  mile  if  according  to  distance. 
A  note  to  the  station-master  will  always 
secure  the  attendance  of  as  many  carriages 
as  may  be  required  on  the  arrival  of  the 
train. 

Private  Omnibuses  can  also  be  hired. 
For  terms  apply  to  the  station-master. 

Greenhithe,  Kent,  on  the  right  bank 
at  the  junction  of  Long  and  Fiddler's 
Reaches,  from  London  21  miles.  A 
station  on  the  North  Kent  Railway  20 
miles  from  Charing  Cross  ;  express  trains 
take  about  45  minutes.  The  station  is  10 
minutes'  walk  from  the  river  at  the  Pier 
Hotel,  where  there  is  a  jetty  (toll  id?.) 
recently  erected  in  place  of  the  old  pier* 
Population  1,452.  Soil,  gravel  and  chalk* 
The  Arethusa  and  Chichester  training- 
ships  for  boys,  and  the  Worcester,  the 
ship  of  the  Thames  Nautical  Training- 
College,  are  stationed  here,  and  here  also 
are  the  headquarters  of  the  Junior 
Thames  Yacht  Club  (all  of  which  see). 
Some  considerable  business  is  done  by 
the  cement  works  in  the  neighbourhood,, 
not  altogether  to  the  satisfaction  of  some 
of  the  inhabitants,  and  many  river  pilots 
and  masters  of  vessels  complain  loudly  of 
the  nuisance  arising  from  the  smoke  of 
the  numerous  chimneys.  The  principal 
mansion  at  Greenhithe  is  Ingress  Abbey, 
facing  the  river,  which  was  formerly  the 
residence  of  Alderman  Harmer,  and  was 
constructed  in  part  of  stones  from  Old 
London  Bridge.  There  are  some  good 
houses  at  the  back  of  the  village  on  what 
is  known  as  The  Terrace  and  in  its  neigh- 
bourhood. A  masonic  lodge  is  held  at 
the  Pier  Hotel.  The  church  is  a  hand- 
some modern  building  in  the  early 
decorated  style,  picturesquely  situated  on 
the  London-road.  A  short  distance  from 
Greenhithe — approached  either  from  the 
London-road  or  by  a  footpath  immediately 
opposite  the  railway  station,  a  few  minutes' 
walk — is  Stone  Church,  a  well-known  land- 
mark.    The  church  has  been  recently  re- 


GRE-GUD  88 

stored  by  Mr.  Street,  who  is  of  opinion  that 
it  was  built  by  the  same  architect  as  West- 
minster Abbey.  They  were  certainly  built 
at  the  same  time,  and  there  are  many 
points  of  resemblance  between  them. 
The  chancel  is  remarkable  for  the  great 
beauty  of  the  carving  of  the  arch  and  of 
the  arcade  on  marble  pillars  which  runs 
round  the  walls,  and  which  Mr.  Street 
pronounces  to  be  "  among  the  very  best 
sculpture  of  the  age  that  we  have  in 
this  country."  Among  other  features  of 
interest  are  some  ancient  brasses. 

The  view  from  the  churchyard  is  ex- 
tensive ;  visitors  should  by  no  means 
overlook  the  remarkably  fine  yew-tree 
which  stands  near  the  west  door  of  the 
church. 

There  is  a  village  club.  Subscription, 
for  working-men,  $s,  per  annum,  or 
is.  6d.  per  quarter  ;  honorary  members, 
10s.  per  annum,  $s.  per  quarter.  Read- 
ing-room open  from  6  to  10  p.m.,  except 
Monday.  Smoking-room  open  daily 
from  8  a.m.  to  io  p.m.  Library  of 
1,000  volumes. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Mary  the 
Virgin,  and  Stone  Church  ;  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church  of  Our  Lady  of  Mount 
Carmel ;  and  Congregational  and  Wes- 
leyan  Chapels. 

Fire. — Volunteer  Brigade  :  2  officers 
and  ii  men. 

Hotels.—*'  The  Pier,"  "  The  White 
Hart,"  both  in  High-street. 

Police. — No  station  ;  2  constables 
live  in  the  village. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  High-st.  Mails  from 
London  at  8  a.m.,  12.40  and  6.30  p.m. 
Mails  for  London,  1.15  and  8.15  p.m. 
There  is  also  a  branch  office  on  The 
Terrace. 

Nearest  Station  and  Ferry,  Green- 
hithe. 

Fares  to  London  (Charing  Cross)  : 
1st,  3/3.  4/6;  2nd'  2/6-  3/6;  3rd,  1/8,  2/9. 
Greenwich  Hospital  and  Royal 
Naval  College,  Greenwich,  S.E.— 
Greenwich  Hospital  was  founded  by 
William  III.  immediately  after  the  death 
of  Queen  Mary,  his  consort,  and  was 
intended  as  a  memorial  of  her  virtues, 
and  of  the  great  victory  of  La  Hogue  ; 
"a  monument,"  as  Macaulay  says,  "  the 
most  superb  that  was  ever  erected  to 
any  sovereign."     The  building,  a  grand 


specimen  of  classical  architecture,  and 
one  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren's  finest 
designs,  was  originally  intended  as 
an  asylum  for  wounded  and  disabled 
sailors,  in  whom  Queen  Mary  was  greatly 
interested.  The  first  stone  in  the  building 
was  laid  in  1695,  and  ten  years  later  forty- 
two  seamen  were  admitted  to  the  benefits 
of  the  asylum.  This  number  in  course 
of  time  was  increased  to  something  like 
three  thousand  ;  but  in  1865  an  Act  of 
Parliament  was  passed  offering  advan- 
tageous terms  to  such  of  the  pensioners 
as  would  leave,  and  in  1869  another  Act 
finally  disestablished  King  William's 
foundation.  When  the  Hospital  was 
occupied  by  the  pensioners  it  became 
one  of  the  sights  of  London,  and  it  is 
possible  that  a  too  liberal  distribution  of 
baksheesh  on  the  part  of  the  public  may 
have  had  something  to  do  with  the  de- 
terioration which  was  observable  in  the 
manners  and  customs  of  the  in-pensioners 
during  the  later  days  of  their  existence. 
Nowadays,  although  one  of  their  chief 
attractions  exists  no  longer,  Greenwich 
Hospital  and  Park  are  still  well  worthy  a 
visit.  The  Painted  Hall  contains  some 
fine  pictures  of  sea-fights,  and  there  are 
some  noteworthy  statues  of  celebrated 
sailors.  The  most  interesting  of  the 
Greenwich  sights,  however,  are  the  relics 
of  Nelson — notably  the  Trafalgar  coat 
and  waistcoat.  The  public  are  admitted 
free.  From  Cannon-street  (17  min.), 
1st,  -/io,  1/3  ;  2nd,  -/8,  1/- ;  3rd,  -/s,  -/8. 
Charing  Cross,  (27  min.),  1st,  1/-,  1/6; 
2nd,  -/9>  1/2  ;  3rd,  -/6,  -/9  ;  also  by  steam- 
boat from  all  piers. 

Greenwich  Reach  runs  between 
Greenwich  and  the  Isle  of  Dogs.  Bear- 
ings S.S.E.  and  E.N.E. 

Grove  Park  Rowing  Club,  Chiswick. 
— Amateur.  Election  by  ballot  in  com- 
mittee, one  "negative  vote"  in  five  to 
exclude.  Entrance  fee,  a  £1  share  in  the 
Grove  Park  Boat-house  Company  (Lim.). 
Subscription,  £1  11s.  6d. ;  honorary  mem- 
bers, £1  is.  Colours,  red,  black,  and 
yellow.  Club-house,  Grove-park,  Chis- 
wick. 

Gudgeon  (The).— It  is  doubtful  whether 
this  fish  is  so  abundant  in  the  river,  or 
that  it  reaches  anything  like  the  individual 
size  as  formerly.  A  gudgeon  of  the 
present  day  of  two  ounces,  or  about  seven 
inches  in  length,  is  a  monster  fish.    They 


swim  in  large  shoals  always  close  to  the 
bottom,  and  are  taken  with  the  same  tackle 
as  that  used  for  dace,  excepting  that  the 
hook  should  be  almost  of  the  smallest. 
The  best  bait  is  a  small  portion  of  red 
worm,  sufficient  to  cover  the  hook  and  no 
more  ;  for  if  there  is  a  portion  hanging 
down,  it  will  be  seized  and  nipped  off  by 
this  bold  biter.  Fifteen  to  twenty  dozen 
may  be  caught  by  a  single  rod  on  a 
favourable  day.  The  minnows  here,  how- 
ever, as  do  the  bleak  in  the  roach  and 
dace  swims,  prove  a  great  annoyance, 
and  as  there  appears  to  be  no  way  to 
get  rid  of  them,  their  presence  must  be 
put  up  with.  The  bait  should  drag  on 
the  ground,  the  float  slightly  kept  in  the 
rear,  that  the  bait  may  tilt,  advance,  and 
present  itself  to  the  fish  without  the  inter- 
ference of  the  line.  They  will  bite  in 
the  hottest  weather  and  in  the  middle  of 
the  day,  when  all  other  fish  are  lazy  and 
indisposed  to  feed.  Gudgeon  fishing  is 
a  favourite  pursuit  with  ladies,  who  are 
often  more  skilful  in  the  capture  than  the 
stronger  sex. 

Halfway  Reach,  nearly  two  miles 
from  Crossness — the  Southern  outfall — to 
the  top  of  Erith  Reach.  Dagenham 
Reach  and  Marsh  are  on  the  left  (Essex) 
bank.  On  the  other  side  are  the  extensive 
Erith  Marshes.  Bearings  S.E.  by  E.  and 
N.W.  by  W. 

Halliford,  Middlesex  (and  see  Cause- 
way Stakes)  on  the  left  bank,  between 
Shepperton  and  Walton ;  from  London  28f 
miles,  from  Oxford  82!  miles.  Halliford — 
generally  known  as  Lower  Halliford,  there 
being  a  so-called  Upper  Halliford  in  the 
parish  of  Sunbury — is  a  hamlet  much  in 
favour  with  anglers,  with  a  fine  view, 
across  the  river,  of  Oatlands  Park  and  the 
Surrey  hills.  An  iron  bridge  connects  the 
counties  of  Middlesex  and  Surrey  at 
Halliford ;  the  old  brick  bridge,  with  its 
numerous  arches,  having  succumbed  some 
years  ago  in  a  disastrous  flood.  There  is 
no  particular  point  calling  for  remark  at 
Halliford,  except  that  it  has  a  very  com- 
fortable and  reasonable  hotel  in  Stone's 
well-known  "Ship,"  which  is  largely  used 
by  anglers  and  rowing  men.  Shepperton 
rai1  way  station  is  an  easy  fifteen  minutes' 
walk  from  the  "  Ship*" 

Punts  now  begin  to  thicken,  and  as 
many  may  be  counted  in  a  mile  as  in 


)  GUD— HAM 

twenty  above  ;  yet  roach  are  taken  by  the 
five  to  twelve  dozen  in  a  day  with  a  single 
rod,  and  all  the  persistent  angling  ap- 
pears to  have  no  appreciable  effect  upon 
their  presence. 

There  is  a  Wesleyan  Chapel  in  the 
village. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  telegraph,  and  savings 
bank),  about  six  minutes'  walk  to  the  left 
from  the  river.  Mails  from  London,  7 
and  10.40  a.m.,  6.20  p.m.;  Sunday,  7 
a.m.  Mails  for  London,  9.10  a.m.,  2.0, 
7.30,  and  8.40  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  10.10  p.m. 

NEAREST  Bridges,  up,  Chertsey,  2| 
miles  ;  down,  Walton  1  mile.  Locks,  up, 
Shepperton  i\  mile  ;  down,  Sunbury,  2.\ 
miles.     Railway  Station,  Shepperton. 

Fares,  Shepperton  to  Waterloo,  ist, 
3/-,  4/-;  2nd,  2/4,  3/-;  3rd,  r/6j,  2/6. 

Hambleden,  Bucks,  on  the  left  bank. 
Population,  1,550.  Soil,  chalky.  The 
diminutive  village  of  Hambleden  stands 
some  distance  from  the  river,  its  water- 
side suburb,  so  to  speak,  being  Mill  End, 
close  to  Hambleden  Lock  ;  from  London 
62|  miles,  from  Oxford  48J  miles.  There 
is  little  inducement  to  walk  the  mile  or 
so,  which  separates  this  retired  hamlet 
from  the  river,  although  it  is  easy  to 
understand  the  attraction  that  Hamble- 
den and  its  neighbourhood  have  for  the 
landscape  painter.  The  handsome  old 
church,  approached  through  a  good  lych- 
gate  with  two  dormers,  contains  in  the 
north  aisle  an  alabaster  monument  of  Sir 
Cope  and  Lady  D'Oyley  and  their  ten 
children.  They  are  all  in  the  usual  kneel- 
ing posture,  elaborately  painted  and  gil- 
ded, the  sons  with  the  father,  the  daugh- 
ters with  the  mother.  Some  of  the  figures 
bear  skulls  in  their  hands,  probably  to 
intimate  that  they  had  died  before  the 
erection  of  the  monument.  Lady  D'Oyley 
was  the  sister  of  Quarles,  of  the  "  Em- 
blems," to  whom  probably  the  epitaph  to 
his  sister  is  to  be  attributed.  It  runs 
thus  : 

Would'st  thou  reader  draw  to  life 

The  perfect  copy  of  a  wife, 

Read  on  then  redeeme  from  shame 

That  lost  that  honourable  name. 

This  dust  was  once  in  spirit  a  Jael 

Rebecca  in  grace  in  heart  an  Abigail ; 

In  works  a  Dorcas  to  ye  Church  a  Hanna 

And  to  her  spouse  Susanna 

Prudently  simple  providently  wary 

To  th'  world  a  Martha  and  to  Heaven  a  Mary. 


HAM-HAM  90 

The  inscription  to  the  memory  of  Sir 
•Cope,  who  died  in  1633,  fifteen  years 
.after  his  wife,  is  still  more  gushing  : 

Cope  D'Oyley,  died  1633. 
Ask  not  me  who's  buried  here  ; 
Goe  ask  the  Commons,  ask  ye  Sheire, 
Goe  ask  ye  Church  ;  they'll  tell  thee  who 
As  well  as  blubbered  eyes  can  doe  ; 
Goe  ask  ye  Heraulds ;  Ask  ye  poore  ; 
Thine  eares  shall  heare  enough  to  ask  no  more 
Then,  if  thine  eye  bedewe  this  sacred  vrne 
Each  drop  a  pearle  will  turn 
T'  adorne  his  Tombe  ;  or,  if  thou  canst  not  vent 
Thou  bringst  more  marble  to  his  monument. 

It  is  further  recorded  that  "they  lived 
together  in  inviolated  bands  of  holy  wed- 
locke  22  yeares  and  multiplied  themselves 
into  5  sonnes  and  5  daughters."  Close 
by  the  D'Oyley  tomb  is  a  very  old  stone 
coffin  of  unusual  size,  and  in  the  vestry 
is  a  magnificent — restored — old  oak  press 
very  richly  carved  with  coats-of-arms, 
dragons,  figures,  and  devices  innumer- 
able. In  Hambleden  parish,  a  little  dis- 
tance up  the  river,  and  with  lawns  ex- 
tending to  its  bank,  is  Greenlands,  the 
seat  of  the  Right  Hon.  W.  H.  Smith, 
M.P. ,  concerning  which  Langley  gives 
the  following  account : 

"The  earliest  deeds  relative  to  this 
estate  are  from  George  Chowne  to  Robert 
Shipwath,  of  an  ancient  family  here,  as 
appears  from  several  memorials  in  the 
Church  ;  from  them  it  passed  to  a  younger 
branch  of  the  Doyley  family,  who  resided 
here  many  years,  as  appears  from  various 
evidences.  It  was  the  jointure  of  Lady 
Periam,  wife  of  Sir  Robert  Doyley,  after- 
wards married  to  Sir  Henry  Neville,  and 
lastly  to  Sir  William  Periam,  knights. 
She  died  May  3rd,  1621,  and  was  buried 
at  Henley.  By  her  will  it  appears  that  the 
bouse  was  of  great  extent  and  richly  fur- 
nished. Among  many  other  charitable  be- 
quests, her  ladyship  left  a  farm  called  the 
Borough,  in  this  parish,  to  Archbishop 
Laud,  in  trust,  to  be  applied  to  some 
college  in  Oxford,  at  his  discretion.  His 
Grace  in  consequence  founded  a  fellow- 
ship and  two  scholarships  in  Balliol 
College,  but  without  any  preference  to 
the  Grammar  School  at  Henley,  also 
endowed  by  Lady  Periam,  or  to  the 
county  of  Bucks,  in  which  the  estate  is 
situated.  After  Lady  Pcriam's  decease 
the  estate  came  to  John,  brother  of  Sir 
Robert  Doyley,  and  descended  to  his  son, 
Sir  Cope  Doyley,  to  whom  there  is  a  monu- 


ment in  Hambleden  Church.  His  eldest 
son  and  heir,  John  Doyley,  who  resided 
at  Greenlands  during  the  commencement 
of  the  Great  Rebellion,  and  was  firmly 
attached  to  the  royal  cause,  had  the  mis- 
fortune to  have  his  house  converted  into 
a  garrison."  In  1644  the  house  under- 
went a  long  siege  at  the  hands  of  the 
Parliamentary  forces  under  Lord  Essex. 
He  was  succeeded  by  General  Brown* 
who  planted  batteries  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  river,  which  "  made  many 
shot  and  much  battered"  the  house,  and 
almost  "beat  it  about  the  ears  of  the 
garrison."  The  garrison  eventually  sur- 
rendered to  General  Brown,  but  marched 
out  with  all  th9  honours  of  war.  The 
present  house  bears  little  resemblance  to 
the  former  one  ;  the  situation  is  extremely 
beautiful.  Thomas  Chaucer,  son  of 
Geoffrey  Chaucer,  the  poet,  died  at  an 
estate  here  in  1434. 

Inns. — "Flower  Pot,"  Aston,  acros? 
the  river  ;  "Stag  and  Huntsman,"  in  the 
village. 

Places  of  Worship.— St .  Mary's,  and 
Congregational  Chapel. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  and  telegraph 
office).  Mails  from  London,  7.30  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  6  p.m.  ;  Sunday, 
10.45  a.m. 

Near  est  Bridges,  up,  Henley  2 \  miles; 
down,  Marlow,  6  miles.  Locks,  Hamble- 
den ;  up,  Marsh  3J  miles  ;  down,  Hurley 
3§  miles.  Ferry }  Aston.  Railway  Station, 
Henley. 

Fares  from  Henley  to  Paddington,  1st, 
6/3,  10/9  ;  2nd,  4/8,  8/-;  3rd,  2/1 1$. 

Hammersmith,  London,  S.W.  — On 
the  left  bank,  is  chiefly  remarkable  on  the 
river  for  The  Mall,  just  above  the  bridge, 
which  contains,  besides  some  modern 
houses,  a  few  remnants  of  the  Anne  and 
Georgian  periods.  Below  bridge  the  bank 
is  more  commercial  and  less  pleasing.  A 
suspension  bridge,  with  carriage  road, 
spans  the  river  at  this  point,  and  was  for 
many  years  a  favourite  and  cheap  grand 
stand  on  the  University  Boat-race  day. 
Regard  for  the  public  safety  has  induced 
the  authorities  to  close  it  during  the  race. 
It  is  now  (1885)  being  rebuilt.  At  Ham- 
mersmith are  the  headquarters  (  of  a 
number  of  rowing  clubs,  and  Biffen's  well- 
known  boat-house  is  on  the  Mall-road. 

Nearest  Railway  Stations,  District 
and  Metropolitan,  Broadway  ;  Omnibus 


91 


Routes,  Hammersmith,  and  Hammer- 
smith and  Barnes  ;  Stea?nboat  Pier, 
Hammersmith. 

Hampton,  Middlesex,  on  the  left 
bank ;  from  London  24J  miles,  from 
Oxford  87J  miles.  A  station  on  the 
Thames  Valley  Line  of  the  London  and 
South  Western  Railway,  14J  miles  from 
Waterloo  ;  trains  average  about  forty-five 
minutes.  Flys  meet  the  trains.  The 
station  is  about  five  minutes'  walk  from 
the  landing-stage.  Population,  3,915. 
Soil,  gravel.  Hampton  is  a  small  town 
scattered  over  a  considerable  space ;  a 
number  of  villas  and  houses  of  a  similar 
class  having  from  time  to  time  been  added 
to  the  original  street  or  strand  of  Hamp- 
ton. The  Cockney  appellation  'Appy 
'Ampton  arises  from  the  Hampton  races 
(which,  in  point  of  fact,  do  not  take  place 
at  Hampton  at  all,  but  at  Molesey  Hurst 
on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  and  in 
another  county),  which  occur  twice  in  the 
year.  "All  the  fun  of  the  fair"  is  to  be 
found  at  the  June  meeting,  and  the  road 
has  quite  a  miniature  Derby  Day  appear- 
ance. The  sport,  however,  is  seldom 
brilliant,  a  circumstance  which  makes 
little  difference  to  the  holiday  people, 
who  come  out  more  for  a  picnic  and  "a 
spree"  than  to  enjoy  the  " sport  of 
kings."  The  course  is  a  flat  oval,  about 
a  mile  and  a  half.  The  T.  Y.  C.  is  a  little 
over  half  a  mile  in  length  and  quite 
straight. 

Amongst  the  notabilia  of  Hampton  is 
Garrick's  Villa  on  the  bank  of  the  river, 
opposite  the  island  just  past  the  church. 
The  house  itself  stands  some  little  dis- 
tance back,  being  separated  from  the 
lawn  which  abuts  on  the  river  by  the 
high  road,  under  which  Garrick  con- 
structed a  short  tunnel.  On  the  lawn  is 
a  summer-house,  sometimes  described  as 
a  temple,  which  at  one  time  contained 
Roubiliac's  statue  to  Shakespeare,  after- 
wards removed  to  the  hall  of  the  British 
Museum. 

The  Hampton  Grammar  School  was 
founded  in  1556,  reconstituted  1878,  and 
the  buildings  now  stand  near  the  railway- 
station.  The  course  of  instruction  in- 
cludes all  the  usual  branches  of  a  liberal 
education.  The  fees  are  from  3 J  to  4J 
guineas  per  term,  of  which  there  are  three 
in  the  year ;  boys  not  resident  in  Hamp- 
ton or  Hampton  Wick  pay  an  entrance 
fee  of  £2.      The  head-master  takes  a 


HAM-HAWfe 

limited  number  of  boarders  at  £60  per 
annum,  exclusive  of  tuition  fee.  The 
assistant-masters  also  take  boarders. 

At  Tangley  Park,  near  Hampton,  is 
the  Female  Orphans'  Home,  the  object 
of  which  is  to  train  children  for  domestic 
service.  All  children  of  the  ages  from 
four  to  ten,  who  have  lost  both  parents, 
and  have  no  relatives  able  to  provide  for 
them,  are  eligible  for  admission.  There 
is  no  election,  but  candidates  are  received 
as  vacancies  occur.  The  present  number 
is  limited  to  50.  The  institution  is 
supported  by  subscriptions. 

The  register  dates  from  1512,  but  the 
church  itself  is  a  comparatively  modern 
building,  not  by  any  means  to  be  com- 
mended, having  been  built  at  a  disastrous 
architectural  period.  Unpromising  as  is 
its  exterior  it  is  not  undeserving  a  visit, 
there  being  some  curious  monuments 
and  epitaphs.  At  the  west  end  of  the 
church  is  a  large  marble  monument, 
unfortunately  mutilated,  representing  in 
life-size  a  Miss  Susannah  Thomas  and 
her  mother.  In  the  western  vestibule  is- 
a  very  curious  monument  with  a  re- 
cumbent female  figure,  under  a  canopy, 
bearing  a  singular  resemblance  to  one  of 
the  ladies  in  the  children's  Noah's  arks. 
The  lady  in  question  was  Sibel,  daughter 
of  John  Hampden,  wife  to  one  of  the 
Penns,  of  Penn  House,  and  nurse  to 
King  Edward  VI.  The  following  in- 
scription records  her  history : 

For  here  is  brovght  to  home  the  place  of  longe 

abode 
Whose  vertv  gvided  hath  her  shippe  into  the 

qvyet  rode 
A  myrror  of  her  tyme  for  vertves  of  the  mynde 
A  matrone  such  as  in  her  dayes  the  like  was- 

herd  to  find 
No  pi  ante  of  servile  stocke,  a  Hampden  by 

descent 
Vnto   whose   race  300    yeres    hathe    friendly 

fortvne  lent 
To  cowrte  she  called  was  to  foster  up  a  kinge 
Whose  helping  hand   long  Hngring  sobes   to- 

speedie  end  did  bring. 
Twoo  qvenes  that  scepter  bare  gave  credyt  to 

this  dame 
Full  many  yeres  in  cowrt  she  dwelt  without 

disgrac  or  blame 
No  house  ne  worldly  wealthe  on  earthe  she  did 

regarde 
Before  eche  joye  yea  and  her  life  her  prince's 

health  prefard 
Whose  long  and  loyall  love  with  skilfvl  care  tc* 

serve 
Was  such  as  did  throvgh  heavenly  help  her 

prince's  thanks  deserve 


HAM-HAM  92 

Woolde  God  the  grovnd  were  grafte  with  trees 

of  svche  delight 
That  idell  braines  of  fruitfull  plantes  might  find 

just  cavs  to  write 
As  I  have  plied  my  pen  to  praise  this  pen  with 

all 
Who  lyeth  entombed  in  this  grave  untill  the 

trompe  her  call 
This  restinge  place  beholde  no  svbject  place  to 

bale 
To  which  perforce  ye  lokers  on  your  fieetinge 

bodyes  shall. 

On  the  north-east,  wall  is  a  table  to  Robert 
Terwhit,  1616,  and  in  the  north  gallery 
is  a  tablet  to  :David  Garrick,  nephew 
of  the  great  "Davy,"  with  a  weak  in- 
scription by  Hannah  More ;  and  another 
to  the  memory  of  Richard,  son  of  George 
Cumberland  the  dramatist.  On  the  east 
wall  is  the  monument  of  Edmond  Pigeon, 
yeoman  of  the  jewel-house  to  King  Henry 
VIII.,  "by  whose  speciall  command  he 
attended  him  at  Bouloigne  and  continued 
in  that  office  under  K.  Edw.  6,  Qveene 
Mary  and  Q.  Elizabeth,  who  made  him 
also  clerke  of  her  robes  and  wardrobes, 
also  of  his  son  Nickolas  who  succeeded 
him  in  both  offices."  An  epitaph  on  a 
child,  who  died  at  the  age  of  13  months, 
contains  the  following  sweetly  poetical 
thought : 

Sweet  Babe— she  tasted  of  Life's  bitter  cup, 

Refused  to  drink  the  potion  up  ! 

But  turned  her  little  head  aside, 

Disgusted  with  the  taste  and  died. 
The  organ  in  the  church  was  the  gift  of 
William  IV. 

The  deeps  here  do  not  yield  their  roach 
as  formerly ;  still  very  fair  baskets  are 
obtained  in  the  swim  opposite  the  church. 

Fire. — The  engine  is  kept  opposite  the 
"Red  Lion  Hotel." 

Hotels.— The  "Red  Lion,"  close  to 
the  river;  "Tagg's  Hotel,"  on  the  island, 
about  half  a  mile  down,  with  good  boat- 
houses. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Mary's,  and 
Wesleyan  Chapel. 

Police.— Metropolitan  (T  Division), 
Station,  New-street. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  corner  of  New-street. 
Mails  from  London,  6.30  and  9 a.m.,  2.20 
and  7.20  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  6.55  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  9.50  a.m.,  12.30,  3.30 
and  8.10  p.m. ;  Sunday,  no  dispatch. 

Nearest  Bridge,  up,  Walton  3  miles  ; 


down,  Molesey  ij  mile.  Locks,  up,  Sun- 
bury  2  miles  ;  down,  Molesey  1  mile. 
Ferry,  Hampton.  Railway  Station, 
Hampton. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  :  1st,  2/3,  2/9  ;  2nd, 

1/9. 2/3  ;  3rd*  j/2» 2/-- 

Hampton  Court,  Middlesex,  on  the 
left  bank  ;  from  London  23J  miles,  from 
Oxford  88J  miles.  A  terminus  on  the 
Hampton  Court  branch  of  the  London 
and  South  Western  Railway,  15  miles 
from  Waterloo;  the  trains  average  about 
45  minutes.  Flys  meets  the  trains. 
Hampton  Court  is  a  very  small  village, 
which  may  be  described  as  consisting  of 
a  few  good  houses  on  and  about  the 
green,  and  a  number  of  taverns  and  tea- 
houses for  the  refreshment  of  the  numerous 
excursionists  who  are  attracted  to  Hamp- 
ton Court  by  the  palace  and  park.  An 
ugly  iron  bridge  spans  the  river  at  this 
point.  What  is  called  the  Hampton 
Court  railway-station  is  in  fact  in  East 
Molesey,  on  the  Surrey  side  of  the  river. 
Hampton  Court  is  a  great  meet  for 
bicyclists,  who  gather  here  ' '  in  their  thou- 
sands" on  their  great  parade  day  in  the 
spring. 

Fifteen  minutes'  walk  from  the  station 
on  the  Hampton  Court-road,  is  Hope 
Cottage,  Lady  Bourchier's  Convalescent 
Home.  Here  five  inmates  are  received 
of  the  class  of  servants,  needlewomen,  or 
tradespeople.  These  pay  $s.  per  week  in 
advance.  Ladies  sending  invalids  pay 
js.  6d.  per  week.  Applications  for  beds 
are  to  be  made  to  the  Convalescent  Com- 
mittee of  the  Charity  Organisation  Society, 
15,  Buckingham-street,  London,  W.C. 

The  chapel  at  Hampton  Court  Palace 
is  intended  for  the  use  of  the  residents  in 
the  palace,  but  the  public  is  also  admitted 
to  divine  service.  The  services  are  : 
Sunday,  11  a.m. ,  3.30 p. m.  Saints'  Days, 
11  a.m.  Wednesday  and  Friday,  10.30 
a.m.  During  Lent  and  Advent,  daily  at 
10.30  a.m.  Holy  Communion  :  Sunday, 
8.30  a.m.,  or  after  morning  service;  on 
Saints'  Days,  after  morning  service. 
There  is  a  good  organ  in  the  chapel  by 
Father  Smith. 

There  are  many  ways  of  access  to 
Hampton  Court.  Besides  its  own  railway- 
station,  Teddington.Twickenham,  Hamp- 
ton, Kingston,  and  Richmond  are  all 
more  or  less  convenient.  Steamboats  oc- 
casionally run  up  in  the  summer  months 


if  there  be  sufficient  water  in  the  river. 
The  Thames  Ditlon,  the  Virginia  Water, 
and  the  Windsor  coaches  all  pass  through 
Hampton  Court.—  {See  COACHING.) 

Hotels.— "Castle."  by  the  bridge, 
Moleseyside;  "  Greyhound  "and  "King's 
Arms,"  by  the  park  entrance  and  Lion 
Gate  ;  "  Mitre,"  by  the  bridge,  Mid- 
dlesex side. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
<money  order,  savings  bank,  and  tele- 
graph). Mails  from  London,  7  and  10 
a.m.,  2.30  and  8  p.m.  ;  Sundays  7  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  8.45  and  11.55  a.m., 
3.30  and  8  p.m.  :  Sundays,  10  a.m, 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Walton  4} 
miles  ;  down,  Kingston  3  miles.  Locks, 
up,  Sunbury  3  miles  ;  down,  Teddington, 
4 J  miles.  Ferries,  up,  Hampton  1  mile  ; 
down,  Thames  Ditton  1  mile. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  ;  1st  2/-,  2/9  ;  2nd, 
1/6,  2/-  ;  3rd,  i/2j,  1/10. 

Hampton  Court  Palace,  originally 
founded  by  Cardinal  Wolsey  in  1515, 
and  by  him  presented  to  Henry  VIII. 
in  1526,  in  the  same  manner  in  which  a 
sop  is  presented  to  Cerberus,  or  a  tub  to  a 
whale,  was  for  many  years  a  favourite 
Toyal  residence.  Henry  VIII. ,  who  added 
considerably  to  Wolsey's  buildings,  passed 
much  of  his  time  at  Hampton  Court. 
Here  Edward  VI.  was  born  and  Jane 
Seymour  died,  and  here  the  king  was 
married  to  his  sixth  wife,  Katharine  Parr. 
Edward  VI.  lived  at  Hampton  Court 
Palace,  and  Queen  Mary  and  Philip  of 
Spain  passed  their  honeymoon  here,  and 
-a  grand  Christmas  supper  in  the  Great 
Hall  is  recorded  as  having  taken  place  in 
their  reign.  Queen  Elizabeth  held  high 
state  at  Hampton  Court,  and  in  James 
I.'s  time  the  Palace  was  the  scene  of  the 
great  conference  between  the  Presby- 
terians and  the  Established  Church.  It 
Avas  a  favourite  residence  of  Charles  I., 
and  after  his  execution  passed  into  the 
possession  of  Cromwell.  Charles  II.  and 
James  II.  occasionally  visited  the  Palace. 
William  III.  and  Mary  made  it  almost 
their  permanent  place  of  abode,  and 
greatly  enlarged  and  improved  it.  Their 
immediate  successors  also  lived  at  Hamp- 
ton Court  ;  its  last  royal  occupant  having 
been  George  II.  Since  that  time  a 
portion  of  the  building  has  been  devoted 
4o  the  use  of  the  public,  and  in  other 


03  HAM— HAM 

portions  suites  of  apartments  are  granted 
to  ladies  and  gentlemen  favoured  by  the 
Crown. 

The  Palace  originally  consisted  of  five 
quadrangles  and  the  Great  Hall,  which 
was  added  by  Henry  VIII.  Two  of 
Wolsey's  courts  and  the  Great  Hall 
remain ;  the  third,  or  Fountain  Court, 
was  added  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  to 
whom  is  also  due  the  eastern  frontage, 
which  overlooks  the  gardens.  The  Palace 
has  been  well  and  completely  restored, 
and  the  Great  Hall  especially,  which  is 
described  below,  has  been  very  perfectly 
done. 

The  state  apartments  are  open  to  the 
public  free  every  day  throughout  the 
year,  except  Fridays  and  Christmas  Day. 
The  hours  are  10  a.m.  to  6  p.m.  from 
April  1  to  September  30,  and  from  10 
a.m.  to  4  p.m.  during  the  remainder  of 
the  year.  On  Sundays  they  are  not  open 
until  2  p.m.  The  gardens  are  open  until 
8  p.m.  in  summer,  and  at  other  times 
till  dusk.  An  average  of  about  200,000 
persons  passes  through  the  state  rooms 
annually.  In  the  two  Exhibition  years — 
1851  and  1862 — the  numbers  were  350, 848 
and  369,162  respectively. 

The  entrance  to  the  building,  coming 
from  the  railway,  is  through  barracks 
immediately  opposite  the  Mitre  Hotel. 
Passing  out  of  the  first  court,  a  staircase 
on  the  left,  under  the  clock-tower  (the 
groined  roof  and  Tudor  rose  of  the  gate- 
way should  be  remarked),  leads  to  the 


Great  Hall, 

a  building  of  magnificent  proportions, 
especially  remarkable  for  the  lofty  pitch 
of  its  richly  carved  and  decorated  roof, 
which  is  studded  with  thearms  and  blazons 
of  King  Henry  VIII.,  and  for  its  elaborate 
stained  glass  windows.  Of  these  the  great 
west  window,  which  is  over  the  minstrel 
gallery,  contains  the  arms,  badges,  and 
cyphers  of  Henry  VIII.  and  his  wives, 
whose  pedigrees,  with  their  arms,  initials, 
and  badges,  are  set  forth  in  alternate 
windows.  The  first  on  the  south,  or 
right,  looking  from  the  minstrel  gal- 
lery, is  dedicated  to  Katharine  of  Aragpn, 
the  third  to  Ann  Boleyn,  the  fifth  to 
Jane  Seymour,  the  eighth,  on  the  oppo- 
site side,  to  Anne  of  Cleves,  the  tenth  to 
Katharine  Howard,  and  the  twelfth  to 
Katharine  Parr  ;  the  seven  intermediate 
windows  contain  the  heraldic  badges  of 


HAMPTON      COURT. 


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HAM- HAM  06 

Henry  VIII. :  the  lion,  portcullis,  fleur  de 
lys,  Tudor  rose,  red  dragon  of  York,  and 
the  white  greyhound  of  Lancaster.  The 
great  east  window  also  contains  nume- 
rous arms  and  other  heraldic  devices,  such 
as  those  of  Henry  VII.,  Henry  VIII., 
Edward  III.,  Edward  IV.,  &c.  At  the 
upper  end  of  the  Hall  is  a  singularly 
beautiful  bay  window  with  the  arms  and 
cyphers  of  Henry  VIII.,  Jane  Seymour, 
and  Cardinal  Wolsey.  From  this  end  is  the 
best  place  to  take  a  general  survey  of  the 
Hall,  and  hence  the  best  idea  is  obtained 
of  its  great  size  and  perfect  symmetry  of 
design.  For  the  information  of  the  ac- 
curate people  who  are  never  satisfied  with 
general  effects,  but  require  to  have  every- 
thing reduced  to  figures,  it  may  be  noted 
that  the  length  of  Wolsey's  Great  Hall  is 
106  feet,  its  width  40  feet,  and  height 
60  feet.  The  restorations  and  additions 
to  the  stained  glass,  which  have  been 
executed  in  admirable  taste,  are  due  to 
Mr.  Williment,  and  were  completed  about 
forty  years  ago.  The  Hall  is  at  present 
hung  with  some  magnificent  tapestry,  re- 
presenting the  history  of  Abraham,  bor- 
dered with  many  allegorical  and  other 
figures  and  devices.  The  series  begins 
on  the  left  of  the  entrance,  and  each  sub- 
ject bears  a  descriptive  legend  in  Latin. 
The  subject  of  each  piece  of  tapestry  is 
sufficiently  apparent  to  render  a  detailed 
description  unnecessary  here.  Under  the 
minstrel  gallery  are  several  other  pieces 
of  tapestry  of  allegorical  design,  one  of 
which  represents  the  seven  deadly  sins 
riding  on  animals  supposed  by  the  artist 
to  be  appropriate.  Before  leaving  the 
Hall  it  may  be  added  that  it  has  more 
than  once  been  used  for  theatrical  pur- 
poses, and  tradition  even  says  that 
Shakespeare's  ' '  King  Henry  VIII. ,  or  the 
Fall  of  Wolsey,"  was  here  acted  before 
Queen  Elizabeth,  the  author  taking  part 
in  the  representation.  There  appears, 
however,  to  be  no  evidence  to  support  this 
legend.     In  the 

Withdrawing  Room, 

sometimes  called  the  Presence  Chamber, 
which  opens  out  from  the  Hall,  is  a  fur- 
ther collection  of  tapestries,  the  designs  of 
which  are  remarkable  achievements  in  the 
way  of  allegory,  thus  : — Chastity  attended 
by  Lucretia,  and  Scipio  Africanus  (at 
least,  so  say  the  experts)  drives  his 
chariot    over    Sensuality ;    The    Fates 


triumph ;  Renown  summons  the  illus- 
trious dead,  and  in  another  place  submits 
to  the  influence  of  Time,  the  signs  of  the 
Zodiac  indulging  in  remarkable  pranks 
the  while;  and  many  similar  eccentri- 
cities. Obscured  and  dimmed  by  time, 
these  tapestries  are  still  well  worth  careful 
inspection.  Above  the  tapestries  are  some 
graceful  cartoons  by  Carlo  Cignani.  Op- 
posite the  door  is  another  handsome  bay 
window,  in  the  recess  of  which  is  an  in- 
different marble  Venus.  The  ceiling  is 
panelled  and  adorned  with  pendants  and 
with  badges  of  rose  portcullis,  &c,  &c. 
The  mantelpiece  is  of  handsome  carved 
oak,  and  bears  a  profile  portraitof  Wolsey. 
It  is  a  good  instance  of  the  value  of 
statistics  in  matters  of  this  kind  to  record 
that  considerable  difference  of  opinion 
exists  as  to  the  dimensions  of  this  room. 
One  authority  gives  its  length  at  62  feet, 
and  its  height  at  29  feet ;  another 
(official)  gives  the  length  as  -'  about  70 
feet,"  and  the  height  ''about  20  feet." 
As  neither  authority  has  any  hesitation 
in  setting  the  width  down  at  29  feet, 
visitors  may  congratulate  themselves  that 
on  that  point  at  least  they  are  possessed 
of  accurate  information.  Returning 
through  the  Great  Hall,  descending  the 
stairs,  and  turning  to  the  left,  we  come 
to  the  second  court,  the  northern  side  of 
which  is  occupied  by  the  length  of  the 
Hall.  Over  the  gateway  at  the  western 
end  is  the  dial  plate  of  an  astronomical 
clock,  which  was,  if  the  date  (i$4°) 
be  correct,  one  of  the  earliest  public 
clocks  in  the  country.  The  tower  bears 
the  medallion  busts  of  the  Caesars  in 
terra-cotta,  which,  with  those  in  the  first 
court,  are  the  restored  work  of  Lucca 
della  Robbia,  and  were  given  to  Cardinal 
Wolsey  by  Pope  Leo  X.  The  eastern 
side  of  the  court  was  considerably  restored 
in  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  and 
this  point  marks  the  end  of  the  prin- 
cipal remains  of  Wolsey's  Palace.  The 
eastern  portion  of  the  present  building 
was  designed  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren, 
who  is  also  responsible  for  the  Ionic 
colonnade  in  the  southern  side  of  the 
second  court,  a  colonnade  which  might 
or  might  not  be  worth  looking  at 
elsewhere,  but  which  here  is  as  inappro- 
priate as  a  modern  chimney-pot  hat  would, 
have  been  on  the  head  of  Wolsey  himself. 
The  visitor  entering  at  the  door  in  the 
south-east  corner  of  the  colonnade  has- 


to  deliver  up  stick  and  umbrella,  parcel 
and  bag,  preparatory  to  making  the 
passage  of  the  picture  -  galleries  —  an 
arduous  undertaking,  which,  it  were  well 
to  remark,  once  begun  must  be  gone 
through  with,  from  the  first  room  to  the 
last — and  there  are  a  great  many  of  them 
— no  turning  back  is  permitted.  None 
of  the  attendants  are  allowed  to  receive  a 
fee.  Any  articles  left  with  the  custodian 
at  the  entrance  to  the  galleries,  not 
claimed  by  closing  hours,  will  be  for- 
warded if  the  ticket  and  address  are  sent 
to  the  superintendent,  at  the  Palace. 
After  the  transaction  of  the  necessary 
business  at  the  foot  of  the  staircase  comes 
the  ascent  of  the 

King's  Staircase, 

which  is  fine  in  itself,  and  would  perhaps 
be  finer  if  it  were  not  for  the  sprawling 
monstrosities  and  garish  colouring  of 
that  arch  impostor,  Antonio  Verrio.  This 
Neapolitan  painter,  whose  introduction 
to  England  is  not  the  least  of  the  merry 
sins  for  which  Charles  II.  has  to  answer, 
is  seen  at  his  worst  in  Hampton  Court 
Palace,  and  perhaps  the  King's  Staircase 
gives  as  good  a  notion  of  his  idea  of  art 
as  can  anywhere  be  found.  The  first 
room  of  the  two  dozen  or  so  devoted  to 
pictures,  which  are  approached  by  the 
King's  Staircase,  is  the 

Guard  Chamber, 

which  is  decorated  with  trophies  of  arms, 
and  contains  two  handsome  wrought-iron 
screens,  the  work  of  H.  Shaw,  of  Notting- 
ham, 1695.  Before  proceeding  to  give 
any  hints  as  to  the  pictures  best  worthy 
inspection,  it  should  be  stated  that  in 
almost  every  case  the  description  of  the 
picture  and  the  name  of  the  artist  is 
affixed  to  it,  and  that  there  is,  therefore, 
no  absolute  necessity  for  a  catalogue. 
Painted  on  each  canvas  is  a  number. 
This  is  distinct  from  that  of  the  cata- 
logues, and  is  the  private  number  affixed 
by  the  surveyor  of  pictures  to  identify  the 
work  under  any  changes.  It  is  here  given 
in  brackets,  after  the  wall  number,  as  a 
means  of  identification  should  the  latter 
be  changed.  Considerable  uncertainty 
prevails  as  to  the  authorship  of  many  of 
the  Hampton  Court  pictures.  The  official 
view  is  adopted  here.  Throughout  the 
rooms  are  many  valuable  specimens  of 
the  carved  woodwork  of  Grinling  Gibbons, 


97  HA  ,1-  HAM 

and  admirers  of  blue  and  white  china, 
whether  Delft  or  Oriental,  will  find  good 
examples  in  almost  every  room.  In  the 
Guard  Chamber  are  9  [15],  a  rather  con- 
ventional view  of  the  Colosseum  at  Rome, 
Canaletto  ;  and  a  quaintly  humorous 
portrait,  20  [4],  of  Queen  Elizabeth's 
porter,  1580,  by  Zucchero.  There  are 
also  a  number  of  battle  -  pieces  and 
portraits  in  keeping  with  the  character 
of  the  room. 

Immediately  on  the  left  of  the  doorway, 
in  the 

King's  First  Presence  Chamber, 

is  a  very  weak  picture  of  King  William 
III.  landing  at  Torbay,  29  [25],  in  which 
Sir  G.  Kneller  has  introduced  Neptune 
and  other  incongruous  company.  A  pair 
of  curious  Dutch  pictures  are  38  [34], 
King  William  III.  embarking  from 
Holland,  and  51  [48],  his  landing  at 
Brixham.  Number  62  [61]  is  an  interest- 
ing picture  full  of  detail,  representing 
King  Charles  II.  taking  leave  of  the 
Dutch  Court  at  the  time  of  the  Restora- 
tion. Number  58  [241]  is  a  very  good 
group  of  portraits  of  William,  Duke  of 
Buckingham,   and  his   family,    by  Hon- 


thorst.  Numbers  26  [22],  30  [26],  ^  [29], 
37  [33].  40  [37].  46  L43J.  So  [471.  and  53 
[51J  represent  ladies  of  the  Court  of 
William  and  Mary,  by  Kneller,  known 
as  the  Hampton  Court  beauties.  Other 
Knellers  in  the  room  are  of  very  unequal 
merit.  The  chandelier  is  of  the  time  of 
Queen  Anne. 

The  Second  Presence  Chamber. 

Here,  85  [87],  are  the  fine  equestrian 
portraits  of  Charles  I.,  by  Vandyck,  and 
90  [91],  Queen  Christina,  consort  of 
Philip  IV.,  by  Velasquez,  a  good  example 
in  excellent  preservation  ;  and  also  72 
[67],  a _  Sculptor,    by  Leandro  Bassano  ; 


84  [i58,»  a  Venetian  Senator,  Pordenone 
91  [159J,  a  Knight  of  Malta,  an  excellent 
Tintoretto  ;  98  [100],  a  large  full-length 
of  Christian  IV.,  King  of  Denmark,  by 
Van  Somer;  103  [128],  portrait  of 
Giorgione,  by  himself;  and  73  [136], 
a  much-esteemed  Diana  and  Actceon, 
by  Giorgione,  in  which  Actaeon  wears 
a  pantomime  stag's  head  and  court  suit, 
and  in  which  so  many  extraneous  figures 
are  introduced  that  Diana  could  not  have 
bathed  more  publicly  even  at  Margate. 


HAM—  HAM  08 

The  Audtence  Chamber. 

Number  108  [53],  a  Portrait  of  a  Man, 
by  Tintoretto;  113  [in],  a  portrait  by 
Titian,  said  to  be,  but  probably  not,  that 
of  Ignatius  Loyola  ;  117  [277],  John  de 
Bellini,  attributed  to  himself ;  128  [125], 
a  full-length  of  Elizabeth,  Queen  of  Bohe- 
mia, daughter  of  James  I.,  by  Honthorst; 
131  [130],  the  Woman  taken  in  Adultery, 
Sebastiano  Ricci ;  138  [74],  a  Warrior  in 
Armour,  ascribed  to  Savoldo  ;  144  [554], 
a  Concert,  Lorenzo  Lotto  ;  147  [134],  a 
Man's  Head,  Bassano ;  and  149  [68], 
Alexander  de  Medicis,  by  Titian,  are 
among  the  principal  pictures  on  the  walls 
of  the  Audience  Chamber.  In  the  middle 
of  the  room  is  a  triptych  for  an  altar,  a 
work  of  the  highest  interest,  attributed, 
perhaps  doubtfully,  to  Lucas  Van  Leyden. 
Whatever  doubt  there  may  be  as  to  the 
artist  there  can  be  none  as  to  the  merit  of 
the  pictures.  The  canopy  of  this  room 
is  that  of  the  throne  on  which  sat  James  1 1, 
when  giving  audience  to  the  Pope's  Nuncio. 
The  furniture  and  chandelier  date  from 
William  and  Mary  and  Queen  Anne. 
The  King's  Drawing-room 
contains,  among  others,  154  [145],  the 
Expulsion  of  Heresy,  a  portrait  picture, 
by  Paolo  Veronese  ;  155  [333],  the  Duke 
of  Richmond,  by  Van  Somer  ;  158  [905], 
a  good  Giorgione,  a  portrait  of  a  Venetian 
Gentleman  ;  164  [569],  a  Venus,  ascribed 
to  Titian,  stated  to  be  a  "replica"  of  the 
celebrated  picture  at  Florence,  but  looking 
much  more  like  an  indifferent  copy ;  174 
[553],  a  Lady  with  Orreryand  Dog,  ascribed 
to  Parmegiano  ;  180  [498],  a  Venetian 
Gentleman,  by  Bassano  ;  and  182  [52],  an 
Italian  Lawyer,  by  Paris  Bordone. 

King  William  III.'s  Bed-room. 
In  this  room  are  the  state  bed  of  Queen 
Charlotte,  and  the  portraits  of  the  Beauties 
of  Charles  II. 's  Court,  by  Sir  Peter  Lely, 
which  were  formerly  at  Windsor.  The 
fine  marble  mantelpiece  and  glass,  and 
the  carving  of  the  cornice  and  orna- 
ments above  the  mantelpiece  by  Gibbons, 
should  be  specially  noticed.  Near  the 
head  of  the  bed  is  a  clock  which  re- 
quires winding  but  once  a  year,  a  cere- 
mony which  appears  to  have  been  omitted 
on  the  last  anniversary ;  and  in  a  corner 
is  an  odd  old  Tompion  barometer.  The 
ceiling,  unhappily,  has  been  painted  by 
Verrio  in  a  manner  calculated  to  disturb 
the  dreams  of  any  but  the  stoutest  heart 


1  196  [190' 
J,  205  [199; 


1 


Besides  the  Beauties  is  a  delightful  por- 
trait, 186  [171],  of  the  Princess  Mary  as 
Diana,  also  by  Sir  P.  Lely,  and  much 
pleasanter  to  look  upon  than  Charles's 
leering,  simpering  favourites.  The  num- 
bers attached  to  the  portraits  of  these 
ladies  are  185  [170],  195  [189 
197  [191],  199  [193],  204  [198' 
No.  194  [188],  Louise  de  Querouaille, 
Duchess  of  Portsmouth,  is  by  H.  Gascar. 

The  King's  Dressing-room. 
Here,  again,  Verrio  has  given  reins  to 
his  allegorical  nightmares.  No.  210  [741] 
is  a  comic  picture  of  men  fighting  with 
bears,  by  Bassano  ;  212  [670],  robbers, 
in  a  cave,  dividing  their  spoils,  is  like 
many  other  Salvator  Rosas. 

The  King's  Writing  Closet 
contains  a  mirror  so  placed  as  to  reflect 
the  whole  suite  of  rooms.      Among  the 
pictures  may  be  noted  225  [222],  and  243 
[229],  by  Bogdane. 

Queen  Mary's  Closet, 
containing  251  [247],  a  Holy  Family 
after  Raffaelo,  by  Giulio  Romano  ;  and 
267  [417],  Sophonisba,  or  Fair  Rosamond 
— the  choice  of  subject  is  elastic — attri- 
buted to  Gaetano.     In 

The  Queen's  Gallery 
will  be  found  seven  large  and  important 
pieces  of  tapestry,  after  paintings  by  Le 
Brun,  1690,  representing  incidents  in  the 
history  of  Alexander  the  Great.  These 
have  suffered  somewhat  at  the  hands  of 
time,  but  deserve  careful  notice. 

The  Queen's  Bed-room. 
Here  is  the  state  bed  of  Queen  Anne. 
The  ceiling  is  the  work  of  Sir  James 
Thornhill,  and  among  the  pictures  are 
273  [459],  the  Queen  of  James  I.,  by  Van 
Somer  ;  275  [462],  St.  Francis  with  the 
Infant  Jesus,  Guido  ;  283  [461],  a  Prin- 
cess of  Brunswick,  the  painter  of  which 
is  not  named  ;  301  [230],  Judith  with  the 
Head  of  Holofernes,  by  Guido  ;  306  [76], 
a  portrait  of  an  Italian  Lady  with  a  sin- 
gular taste  in  dress,  by  Parmegiano  ;  and 
307  [456],  by  Francesco  Francia,  St.  John 
baptizing  Christ,  a  very  fine  example  of 
the  master. 

The  Queen's  Drawing-room 
is  the  centre  of  the  eastern  front  of  Wren's 
portion  of  Hampton  Court  Palace.    From 
its  windows  is  a  beautiful  view  of  the 
gardens  with  three  long  avenues  of  trees 


stretching  away  from  the  Palace  towards 
the  river,  Kingston  Church  closing  the 
vista  on  the  left  hand,  and  the  canal  and 
fountain  lending  agreeable  variety  to  the 
centre.  On  the  ceiling  Verrio  has  de- 
picted Queen  Anne  in  the  character  of 
Justice.  The  walls  are  hung  with  the 
works  of  Sir  Benjamin  West. 
The  Queen's  Audience  Chamber. 

The  state  canopy  of  Queen  Mary  still 
hangs  in  this  room,  and  among  the  pic- 
tures may  be  mentioned  326  [506],  the 
Duchess  of  Luneberg,  Brunswick,  Mytens; 
327  [593],  a  portrait  of  Don  Gusman, 
another  fine  Mytens  ;  330  [457],  Christian, 
Duke  of  Brunswick,  Honthorst ;  a  doubt- 
ful Holbein,  331  [524],  the  Meeting  of 
Henry  VIII.  and  the  Emperor  Maxi- 
milian ;  335  [521],  the  Duke  of  Bruns- 
wick, Mytens ;  340  [510],  portraits  of 
Henry  VIII.  and  his  family,  a  work  of 
unusual  interest  and  importance,  Holbein ; 
342  [520]  the  Field  of  the  Cloth  of  Gold, 
also  Holbein ;  343  [525],  Isabella  of 
Austria,  Pourbus  ;  346  [780],  Anne,  Queen 
of  James  I.,  Van  Somer  ;  and  349  [299], 
a  portrait  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  in  a  fancy 
dress  with  remarkably  fancy  blue  and 
white  shoes,  crowning  a  stag  with  flowers. 
On  the  right  of  the  picture  are  three 
mottoes,  and  a  tablet  on  the  left  contains 
the  following  lines : 

The  restles  swallow  fits  my  restles  minde, 
In  still  revivinge,  still  renewinge  wronges  ; 
Her  just  complaintes  of  cruelty  unkinde 
Are  all  the  musique  that  my  life  prolonges. 
With  pensive  thoughtes  my  weeginge  stagg  I 

crowne, 
Whose  melancholy  tears  my  cares  expresse  ; 
Hes  tearesin  sylence,  and  mysighes  unknowne, 
Are  all  the  physickethat  my  harmes  redresse, 
My  onely  hope  was  in  this  goodly  tree, 
Which  I  did  plant  in  love,  bringe  up  in  care; 
But  all  in  vaine,  for  now  to  late  I  see, 
The  shales  be  mine,  the  kernels  others  are. 
My  musique  may  be  plaintes,   my  physique 

teares, 
If  this  be  all  the  fruite  my  love-tree  beares. 
• 
In  the  official  catalogue   this  picture   is 
ascribed,    hesitatingly,    to  L.  de  Heere. 
On  the  frame,  however,  there  is  the  name 
of  Zucchero. 

The  Public  Dining-room 
is  principally  remarkable  for  two  excellent 
Gainsboroughs,  352  [747],  Fisher  the 
Composer,  and  353  [733J,  Colonel  St. 
Leger  (Handsome  Jack) ;  355  [961],  358 
l95°Jv  and  359  [960],  are  good  examples 


)  HAM -HAM 

of  Hoppner.  360  [951 J  is  a  curious  picture, 
by  Home,  of  the  King  of  Oude  receiving 
tribute.  Over  the  noble  marble  mantel- 
piece hangs  362  [155],  the  Nabob  of 
Arcot,  G.  Willison.  363  [936]  is  a  portrait 
of  Friedrich  von  Gentz,  by  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence  ;  395  [587],  by  Robert  Walker, 
is  a  portrait  of  himself;  369  [847],  a 
capital  picture  by  Michael  Wright,  repre- 
sents John  Lacy,  a  comedian  of  the 
time  of  Charles  II.,  in  three  characters  ; 
and  375  [944]  is  a  portrait  of  Mrs.  Delany, 
by  Opie.  In  the  left  corner  is  the  door 
leading  to  the  Queen's  Chapel,  &c. ,  but 
there  are  still  three  rooms  approached  by 
the  door  near  the  window. 
The  Prince  of  Wales's  Presence 
Chamber,  Drawing-room,  and  Bed- 
room. 

The  principal  pictures  in  these  rooms 
are  382  [421]  and  382  [432];  respectively  a 
Jewish  Rabbi  and  Dutch  Lady,  both 
splendid  Rembrandts  ;  389  [285],  Portrait 
of  an  Old  Man,  Quintin  Matsys  ;  390 
[464],  Dogs,  Snyders  ;  393  [249],  Singing 
by  Candlelight,  Honthorst  ;  397  [57],  and 
398  [437]»  Boys,  Murillo  ;  407  [580,  not 
581,  as  described  in  the  official  catalogue], 
Van  Belchamp  ;  413  [516],  Louis  XVI. 
of  France,  Greuze ;  417  [984],  Mdlle.  de 
Clermont,  Greuze  ;  and  429  [986],  a  por- 
trait of  Mdme.  de  Pompadour,  a  very 
superior  work  by  the  same  master.  From 
these  rooms  visitors  return  through  the 
Public  Dining-room,  and  pass  through 
the  Queen's  Private  Chapel  and  Closet, 
in  which  the  pictures,  principally  of 
flowers  and  birds,  are  of  no  great  im- 
portance.    The  next  apartment  is 

The  Private  Dining-room, 
which  looks  out  on  to  Fountain  Court. 
The  state  beds,  with  crimson  trappings, 
of  William  and  Mary,  which  are  preserved 
in  this  room,  and  the  smaller  bed  used 
by  George  II.,  do  not  give  a  very  lively 
idea  of  the  comforts  enjoyed  by  royal 
personages.  There  is  some  particularly 
good  china  here,  and  among  other  pictures, 
a  portrait  of  the  Duchess  of  Brunswick, 
sister  to  George  III.,  507  [603],  by  An- 
gelica Kauffmann.  In  the  adjoining 
closet  is  507  [64],  a  curious  picture,  by 
Fialetti,  representing  senators  of  Venice 
in  the  Senate  House.     In  the 

Queen's  Private  Chamber 
are    512    [907],    an   unnamed   Queen   of 
Prussia,  by  an  unnamed  artist ;  518  [619], 

D  a 


HAM-HAM  100 

Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales,  a  smirking, 
highly-coloured  portrait,  by  Vanloo  ; 
and  524  [787],  a  Labyrinth,  the  eccentric 
production  of  Tintoretto. 

The  King's  Private  Dressing-room 

has  a  fine  marble  bust  of  a  negro, 
and  portraits  of  four  Doges  of  Venice, 
by  Fialetti,  526  [791  to  794J.  531  [577], 
is  a  humorous  picture  of  a  barrack-room, 
by  C.  Troost. 

George  II. 's  Private  Chamber, 

and  the  closet  adjoining,  lead  to  the 

South  Gallery, 

where  formerly  Raffaelle's  cartoons,  now 
at   South   Kensington,    were    exhibited. 
This  is  a  very  long  gallery,  divided  into 
compartments,  in  the  third  of  which  is  a 
finely    carved   marble    mantelpiece.      It 
contains   many  pictures  of  great  value 
and  merit.     The  following  is  a  list   of 
some  of  those  to  which  the  attention  of 
visitors  is  especially  directed  :  559  [513], 
the  Countess  of  Lennox,  Holbein  ;  560 
[667],  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  Zucchero  ; 
563   [313],    Henry  VIII.,    Holbein;   572 
[343J,  Countess  of  Derby,  L.  de  Heere  : 
573   [344],    Sir    Geo.    Carew,    Holbein  ; 
582  [908J,     La    Belle    Gabrielle,   by  an 
unnamed  artist ;   589  [275],  a  portrait  of 
a  Youth,  A.  Durer ;  593  [1085],  594  [331], 
portraits    of    Erasmus,     597,    [324],    a 
similar  subject,  598  [330],  all  by  Holbein  ; 
600  [612],    St.   Christopher  with  Saints, 
L.   Cranach  ;    603  [323],    Joannes   Fro- 
benius,  printer  ;    606  [326],  King  Henry 
VIII.  ;    608   [336],    the    painter's  father 
and  mother,  Holbein  ;  609  [989],  Lazarus 
Spinola,  W.   Kay;  610  [325],   "A  side- 
faced  gentleman  out  of  Cornwall,"  at- 
tributed   to    Holbein ;     611    [401],    St. 
Jerome,   after  A.   Durer  ;  613  [290],   Sir 
Francis  Walsingham  ;  615  [270],   Sir  P. 
Carew,     both    by  an    unnamed    artist ; 
616  [293],  619  [273],  portraits  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,     the    former    by    Zucchero, 
the    latter    by    Gerrard  ;     622  [347],    a 
charming   portrait    of    a   Lady,    Sir  A. 
More ;  632  [316],  Francis  II.  when  a  boy, 
Janette ;  633  [291],   Philip  II.  of  Spain, 
Sir    A.   More;    642  [345],   a  companion 
picture  to  622,  and  an  equally  good  work, 
by  the  same  artist ;    644  [306],   another 
portrait  of  a  Lady,  Sir  A.  More  ;  657  [644], 
Windsor   Castle,  Verdussen ;   666  [329J, 
an  admirably  humorous  portrait  of  Henry 


VIII. 's  Jester,  Will  Somers,  Holbein; 
676  [234],  a  small  whole-length  of  a  Man, 
F.  Hals;  684  [825],  a  flower  piece  with 
insects,  Withoos  ;  704  [959],  a  wild  boar 
hunt,  Snyders,  full  of  life  and  vigour; 
707  [588],  Villiers,  Duke  of  Buckingham, 
C.  Janssen;  710  [278],  a  portrait  of 
Raffaelle,  attributed  to  himself;  763  [514], 
James  I.,  and  764  [591],  his  Queen,  the 
companion  picture  to  it,  both  by  Van 
Somer;  765  [650],  Elizabeth,  Queen  of 
Bohemia,  a  daughter  of  James  I.,  Derick; 
and  707  [106],  a  Dutch  Gentleman,  Van 
der  Halst. 

The  Ante  Room, 

adjoining  the  South  Gallery — 780  [846], 
a  landscape,  Oldenburg — leads  to  the 

Mantegna  Gallery. 

so  called  from  a  set  of  paintings  in  dis- 
temper, on  linen,  9  feet  high,  by  Andrea 
Mantegna.      They  are  nine  in  number, 

797  P73  to  881],  and  represent  the 
triumphs  of  Julius  Caesar.  Originally 
purchased  by  Charles  I.,  they  were  sold 
by  Parliament  for  ,£1,000,  and  subse- 
quently repurchased  by  Charles  II.  They 
are  in  a  faded  and  damaged  condition, 
and  it  is  difficult  always  to  follow  the 
artist's  intention.     In  the  same  gallery  is 

798  [892],  a  quaint  portrait  of  Sir  Jeffrey 
Hudson,  by  Mytens,  And  three  pictures 
by  unnamed  artists.  Of  these,  793  [901], 
is  a  portrait  of  Jane  Shore,  who  is 
described  on  the  canvas  as  "  Baker's 
wife,  mistris  to  a  king  ;  "  808  [899]  repre- 
sents "  Scfhachner  of  Austria;"  and  809 
[958]  is  a  Young  Lady  with  a  feather 
fan.     On  the 

Queen's  Staircase 

is  an  immense  painting  810  [932],  Hon- 
thorst,  whereof,  as  is  not  uncommon  with 
allegorical  works  of  the  kind,  the  subject 
appears  to  be  in  doubt.  According  to 
Horace  Walpole,  it  is  intended  to  re- 
present Charles  I.  and  his  Queen  as 
Apollo  and  Diana  receiving  the  Arts 
and  Sciences,  the  ceremony  of  intro- 
duction being  performed  by  the  Duke 
of  Buckingham,  as  Mercury.  Another 
authority,  also  quoted  in  the  official 
guide,  is  of  opinion  that  the  royal  per- 
sonages are  the  King  and  Queen  of 
Bohemia  in  the  clouds.  The  judicious 
visitor  may  select  either  of  these  interpre- 
tations, or  indeed  any  other  which  may 
seem  good  to  him,  but  Honthorst,  in  any 


case,   cannot  be    congratulated  on   his 
work. 

The  Queen's  Guard  Chamber, 
like  the  South  Gallery,  is  divided  into 
compartments,  noticeable  in  the  second  of 
which  are  two  most  singular  terminal 
figures  of  beefeaters  which  serve  as  sup- 
porters to  the  mantelpiece.  Among  the 
pictures  are  815  [967],  816  [966],  819 
[970],  821  [965],  portraits  respectively  of 
Giulio  Romano,  Michael  Angelo,  Tinto- 
retto, and  P.  del  Vaga,  by  an  unnamed 
hand ;  858  [902],  is  a  portrait  of  a  Man 
with  a  watch  in  his  hand,  by  Peter  Van 
Aelst.  From  this  chamber  an  ante-room 
leads  to  the 

Queen's  Presence  Chamber, 
in  which  are  numerous  pictures  of  sea- 
fights,  &c,  and  two  portions  of  timbers 
from  Nelson's  Victory.  There  are  also  a 
series  of  views  on  the  Thames,  by  James 
and  others,  which  should  be  interesting 
to  readers  of  this  Dictionary.  They 
are  883  [1043],  Fleet  Ditch,  &c.  ;  884 
[1044],  Old  London  Bridge  ;  885  [1045], 
the  Old  Savoy  Palace  ;  914  [1079],  Green- 
wich Hospital,  &c. ;  918  [1016],  a  similar 
subject ;  920  [1024]  the  Tower  ;  921 
[1023],  old  Somerset  House  and  the 
Temple  ;  922  [1026],  the  Temple  again  ; 
923  [1031],  another  view  of  the  Savoy;  and 
925  tI032J,  Westminster  Bridge,  &c.  &c. 
This  closes  the  list  of  apartments  open  to 
the  public.  The  chapel  is  not  visible 
except  on  Sunday,  when  it  is  open  for 
divine  service. 

Returning  from  the  Queen's  Presence 
Chamber  to  the  Queen's  Staircase,  the 
visitor  again  emerges  into  the  Middle 
Court ;  and,  after  reclaiming  any  property 
which  he  may  have  left  at  the  King's 
Staircase  entrance,  proceeds  by  the 
Fountain  Court  to  the  gardens,  which 
extend  along  the  whole  east  front  of  the 
building.  Should  the  visitor  on  leaving 
the  building  wish  to  visit  the  famous 
grape-vine,  which  is  shown  (admission, 
id.)  as  one  of  the  great  attractions  of 
Hampton  Court,  he  will  turn  to  the 
right ;  should  he,  on  the  other  hand, 
prefer  to  make  direct  for  the  Wilder- 
ness and  the  Maze,  he  will  turn  to  the 
left,  passing  the  tennis-court  on  his  way. 
The  price  of  admission  to  the  Maze  is  id. 
Some  writers  in  treating  of  Hampton 
Court  give  precise  directions  how  to 
traverse  the  paths  of  the  Maze ;  but,  as 


101  HAM— HAM 

the  greater  part  of  the  fun  consists  in 
losing  your  way,  and  in  observing  the 
idiosyncracies  of  your  fellow-creatures 
who  are  in  the  same  predicament,  rather 
than  getting  to  the  centre  and  out  again 
in  "the  shortest  time  on  record,"  no  clue 
to  the  mystery  is  given  here.  To  many 
people,  perhaps,  the  greatest  attraction 
of  Hampton  Court  will  be  found  in  its 
beautiful  gardens,  which  are  unreservedly 
thrown  open  to  the  public.  They  are 
tastefully  laid  out,  and  every  year  con- 
siderable ingenuity  and  skill  are  displayed 
in  the  carpet-bedding  devices,  and  other 
floral  adornments  of  the  gardens,  by  Mr. 
Graham,  the  able  superintendent.  The 
lawns  are  always  in  perfect  order,  there 
is  abundance  of  shade  from  the  yews  and 
other  trees  with  which  they  are  studded, 
and  seats  have  been  distributed  about 
with  no  niggard  hand.  There  is  not  the 
usual  annoying  restriction  as  to  walking 
on  the  grass,  except  as  to  the  verge  of 
the  flower  beds,  and  it  is  pleasant  to  see 
that  the  request,  that  the  public  will 
protect  what  is  intended  for  public  enjoy- 
ment, is  carefully  respected. 

The  principal  entrance  on  the  north 
is  through  the  Lion  Gates,  opposite  Bushey 
Park.  Visitors  who  propose  to  go  through 
the  galleries  are  recommended  to  enter 
the  palace  by  the  barrack  gateway,  near 
the  bridge,  already  described. 

The  restrictions  imposed  by  the  regula- 
tions are  few,  and  are  dictated  by  obvious 
considerations  for  the  general  convenience 
and  comfort  both  of  the  visitors  and 
residents  in  the  palace.  The  following 
are  the  principal  rules,  No  smoking  is 
permitted  in  any  part  of  the  palace  or 
grounds.  No  baskets  or  parcels  are 
allowed  to  be  taken  into  the  gardens. 
No  dogs  are  admitted.  Bath-chairs  and 
perambulators  are  allowed  to  residents 
only.  Last,  and  not  least,  it  is  fortunately 
provided  that  no  public  address  may  be 
delivered. 

The  famous  avenue  of  chestnuts  in 
Bushey  Park  leads  from  the  Lion  Gates  of 
Hampton  Court  Palace  to  Teddington, 
and  is  one  of  the  chief  sights  of  the  spring 
season,  when  its  grand  old  trees  are 
covered  with  their  pyramids  of  blossom. 
The  fountain  in  the  centre  of  the  oval 
pond,  near  the  Hampton  Court  entrance, 
is  surmounted  by  a  bronze  statue  of 
Diana.  The  Park  contains,  besides  its 
chestnuts,  many  fine  elms  and  oaks,  and 


HAM— HEN 


102 


the  hawthorns  are  almost  as  celebrated 
as  the  chestnuts.  A  herd  of  deer  roam 
in  the  park,  adding  greatly  to  its  ro- 
mantic character.  It  is  a  favourite  place 
for  picnics,  and  after  inspection  of 
Hampton  Court  Palace  the  contents  of 
the  reclaimed  baskets  and  parcels  are 
freely  discussed  under  the  shady  glades 
of  Bushey. 

Hampton  Wick,  Middlesex,  on  the 
left  bank,  about  a  mile  east  of  Hampton 
Court  by  road  ;  from  London  22  miles, 
Oxford  89J  miles.  A  station  on  the 
Kingston  branch  of  the  London  and 
South  Western  Railway,  14J  miles  from 
Waterloo  ;  the  trains  average  about  45 
minutes.  Population,  2,207.  Soil,  gravel. 
Hampton  Wick  is  nowadays  practically  a 
suburb  of  Kingston,  with  which  it  is  con- 
nected by  Kingston  Bridge,  and  consists 
to  a  large  extent  of  pleasant  villa  resi- 
dences. 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Mary's. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order  and  savings  bank),  High- 
street.  Letters  through  Kingston.  Mails 
from  London  6.45  and  9.15  a.m.  :  2.15 
and  7.30  p.m.  Mails  for  London  9  a.m., 
12.10,  3.45,  and  8.20  p.m. 

Nearest  (from  Kingston  Bridge) 
Bridges,  up  Hampton  Court  3 J  miles : 
down,  Richmond  5  miles.  Locks,  up, 
Molesey  about  3J  miles  ;  down,  Tedding- 
ton  2  miles.  Railway  Station,  Hampton 
Wick. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  (or  Ludgate-hill)  : 
1st,  2/,  2/6 ;  2nd,  1/6,  2/-;  3rd,  1/-,  1/8. 

Harbour  Masters,  for  carrying  out 
the  bye-laws  of  the  Thames  Conservancy, 
are  appointed  by  that  body. — (See  Con- 
servators of  the  Thames.) 

Henley,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left  bank  ; 
from  London  64J  miles,  from  Oxford  47 
miles.  The  terminus  of  a  branch  on  the 
Great  Western  Railway,  from  an  hour  to 
an  hour  and  a  half  from  Paddington. 
Flys  and  omnibuses  meet  the  trains.  The 
station  is  close  to  the  river,  and  about 
five  minutes'  walk  from  the  bridge.  Popu- 
lation, 4523.  Henley,  the  Mecca  of  the 
rowing  man  and  one  of  the  most  favourite 
places  of  pilgrimage  for  anglers,  is  a  com- 
fortable, prosperous-looking  town,  set 
down  in  a  pleasant  valley  almost  entirely 
surrounded  by  well-wooded  heights,  and 
is  as  good  a  place  to  stay  at  for  the 
tourist  who  takes  no  interest  either  iu 


oars  or  rods,  punts  or  wager-boats,  as 
can  well  be  desired.  Both  by  river  and 
by  road  there  are  almost  innumerable 
excursions,  and  the  walks  either  at  the 
back  of  the  town  or  on  the  road  to  Marlow 
across  the  river  afford  many  charming 
glimpses  of  some  of  the  prettiest  of  the 
Thames  scenery.  The  town  itself  is  well 
built  with  good  broad  streets,  the  principal 
business  centres  being  Hart-street,  the 
Market-place,  and  Bell-street,  all  of  which 
contain  good  shops.  The  outskirts  are 
noticeable  for  a  number  of  handsome 
houses,  especially  towards  the  Fair  Mile, 
a  fine  avenue  of  trees  which  leads  from 
the  north  of  the  town.  Henley  is  under 
the  government  of  a  high  steward,  a 
mayor,  ten  aldermen,  and  sixteen  bur- 
gesses. The  Town  Hall  is  in  the  Market- 
place, and  differs  in  no  respect  from  the 
usual  type  of  buildings  of  its  class  in  the 
neighbourhood.  It  contains  two  good 
portraits,  presented  to  the  town  by  the 
widow  of  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller  ;  one  of 
George  I.,  by  Sir  Godfrey  himself,  and 
the  other  of  the  Earl  of  Macclesfield,  the 
first  high  steward  of  the  town.  Lady 
Kneller  is  buried  with  her  parents  at 
Henley  in  the  church.  The  church  of 
St.  Mary,  whose  lofty  embattled  tower  is 
a  prominent  landmark,  as  well  from  the 
river  as  from  the  hills  around,  stands 
close  to  the  bridge.  It  is  a  fine  building, 
with  chancel,  north  chancel  aisle,  nave, 
and  aisles,  and  in  the  tower  hangs  a 
remarkably  good  peal  of  bells.  A  beauti- 
ful new  west  window  and  an  entrance 
screen  of  carved  oak  have  been  added, 
and  the  space  under  the  tower  has  been 
formed  into  a  beautiful  Baptistery.  Under 
the  tower  is  the  monument  of  Lady  Eliza- 
beth Periam  :  a  semi-recumbent  figure  re- 
clining on  its  right  elbow,  and  dressed  in 
a  ruff,  stomacher,  and  hood.  In  the  right 
hand  is  a  Book  of  Hours.  Lady  Elizabeth 
died  in  1621.  Behind  the  organ  is  a  mural 
monument,  with  a  marble  angel,  in 
memory  of  certain  members  of  the  Elmes 
family  from  1621  to  1720.  In  the  south 
wall  is  a  tablet  with  a  long  inscription  to 
the  memory  of  General  Dumouriez,  who 
died  near  Henley  in  1823.  In  the  church- 
yard is  the  grave  of  Richard  Jennings, 
the  master  builder  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 
Along  the  sides  of  the  churchyard  stand 
almshouses  :  four  built  by  Mrs.  Messen- 
ger, 1669,  and  rebuilt  1846  ;  ten  due  to 
Humphrey  Newberry,  1664,  rebuilt  1846 ; 


and  twelve  endowed  by  John  Longland, 
Bishop  of  Lincoln  (a  native  of  Henley), 
in  1547  ;  these  were  rebuilt  in  1830.  The 
church  of  Holy  Trinity  is  on  the  south 
side  of  the  town  in  the  parish  of  Rother- 
field  Grays.  The  living  is  a  vicarage, 
and  the  patron  for  the  next  turn  is  the 
Bishop  of  Oxford. 

The  Congregational  chapel  here  ori- 
ginated in  1662.  The  first  preacher  was 
the  Rev.  W.  Brice,  Fellow  of  Exeter 
College,  Oxford,  rector  of  St.  Mary's, 
Henley,  ejected  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity. 
The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  John  Gyles, 
ejected  from  the  vicarage  of  Lindridge. 

The  tablet  of  Mr.  Gyles  has  the 
following  quaint  inscription  : 

Heaven's  Pilgrim,  pause  you  here, 
And  with  many  drop  a  teare 
O'er  John  Gyles,  from  Heaven  sent 
To  preach  to  men  Christ's  commandment. 
Whose  learning,  utterance,  and  parts 
Meekness  and  grace  did  win  all  hearts. 
Him  now  you  see  translated  thus 
A  dying  witness  to  Christ's  truth 
Both  taught  and  practised  from  his  youth. 
His  race  is  run,  he's  glorified 
This  stone  you  see  his  dust  doth  hide. 
Deceased  26  Aprill,  1683. 

Rev.  Humphrey  Gainsborough,  brother 
of  Gainsborough  the  painter,  was  a 
minister  of  the  chapel  for  upwards  of 
twenty-eight  years.  He  was  a  very 
ingenious  man ;  is  supposed  to  have 
been  the  discoverer  of  the  separate 
condenser  for  steam  engines ;  constructed 
a  weighing-machine  for  the  corporation 
in  1776  ;  made  the  road  to  the  town  over 
White  Hill ;  arranged  and  superintended 
the  construction  of  the  arch  and  ruins 
over  Twyford-road,  at  the  bottom  of  the 
Happy  Valley  ;  constructed  the  locks 
on  the  river  near  New  Mills  ;  and 
made  many  curious  clocks,  dials,  &c. 
He  was  offered  very  good  preferment 
in  the  Established  Church,  but  nothing 
would  induce  him  to  leave  his  own 
people,  by  whom  he  was  greatly  es- 
teemed. The  Grammar  School  was 
founded  in  1604  by  James  I. ,  and  is 
now  managed  under  a  scheme  of  the 
Endowed  Schools  Commissioners.  It 
prepares  for  the  Universities,  professions, 
and  public  service.  Day  boys  pay  ^"n 
per  annum,  no  extras  ;  boarders,  ^40  to 
j£5o,  according  to  age.  The  Blue  Coat, 
or  Lower  Grammar  School,  was  founded 
by  Lady  Elizabeth  Periam  in  the  reign  of 


103  KEN— HEN 

James  I.,  for  the  purpose  of  educating, 
free  of  all  cost,  twenty  boys  of  the  town. 
In  the  reign  of  George  III.  the  school 
was  united  with  the  Upper  Grammar 
School.  Three  years  ago  it  came  under  a 
new  scheme,  and  is  now  called  the 
"  English  School ;"  and  although  under 
the  same  governing  body  as  the  Upper, 
or  Grammar  School,  is  quite  a  separate 
establishment,  under  its  own  masters,  &c. 
Twenty  boys  are  still  educated  free  of 
cost,  together  with  about  forty  others, 
who  pay  a  fee  of  ^3  per  annum  each. 

It  was  on  a  window  at  the  "Red 
Lion"  at  Henley,  that  Shenstone  wrote 
the  now  hackneyed  lines  : 

Whoe'er  has  travelled  life's  dull  round, 
Where'er  his  stages  may  have  been, 
May  sigh  to  think  he  still  has  found 
The  warmest  welcome  at  an  inn. 

The  counties  of  Oxfordshire  and  Berk- 
shire are  united  at  Henley  by  a  handsome 
and  convenient  stone  bridge  of  five  arches 
with  stone  balustrades.  The  key-stones 
of  the  centre  arch  represent  respectively 
Thames  and  Isis.  The  Thames,  which 
looks  down  stream,  is  the  conventional 
bearded  old  Father  Thames  crowned  with 
bulrushes  ;  and  the  Isis,  looking  up 
stream,  is,  in  allusion  to  the  fabled 
marriage  of  Thame  and  Isis,  a  female 
head  adorned  with  water  plants.  These 
works  of  art  were  executed  by  the  Hon. 
Mrs.  Darner,  the  daughter  of  General 
Conway,  who  lived  at  Park  Place,  near 
Henley.  They  have,  no  doubt,  con- 
siderable merit,  but  not  so  much  as  to 
warrant  the  excessive  admiration  they 
have  sometimes  evoked,  and  which  pro- 
bably would  not  have  been  expressed  had 
it  not  been  for  the  extravagant  eulogium 
of  Horace  Walpole,  the  artist's  cousin. 

Among  the  notable  houses  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Henley  is  Park  Place,  on 
the  summit  of  the  hill  on  the  Berkshire 
side.  Stonor  Park,  Henley  Park,  Phyllis 
Court,  Fawley  Court,  Greenlands,  and 
many  other  county  houses,  are  either  in 
or  near  the  parish. 

Henley  was  once  justly  celebrated  for  its 
pike,  but  is  now  scarcely  worth  the  trouble 
of  fishing,  except  for  roach  and  chub. 

Banks. — London  and  County,  Market- 
place ;  Simonds  and  Co.,  Market-place. 

Fairs. — March  7,  Holy  Thursday, 
Trinity  Thursday,  and  the  Thursday  after 
September  21.. 


HEN— HEN  104 

Fire. — Volunteer  Fire  Brigade  ;  cap- 
tain-lieutenant, two  firemen,  engineer, 
and  twenty  pioneers  ;  three  manual  en- 
gines and  one  fire-escape. 

Hotels. — "Angel,"  at  the  foot  of  the 
bridge;  "Catherine  Wheel,"  Hart-street  ; 
"Red  Lion,"  foot  of  the  bridge  ;  "Royal," 
facing  the  river  near  the  railway-station. 

Market  Day. — Thursday. 

Places  of  Worship. — Holy  Trinity 
(Rutherford  Greys)  and  St.  Mary's  ;  and 
Baptist,  Congregational,  and  Wesleyan 
Chapels,  and  a  Friends'  Meeting  House. 

Police.— Station,  West-street,  by  the 
side  of  the  Town  Hall. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  Market-place.  Mails  from 
London,  7  and  11.30  a.m.,  6.45  p.m.: 
Sunday,  7  a.m.  Mails  for  London,  9.55 
a.m.;  3.20,  7.50,  and  8.15  p.m.;  Sunday, 
8.15  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Sonning  6J 
miles  ;  down,  Marlow  8  miles.  Locks,  up, 
Marsh  1  mile;  down,  Hambleden  2J  miles. 
Ferry,  just  below  Bolney  Court,  \  mile 
above  Marsh  Lock.  Railway  Station, 
Henley. 

Fares  to  Paddington :  1st,  6/3,  10/9  ; 
2nd,  4/8,  8/-;  3rd,  2/ 1 1  J. 

Henley  Rowing  Club.— The  usual 
amateur  qualifications.  Subscription, 
ior.  6d.  Election  is  by  ballot  in  com- 
mittee, unless  the  captain,  on  private 
notice  being  given  by  a  member  who  ob- 
jects to  a  candidate,  shall  direct  the  secre- 
tary to  call  a  general  meeting.  If  the 
committee  proceed  to  election,  one  black 
ball  in  three  excludes.  The  club  was 
established  in  1830.  Colour,  blue.  Boat- 
house,  near  the  bridge. 

Henley  Royal  Regatta.— This,  the 
most  important  gathering  of  amateur 
oarsmen  in  England,  takes  place  usually 
about  the  beginning  of  July,  and  almost 
ranks  with  Ascot  among  the  favourite 
fashionable  meetings  of  the  season.  A 
grand  stand  is  provided,  but  the  accom- 
modation for  visitors  is  not  of  the  best. 

One  of  the  favourite  points  of  view  is 
the  "Red  Lion " lawn,  where,  at  the  con- 
clusion of  the  regatta  on  the  second  day, 
the  prizes  are  distributed,  but  by  far  the 
most  popular  resort  is  the  river  itself. 
Indeed,  of  late  years,  this  has  become  so 
much  the  case,  and  the  river  is  so  incon- 


veniently crowded  with  steam  launches, 
house  boats,  skiffs,  gigs,  punts,  dingeys, 
canoes,  and  every  other  conceivable  and 
inconceivable  variety  of  craft,  that  the 
racing  boats  have  sometimes  the  greatest 
difficulty  in  threading  a  way  through  the 
crowd.  In  this  connection  some  astonish- 
ment may  be  expressed  at  the  supineness 
of  the  executive,  in  regard  to  the  im- 
portant matter  of  regulating  this  annually 
increasing  picnic  traffic.  As  it  was  years 
ago,  so  it  seems  to  be  now.  The  racing 
boats  are  always  hampered  to  a  more  or 
less  inconvenient  degree — sometimes  even 
to  the  point  of  disaster.  No  doubt  it  is 
extremely  difficult  to  keep  the  course  clear, 
but  certainly  much  more  might  be  done 
than  at  present.  As  in  the  case  with  all 
boat  races,  only  a  very  small  part  of  the 
struggle  can  properly  be  seen,  except  by 
the  fortunate  few  in  the  umpire's  boat,  or 
by  the  enthusiastic  friends  of  the  com- 
petitors who  run  up  the  tow-path  with 
the  boats. 

The  course  is  a  little  over  a  mile  and 
a  quarter  in  length,  and  the  races  are 
rowed  from  Regatta  Island,  just  below 
Remenham,  against  the  stream,  to  a 
point  opposite  the  "  Red  Lion,"  and  just 
below  the  bridge.  For  the  first  mile  the 
course  is  very  fair,  but  the  river  taking 
a  somewhat  sharp  turn  at  what  is  called 
Poplar  Point,  gives  a  great  advantage  to 
the  boat  with  the  inside  or  Berks  station. 
The  only  chance  of  equalising  the  stations 
is  when  a  high  wind  blows  from  the 
other  bank.  Under  these  circumstances 
men  on  the  Bucks  station  have  the  ad- 
vantage of  being  sheltered  by  the  bushes, 
while  their  opponents  out  in  the  open  are 
struggling  with  the  full  force  of  wind  and 
wave.  The  lead  that  the  Bucks  boat  is 
thus  enabled  to  obtain,  not  unfrequently 
neutralises  the  effect  of  the  dreaded 
corner.  Many  attempts  have  been  made 
to  improve  matters  by  buoying  and  by 
staking  out  the  river  with  the  object  of 
keeping  the  Berks  boat  well  out  in  the 
stream,  but  hitherto  these  ingenious 
arrangements  have  met  with  but  a  very 
moderate  means  of  success.  It  has  even 
been  suggested  that  the  race  should  be 
started  below  the  island,  and  that  the 
finish  should  be  at  Poplar  Point.  But 
as  this  would  disestablish  the  bridge  and 
the  lawn,  its  adoption  is,  to  say  the  least 
of  it,  doubtful. 

The  principal  races  in  the  programme 


HKNLEX    B35Bffll.I4,    OQ.IIE.SE- 


SCALE     OF    i    MILE 

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HEN— HEN 

are  the  Grand  Challenge  Cup  for  eights, 
and  the  Stewards'  Challenge  Cup  for 
fours,  both  of  which,  subject  to  the 
regulations  of  the  Regatta  Committee, 
are  open  to  all  amateurs,  and  up  to 
twenty  years  ago,  were  frequently  com- 
peted for  by  University  crews.  The 
Thames  Challenge  Cup  for  eights,  the 
Wyfold  Challenge  Cup  for  fours,  the 
Silver  Goblets  for  pairs,  the  Diamond 
Challenge  Sculls  for  scullers  (the  latter 
the  oldest  race  in  the  programme),  are 
also  open  races.  The  Ladies'  Challenge 
Plate  for  eights,  and  the  Visitors'  Chal- 
lenge Cup  for  fours  are  confined  to 
college  and  public  school  crews. 

Subjoined  is  a  list  of  winners  of  the 
above  prizes  from  the  commencement  of 
the  regatta  to  the  present  year  : 

GRAND  CHALLENGE  CUP  FOR  EIGHT 
OARS. 

1839  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1840  Leander  Boat  Club 

1841  Cambridge  Subscription  Rooms 

1842  Cambridge  Subscription  Rooms 

1843  Oxford  University  Boat  Club  (7  oars) 

1844  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1845  Cambridge  University  Boat  Club 

1846  Thames  Club,  London 

1847  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1848  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1849  Wadham  College,  Oxford 

1850  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1851  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1852  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1853  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1854  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1855  Cambridge  University  Boat  Club 

1856  Royal  Chester  Rowing  Club 

1857  London  Rowing  Club 

1858  Cambridge  University  Boat  Club 

1859  London  Rowing  Club 
i860  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1861  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1862  London  Rowing  Club 

1863  University  College,  Oxford 

1864  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1865  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1866  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1867  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1868  London  Rowing  Club 

1869  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1870  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1871  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1872  London  Rowing  Club 

1873  London  Rowing  Club 

1874  London  Rowing  Club 


108 

1875  Leander  Boat  Club 

1876  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1877  London  Rowing  Club 

1878  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1879  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1880  Leander  Rowing  Club 

1881  London  Rowing  Club 

1882  Exeter  College,  Oxford 

1883  London  Rowing  Club 
884  London  Rowing  Club 


STEWARDS'    CHALLENGE  CUP   FOR 
FOUR    OARS. 

1842  Oxford  Club,  London 

1843  St.  George's  Club,  London 

1844  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1845  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1846  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1847  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1848  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1849  Leander  Boat  Club 

1850  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1851  Cambridge  University  Boat  Club 

1852  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1853  Oxford  University  Boat  Club 

1854  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1855  Royal  Chester  Rowing  Club 

1856  Argonauts  Club,  London 

1857  London  Rowing  Club 

1858  London  Rowing  Club 

1859  Third  Trinity,  Cambridge 
i860  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1861  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1862  Brasenose  College,  Oxford 

1863  University  College,  Oxford 

1864  London  Rowing  Club 

1865  Third  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1866  University  College,  Oxford 

1867  University  College,  Oxford 

1868  London  Rowing  Club 

1869  London  Rowing  Club 

1870  Etonian  Club,  Oxford 

1871  London  Rowing  Club 

1872  London  Rowing  Club 

1873  London  Rowing  Club 

1874  London  Rowing  Club 

1875  London  Rowing  Club 

1876  London  Rowing  Club 

1877  London  Rowing  Club 

1878  London  Rowing  Club 

1879  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1880  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1881  Hertford  College  B.C.,  Oxford 

1882  Hertford  College  B.C.,  Oxford 

1883  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1884  Kingston  Rowing  Club 


107 


HEN— HEN 


THAMES   CHALLENGE    CLUB    FOR   EIGHT 
OARS. 

1868  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1869  Oscillators  Boat  Club,  Surbiton 

1870  Oscillators  Boat  Club,  Surbiton 

1871  Ino  Rowing  Club,  London 

1872  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1873  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1874  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1875  London  Rowing  Club 

1876  West  London  Rowing  Club 

1877  London  Rowing  Club 

1878  London  Rowing  Clnb 

1879  Twickenham  Rowing  Club 

1880  London  Rowing  Club 

1881  Twickenham  Rowing  Club 

1882  Royal  Chester  Rowing  Club 

1883  London  Rowing  Club 

1884  Twickenham  Rowing  Club 

WYFOLD    CHALLENGE     CUP     FOR     FOUR 
OARS. 

1856  Argonauts  Club,  London 

1857  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1858  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1859  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 
i860  London  Rowing  Club 

1861  Brasenose  College,  Oxford 

1862  London  Rowing  Club 

1863  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1864  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1865  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1866  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1867  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1868  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1869  Oscillators  Boat  Club,  Surbiton 

1870  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1 87 1  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1872  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1873  Kingstown  Harbour  Boat  Club 

1874  Newcastle  Amateur  Rowing  Club 

1875  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1876  West  London  Rowing  Club 

1877  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1878  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1879  London  Rowing  Club 

1880  London  Rowing  Club 

188 1  Dublin  University  R.C. 

1882  Jesus  College  B.C.,  Cambridge 

1883  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1884  Thames  Rowing  Club 

SILVER  GOBLETS   FOR   PAIR   OARS. 

1845  Arnold  and  Mann,  Caius,  Cambridge 

1846  Milman  and  Haggard,  C.C.  Oxford 

1847  Falls  and  Coulthard,  St.  George's, 

London 


1848  Milman  &  Haggard,  Christ  Church, 

Oxford 

1849  Peacock  and  H.  Piayford,  London 

1850  Chitty    and    Hornby,    Balliol   and 

B.N.C.,  Oxford 

1851  Chitty    and    Aitken,    Balliol    and 

Exeter,  Oxford 

1852  Barker  and  Nind,   Christ  Church, 

Oxford 

1853  Barlee  and  Gordon,  Christ's,  Cambs. 

1854  Cadogan  and  Short,  Christ  Church 

and  New,  Oxford 

1855  Nottidge  and  Casamajor,  London 

1856  Nottidge  and  Casamajor,  London 

1857  Warreand  Lonsdale,  Balliol,  Oxford 

1858  H.    H.    Piayford    and   Casamajor, 

London  Rowing  Club 

1859  Warre  and  Arkell,  Oxford 

i860  Casamajor  and  Woodbridge,  Lon- 
don Rowing  Club 

1861  Woodgate  and  Champneys,  Oxford 

1862  Woodgate  and  Champneys,  Oxford 

1863  Woodgate  and  Shepherd,  Oxford 

1864  Selwyn  and  Kinglake,  Cambridge 

1865  May  and  Fenner,  London  R.C. 

1866  Corrie    and   Woodgate,    Kingston 

Rowing  Club 

1867  Corrie  and  Brown,  Kingston  R.C. 

1868  Crofts  and  Wroodgate,  Brasenose 

1869  Long  and  Stout,  London  Rowing 

Club 

1870  Corrie  and  Hall,  Kingston  Rowing 

Club 

1871  Long  and  Gulston,  London  R.C. 

1872  Long  and  Gulston,  London  R.C. 

1873  C.     C.     Knollys   and    A.    Trower, 

Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1874  Long  and  Gulston,  London  R.C. 

1875  Chillingworth  and  Herbert 

1876  Smith  and  Gulston,  London  R.  C. 

1877  Eyre  and  Hastie,  Thames  R.C. 

1878  Ellison  and  Edwardes-Moss,  Oxford 

1879  Labat  and  Gulston,  London  R.C. 

1880  Eyre  and  Hastie,  Thames  R.C. 

1881  Eyre  and  Hastie,  Thames  R.  C. 

1882  D.  E.  Brown  and  J.  Lowndes,  Hert- 

ford College,  Oxford 

1883  G.  Q.  Roberts  and  D.  E.  Brown, 

Twickenham  Rowing  Club 

1884  J.   Lowndes    and    D.    E.    Brown, 

Twickenham  Rowing  Club 


DIAMOND       CHALLENGE       SCULLS      FOR 
SCULLERS. 

1844  Bumpstead,  Scullers'  C,  London 

1845  Wallace,  Leander  B.C. 


HEN— HEN 


108 


1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 

1852 

1853 
I8S4 

1855 
1856 

1857 
1858 

1859 
i860 
1861 
1862 


1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 
1869 

1870 

1871 
1872 

18;  3 
1874 

1875 

1876 
1877 

1878 

1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 


Moon,  Magdalen  College,  Oxford 

Maude,  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

Bagshawe, Third  Trinity, Cambridge 

T.  R.  Bone,  Meteor  Club,  London 

T.  R.  Bone,  Meteor  Club,  London 

E.  G.  Peacock,  Thames  Club, 
London 

E.  Macnaghten,  First  Trinity,  Cam- 
bridge 

Rippingall,  Peterhouse,  Cambridge 

H.  H.  Playford,  Wandle  Club, 
London 

A.  A.  Casamajor,  Argonauts  Club, 
London 

A.  A.  Casamajor,  Argonauts  Club, 
London 

A.  A.  Casamajor,  L.R.C. 

A.  A.  Casamajor,  L.R.C. 

E.  D.  Brickwood,  Richmond 

H.  H.  Playford,  L.R.C. 

A.  A.  Casamajor,  L.R.C. 

E.  D.  Brickwood,  L.R.C.  After 
a  dead  heat  with  W.  B.  Woodgate, 
Brasenose  College 

C.  B.  Lawes,  Third  Trinity,  Cam- 
bridge 

W.  B.  Woodgate,  Brasenose  College, 
Oxford 

E.  B.  Michell,  Magdalen  College, 
Oxford 

E.  B.  Michell,  Magdalen  College, 
Oxford 

W.  C.   Crofts,   Brasenose  College, 

Oxford 

W.  Stout,  L.R.C. 
W.  C.  Crofts,    Brasenose  College, 

Oxford 
John  B.  Close,  First  Trinity,  Cam- 
bridge 
W.  Faucus,  Tynemouth  R.C. 
C.  C.  Knollys,  Magdalen   College, 

Oxford 
A.   C.  Dicker,  St.  John's  College, 

Cambridge 
A.  C.   Dicker,  St.  John's  College, 

Cambridge 
A.  C.   Dicker,  St.  John's  College, 

Cambridge 

F.  L.  Playford,  L.R.C. 

T.    C.    Edwardes-Moss,    Brasenose 

College,  Oxford 
T.  C.   Edwardes-Moss,    Brasenose 

College,  Oxford 
J.  Lowndes,  Hertford  College,  Oxford 
J.  Lowndes,  Hertford  College,  Oxford 
J.  Lowndes,  Hertford  College,  Oxford 
J  .Lowndes,  Hertford  College,  Oxford 
y.  Lowndes,  Twickenham  R.C. 
W.  S.  Unwin,  Magd.  Coll.,  Oxford 


LADIES    CHALLENGE   PLATE  FOR   EIGHT 
OARS. 

1845  St.  George's  Club,  London 

1846  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1847  Brasenose  College,  Oxford 

1848  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1849  Wadham  College,  Oxford 

1850  Lincoln  College,  Oxford,  r.  o. 

1 85 1  Brasenose  College,  Oxford 

1852  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1853  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1854  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1855  Balliol  College,  Oxford 

1856  Royal  Chester  Rowing  Club 

1857  Exeter  College,  Oxford 

1858  Balliol  College,  Oxford 

1859  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 
i860  First  Trinity,  Cambridge,  r.  o. 

1861  First  Trinity,  Cambridge,  r.  o. 

1862  University  College,  Oxford 

1863  University  College,  Oxford 

1864  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1865  Third  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1866  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1867  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1868  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1869  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1870  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1871  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1872  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1873  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1874  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1875  Trinity  College,  Dublin 

1876  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1877  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1878  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1 879  Lady  Margaret  BoatClub,  Cambridge 

1880  Trinity  Hall  Boat  Club 

188 1  First  Trinity  Boat  Club,  Cambridge 

1882  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

1883  Christ  Church  Boat  Club.  Oxford 

1884  Eton  College  Boat  Club 

VISITORS'   CHALLENGE  CUP  FOR  FOUR 
OARS. 

1847  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1848  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1849  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1850  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1851  Christ  Church,  Oxford 

1852  Argonauts  Club,  London 

1853  Argonauts  Club,  London 

1854  St.  John's,  Cambridge 

1855  St.  John's,  Cambridge 

1856  St.  John's,  Cambridge 

1857  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1858  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1859  Third  Trinity,  Cambridge 
i860  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 


109 

1861  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1862  Brasenose  College,  Oxford 

1863  Brasenose  College,  Oxford 

1864  University  College,  Oxford 

1865  Third  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1866  University  College,  Oxford 

1867  University  College,-  Oxford,  r.  o. 

1868  University  College,  Oxford 

1869  University  College,  Oxford 

1870  Trinity  College,  Dublin 

1 871  First  Trinity,  Cambridge 

1872  Pembroke  College,  Oxford 

1873  Trinity  College,  Dublin 

1874  Trinity  College,  Dublin 

1875  University  College,  Oxford 

1876  University  College,  Oxford 

1877  Jesus  College,  Cambridge 

1878  Columbia  College 

1879  Lady  Margaret  B.C.,  Cambridge 

1880  Third  Trinity,  B.C.,  Cambridge 

1881  First  Trinity,  B.C.,  Cambridge 

1882  Brasenose  College,  Oxford. 

1883  Christ  Church  B.C.,  Oxford 

1884  Third  Trinity  B.C.,  Cambridge 

PUBLIC  SCHOOLS  CUP. 

1879  Cheltenham 

1880  Bedford  Grammar  School 

188 1  Bedford  Grammar  School 

1882  Magdalen  College  School,  Oxford 

1883  Hereford  Cathedral  School,  B.C. 

1884  Derby  School  B.C. 

Races  in  1884. 


July  3  and  4. 


GRAND   CHALLENGE  CUP. 

First  Heat. 

Berks  Station — London  R.C.  ...     1 

Bucks  Station — Thames  R.C.  ...     o 

Centre  Station— Royal  Chester  R.C.       o 

London. — G.  R.  B.  Earnshaw,  C.  Earn- 
shaw,  W.  Bergh,J.  F.  Stillwell,  H.J.  Hill, 
A.  S.  J.  Hurrell,  J.  T.  Crier,  W.  W. 
Hewett  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 

Thames.— V>.  E.  Cole,  G.  H.  Eyre, 
Gordon  Smith,  A.  M.  Hutchinson,  S. 
Fairbairn,  J.  Hastie,  H.  J.  Rust,  J.  A. 
Drake-Smith  (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

Royal  Chester.—  C.A.Bean,T.  G.  Frost, 
J.  P.  Small,  A.  M.  Robertson,  E.  R. 
Royston,  F.  Billington,  J.  J.  Gardiner, 
J.  G.  Frost  (stroke),  J.  F.  Lowe  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 

Berks  Station— Twickenham  R.C.  ...  1 

Bucks  Station— Leander  R.  C.  ...  o 

Centre  Station— Kingston  R.C.  ...  o 


HEN-HEN 

Twickenham. — F.  Leader,  R.  H.  Chap- 
man, E.  Hodgkin,  J.  Lowndes,  Stuart- 
Green,  J.  Sharpe,  D.  E.  Brown,  L.  Frere 
(stroke),  D.  Caddy  (cox). 

Leander. — H.  S.  Close,  F.  C.  Meyrick, 

C.  R.  Carter,  E.L.  Puxley,  D.  H.  M'Lean, 
A.  R.  Paterson,  R.  A.  Pinckney,  W.  B. 

D.  Curry  (stroke),  F.J.  Humphreys  (cox). 
Kingston. — P.  H.  Champernowne,  W. 

Bazalgette,  H.  S.  Till,  W.  Graham,  F. 
Cobb,  H.  Butler,  R.  H.  Cobb,  H.  A. 
Harvey  (stroke),  P.  Waterhouse  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Berks  Station — London  R.C.  ...     1 

Bucks  Station — Twickenham  R.C.  ...     o 

stewards'  challenge  cup. 

First  Heat. 

Bucks  Station — Kingston  R.C.  ...  1 
Berks  Station — London  R.C.  ...     o 

Kingston. — F.  Cobb,  H.  A.  Harvey, 
H.  S.  Till,  R.  H.  Cobb  (stroke). 

London.—].  Farrell,  J.  F.  Stillwell,  J. 
T*  Crier,  W.  Hewett  (stroke). 

Second  Heat. 

Berks  Station — Twickenham  R.C.  ...  1 
Bucks  Station — Thames  R.C.  ...     o 

Twickenham. — F.  Leader,  J.  Lowndes, 
D.  E.  Brown,  L.  Frere  (stroke). 

Thames— -G.  H.  Eyre,  J.  Hastie,  H.  J. 
Rust,  J.  A.  Drake-Smith  (stroke). 

Final  Heat. 

Berks  Station — Kingston  R.C.  ...     1 

Bucks  Station — Twickenham  R.C,   ...     o 


THAMES  CHALLENGE  CUP. 

First  Heat. 

Berks  Station— Thames  R.C.  ...  1 
Centre  Station — London  R.C.  ...  o 
Bucks  Station — Albion  R.C o 

Thames.— W.  S.  Warlters,  F.  W.  Long, 
W.  Theobald,  S.  M.  Cooke,  W.  Liddle, 
B.  W.  Looker,  J.  Hughes,  H.  Atkinson 
(stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

London.— -G.  B.  James,  W.  Wells,  P. 
D.  Ullman,  E.  S.  M'Ewen,  W.  R.  Lyne, 

F.  Earnshaw,  J.  Kerr,  C.  Wood  (stroke), 
W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 

Albion. — J.  W.  Macqueen,  S.  E.  Carlin. 

G.  H.  Capper,  C.  R.  Sutherland,  W.  W. 
Butler,  A.  Edwards,  C.  F.  Munro,  E. 
Christian  (stroke),  A.  Barnard  (cox). 


HBN-HEN 


110 


Second  Heat. 


Berks  Station— Twickenham  R.C.  ...  I 
Bucks  Station — West  London  R.C.  O 
Centre  Station — Grove  Park  R.C.    ...     o 

Twickenham.— A.  F.  Gardiner,  C.  F. 
Russell,  S.  Hodgkin,  J.  M.  Haslip,  W. 
Williams,  G.  A.  Bonner,  G.  Vertue,  H. 
Blackmore  (stroke),  G.  Haslip  (cox). 

West  London.— W.  H.  Bone,  A.  B. 
Vaux,  J.  H.  Welch,  E.  H.  Bartlett,  A.  S. 
Lawless,  C.  E.  Brown,  A.  Huntley,  G. 
C.  Vaux  (stroke),  W.  Rupert-Wheeler 
(cox). 

Grove  Park.  —  H.  Summerhayes,  F. 
Watts;  A.  P.  Firminger,  R.  H.  Laurie, 
F.  S:  Watts,  W.  H.  Cumming,  F.  J. 
Browne,  W.  F.  Watts  (stroke),  H.  6. 
Ducker  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Twickenham      I 

Thames o 

WYFOLD   CHALLENGE  CUP. 

First  Heat. 

Berks  Station — London  R.C.  .  ...     i: 

Bucks  Station — Reading  R.C.  ...     o 

London. — P.  D.  Ullman,  W.  Bergh, 
K.  J.  Hill,  C.  Wood  (stroke). 

Reading. — H.  G.  Lovejoy,  W.  J.  Brown, 
H.  E.  Cottrell,  T.  H.  Clarke  (stroke). 

Second  Heat. 

Bucks  Station — Thames  R.C.  ...     i 

Centre  Station — Royal  Chester  R.C.  o 
Berks  Station — Clare    College    B.C., 

Cambridge     o 

I  Thames.— -B.  W.  Looker,  W.  Liddle, 
S.  Fairbairn,  A.  M.  Hutchinson  (stroke). 

Royal  Chester —R.  Royston,  F.  Bil- 
lington,  J.  J.  Gardiner,  J.  G.  Frost 
(stroke). 

Clare  College.—].  R.  Fuller,  E.  K. 
Man,  A.  D.  Flower,  R.  G.  Wilde  (stroke). 

Third  Heat. 

Berks  Station— Marlow  R.C.  ...     i 

Bucks  Station — Twickenham  R.C.  ...    o 

Marlow.— -W.  T.  Shaw,  W.  T.  Porter, 
C.  H.  Yates,  J.  S.  Kirkpatrick  (stroke). 

Twickenham. — C.  F.  Russell,  G.  A. 
Bonner,  E.  Hodgkin,  H.  Blackmore 
(stroke). 

Final  Heat. 


Berks  Station— Thames  R.C. 
Bucks  Station — Marlow  R.C. 
Centre  Station — London  R.C. 


DIAMOND  CHALLENGE  SCULLS. 
First  Heat. 
Berks  Station — J.    Farrell,    London 

R.C i 

Bucks  Station — E.  St.  J.  Christophers, 

Thames  R.C o 

Centre  Station — Jean  Bungert,  Mann- 
heimer  Ruder  Club o 

Second  Heat. 

Berks  Station— W.  S.  Unwin,  Mag- 
dalen College  B.C.,  Oxford  ...     I 

Centre  Station— W.  R.  Patton,K61ner 
Club,  Cologne  o 

Third  Heat. 

Berks  Station— R.  H.  Smith,  Thames 
R.C.    ... i 

Centre  Station— J.  Lowndes,  Twick- 
enham R.C o 

Bucks  Station— E.  C.  Kendall,  Royal 
Chester  RX o 

Final  Heat. 

Bucks  Station — W.  S.  Unwin  ...  i 

Berks  Station — R.  H.  Smith o 

Centre  Station— J.  Farrell      o 

: 
LADIES'  CHALLENGE  PLATE. 

First  Heat. 

Berks  Station— Radley  College  B.C.        I 
Bucks  Station— Christ  Church  B.C., 

Oxford o 

Radley  College.—].  Richards,  C.  V. 
Gresley,  R.  H.  Cooper,  L.  W.  North, 
R.  G.  Harding,  H.  R.  Fort,  O.  Stock, 
L.  Hannen  (stroke),  R.  E.  Watt  (cox). 

Christ  Church. — A.  J.  Newsome,  R.  H. 
Williams,  E.  P.  Wethered,  C.  K.  Bowes, 
Lord  Packenham,  E.  H.  Kempson,  A.  G. 
Shortt,  A.  B.  Shaw  (stroke),  R.  E.  Raw- 
storne  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 

Bucks  Station— Eton  College  B.C.   ...     I 
Berks   Station — Caius   College   B.C., 

Cambridge      o 

Eton  College.— -M.  E.  Bradford,  C.  T. 
Barclay,  W.  P.  Mellor,  S.  D.  Muttlebury, 
H.  M'Lean,  S.  R.  Fothergill,  G.  E.  Hale, 
C.  Barclay  (stroke),  F.  P.  Barnett  (cox). 

Caius  College.— R.  W.  Mitchell,  E.  L. 
Burd,  R.  F.  E.  Cook,  E.  J.  D.  Mitchell, 
M.  Pemberton,  T.  W.  Scott,  W.  P.  G. 
Graham,  T.  E.  A.  Lewis  (stroke),  A.  A. 
Hare  (cox). 


Final  Heat. 

Berks  Station— Eton  College  B.C.    ...     i 
Bucks  Station— Radley  College  B.C.       o 

VISITORS'  challenge  cup. 
First  Heat. 
Bucks  Station — Christ  Church  B.C., 

Oxford i 

Berks  Station — Caius   College  B.C., 

Cambridge     o 

Christ  Church. — A.  J.  Newsome,  C.  K. 
Bowes,  A.  G.  Shortt,  A.  B.  Shaw  (stroke). 

Caius  College — W.  P.  Gore-Graham, 
T.  W.  Scott,  M.  Pemberton,  E.  L.  Burd 
(stroke). 

Second  Heat. 
Bucks  Station— Third  Trinity  B.C., 

Cambridge      I 

Berks   Station — Clare  College  B.C., 

Cambridge   ■ ...     o 

Third  Trinity. — St.  C.  Donaldson,  E. 
W.  Haig,  F.  E.  Churchill,  F.  J.  Pitman 
(stroke). 

Clare  College.—].  R.  Fuller,  E.  K.  Man, 
A.  D.  Flower,  R.  G.  Wilde  (stroke). 

Final  Heat. 
Berks  Station—Third  Trinity   B.C., 

Cambridge     ...         I 

Bucks  Station— Christ  Church  B.C., 

Oxford , o 


PUBLIC  SCHOOLS    CHALLENGE  CUP. 

First  Heat 
Berks    Station  —  Magdalen    College 

School  B.C.,  Oxford  I 

Centre  Station — London  International 

College  B.C ...     o 

Bucks  Station  —  Merchant  Taylors' 

School  B.C o 

Magdalen  School. — H.  W.  Mence,  J. 
W.  Bickerton,  J.  M.  Bailey,  L.  S.  Par- 
tridge (stroke),  C.  A.  S.  Jones  (cox). 

London  International  College. — A.  W. 
Barton,  A.  Allport,  L.  Pharazyn,  A.  O. 
Trechman  (stroke),  S.  Donkin  (cox). 

Merchant  Taylors  School.  —  H.  Ed- 
munds, J.  S.  Richards,  A.  H.  Green,  H. 
Dobb  (stroke),  J.  E.  V.  Oldham  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 
Berks  Station — Hereford  Cathedral 

School  B.C I 

Bucks    Station  —  Bedford     Modern 

School  B.C ,.        ...    o 


III  HEN-HUM 

Hereford  Cathedral  School.  —  R.  H. 
Palmer,  R.  H.  T.  Symonds,  A.  T. 
Nicholson,  F.  C.  Palmer  (stroke),  B. 
Norton  (cox). 

Bedford  Modern  School.— W.  Tudball, 
H.  A.  Block,  T.  E.  Hart-Smith,  A.  Long 
(stroke),  H.  W.  Godfrey  (cox). 

Third  Heat. 

Centre  Station— Derby  School  B.  C. . . .  I 
Berks    Station  —  Bedford    Grammar 

School  B.C o 

Bucks    Station  —  St.   Mark's   School 

B.C.,  Windsor  ,o 

Derby  School. — G.  Moss,  F.  Sargeant, 
C.  M'Dakin  Clench,  H.  L.  F.  Scalthorpe 
(stroke),  R.  A.  Vargas  (cox). 

Bedford  Grammar  School.  —  J.  M. 
Glubb,  G.  Cary  Elwes,  H.  Cross,  G. 
Verey  (stroke),  C.  Dalton  (cox). 

St.  Mark's  School— W.  G.  Price,  F. 
H.  Watson,  H.  W.  G.  Crofton,  H.  V. 
Cobbold  (stroke),  F.  C.  Vignoles  (cox). 


Final  Heat. 


Berks  Station — Derby  School  B.  C.  . . .  I 
Centre   Station — Hereford   Cathedral 

School  B.C ...         ...     o 

Bucks   Station  —  Magdalen    College 

School  B.C.,  Oxford  o 

Hope  (The),  or  Lower  Hope,  runs 
about  three  nautical  miles,  almost  due 
north  and  south,  from  Coal  House  Point, 
about  two  miles  below  Gravesend,  to  the 
Mucking  Light  at  the  beginning  of  Sea 
Reach.  Both  banks  are  here  very  flat 
and  marshy,  the  Mucking  Flats  being  on 
the  left  (Essex)  and  Cliffe  Marsh  on  the 
right  (Kent).  Just  beyond  Coal  House 
Point  is  the  Oven  Spit  and  Ovens  Buoy. 
Bearings  N.  E.  and  S.  W. 

Humane  Society.— The  Royal 
Humane  Society,  4,  Trafalgar  Square, 
London,  was  founded  about  a  century 
ago,  to  provide  against  the  loss  of  life 
arising  from  the  many  casualties  annually 
recurring  with  water,  also  for  the  purpose 
of  collecting  and  circulating  the  best 
methods  for  the  recovery  of  the  appa- 
rently drowned  or  dead,  for  providing 
suitable  apparatus  for  the  recovery  of 
those  apparently  drowned,  and  the  be- 
stowal of  rewards  on  those  persons  who, 
by  their  courage,  activity,  and  presence  of 
mind,  assist  in  preserving  and  restoring 
life.     (See  Drowning.  ) 


HUR-IFF  !!2 

Hurley,  Berkshire,  on  the  right  bank; 
from  London  59  miles,  from  Oxford  52J 
miles.  Population,  193.  Soil,  chalk  and 
graveL  A  small  village  beautifully  situated 
in  a  charming  country,  but  retiring  so 
coyly  from  the  river  as  to  afford  little  or 
no  indication  of  its  existence  to  the  casual 
passer-by.  But  the  famous  Lady  Place 
at  Hurley  made  for  itself  a  name  in  history; 
and,  although  but  little  of  the  building 
now  remains  it  is  not  likely  to  be  forgotten 
Bo  long  as  the  graphic  description  of 
Macaulay  remains  in  evidence. 

The  church,  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  the 
Virgin,  was  consecrated  in  1086,  by 
Osmund  "the  Good,"  Bishop  of  Sarum. 
It  was  once  the  chapel  of  a  Benedictine 
monastery.  The  old  refectory  of  the 
monastery  still  exists  on  the  north  side  of 
the  church,  and  the  monastic  quadrangle 
is  on  the  same  side.  There  are  several 
plates  on  the  north  wall  of  the  quadrangle 
behind  the  church.  One  runs  as  follows  : 
"  The  priory  of  St.  Mary,  Hurley,  founded 
in  the  reign  of  William  the  Conqueror  by 
Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  and  his  wife 
Lecelina,  A.D.  1086.  A  cell  to  West- 
minster Abbey."  On  another:  -'King 
Edward  the  Confessor,  principal  founder 
of  Westminster  Abbey,  after  the  times  of 
King  Sebert  and  King  OfTa. "  The  church 
contains  an  antique  stone  font,  and  in 
the  vestry  are  two  half-length  stonefigures. 
Above  the  one  is  a  scutcheon,  underwhich 
is  an  inscription:  "Richard  Lovelace, 
sone  of  John  Lovelace,  Esqvire,  1601." 
Under  the  scutcheon  which  surmounts 
the  other  is  the  inscription:  "Sir  Richd. 
Lovelace,  Knighted  in  ye  Warrs."  No 
date  is  filled  in.  There  are  also  in  the 
vestry  paintings  of  Moses  and  Aaron. 
On  the  floor  of  the  nave  are  the  remains 
of  some  early  brasses. 

The  principal  fish  at  Hurley  are  pike 
and  chub,  and  there  are  perch  in  the  deep 
weir  pool. 

Places  of  Worship.— -St.  Mary  the 
Virgin,  and  a  school-chapel  at  Birchet's 
Green. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Marlow.  Pillar  letter-box  cleared 
10  a.m.,  6.30  p.m.  Sunday  9.30  a.m, 
Nearest  money  order,  telegraph,  &c, 
office,  Marlow. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Henley  about 
5|  miles ;  down,  Marlow  2J  miles.  Locks % 
up,  Hambleden  3!  miles ;  down,  Temple 
about  \  mile.    Ferry,  Temple.     Railway 


Station,  Marlow ;  but  as  Marlow  is  on  a 
branch  line,  Maidenhead  is  generally 
preferred. 

Fares  from   Marlow   to  Paddington 
1st,  6/-,  9/1 1  ;    2nd,  4/6,  7/6  ;   3rd,  2/7J. 
From  Maidenhead   to  Paddington  :    1st, 
4/4,  7/6  ;  2nd,  3/3,  5/9 ;  3rd,  2/-J. 

Hurlingham  Club,  on  the  left  bank' 
a  short  distance  below  Putney  Bridge' 
The  club  is  instituted  for  the  purpose  o* 
providing  a  ground  for  pigeon-shooting, 
polo,  lawn-tennis,  &c,  surrounded  with 
such  accessories  and  so  situated  as  to 
render  it  an  agreeable  country  resort,  not 
alone  to  those  who  take  part  in  pigeon- 
shooting  and  polo,  but  also  to  their 
families  and  friends.  The  club  consists, 
at  the  time  of  revising  this  description  ot 
it,  of  shooting,  polo,  and  non-shooting 
members.  Elected  members  pay  an  en- 
trance fee  of  £15  i$s.,  and  an  annual 
subscription  ol  £5  51.  They  are  entitled 
to  all  the  privileges  of  the  club,  and  to 
admit  two  ladies  without  payment,  and 
may  give  orders  of  admission  to  as  many 
friends  as  they  please,  on  payment.  The 
non-shooting  members,  who  are  not 
elected,  pay  an  annual  subscription  of 
£2.  2s.  each,  and  are  entitled  to  admit  two 
ladies  without  payment  and  to  all  the  privi- 
leges of  the  club,  except  shooting  and 
polo-playing.  They  may  give  orders  of 
admission  to  as  many  friends  as  they  may 
please,  on  payment  only.  Every  member 
is  entitled,  by  the  payment  of  £1  is.  extra 
per  annum,  to  give  one  additional  order 
for  ladies  only  for  free  admission  daily. 
No  person  is  eligible  for  admission  who  is 
not  received  in  general  society.  The 
committee  elect  by  ballot,  and  the  candi- 
date balloted  for  shall  be  put  up  not 
sooner  than  one  week  after  he  is  proposed. 
Five  members  must  be  present  ;  if  there 
be  one  black  ball  he  shall  be  considered 
as  not  elected. 

Iffley,  called  in  Domesday  Book  Giftelei, 
Oxfordshire,  on  the  left  bank,  no  miles 
from  London,  ij  miles  from  Oxford. 
Population  about  1,000.  Soil,  loam. 
Iffley  is  noticeable  chiefly  for  its  old  mill 
on  the  river,  and  for  its  church,  which  is 
one  of  the  best  specimens  of  Anglo-Norman 
architecture  now  left  to  us  in  a  building  of 
this  size.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  visit 
Iffley  to  see  the  mill.  It  has  been  painted 
in  every  kind  of  medium,  and  photo- 
graphed in  every  sort  of  camera,   till  it 


J '3 


IFF— IL5 


must  be  as  familiar  to  most  people  as 
Windsor  Castle  itself.  Rarely,  indeed,  is 
there  an  exhibition  of  the  Academy,  or  the 
Dudley,  or  of  any  of  the  water-colour 
societies,  without  at  least  one  bit  from 
Iffley.  From  the  lock,  the  village  is  ap- 
proached by  a  bridge  over  the  weir,  passing 
through  a  gate  at  the  mill.  This  is  kept 
locked,  and  a  toll  is  required  from  each 
person  of  id.  About  five  minutes'  walk 
from  the  lock  is  the  post-office,  and  about 
200  yards  to  the  right  is  the  church,  dedi- 
cated to  St.  Mary,  which  is  known  to  have 
been  built  prior  to  1189,  so  that  a  tablet 
on  the  outer  north  wall,  dated  1659,  which 
elsewhere  might  lay  claim  to  a  decent  anti- 
quity, here  appears  to  be  even  absurdly 
juvenile.  The  fine  embattled  tower  rises 
between  the  chancel  and  the  nave,  and  is 
in  common  with  the  rest  of  the  church,  in 
singularly  fine  preservation.  Perhaps  the 
best  point  about  the  exterior  is  the  west 
front,  which  has  a  grand  doorway  with  a 
noble  arch,  enriched  with  carving,  about 
which  there  is  even  something  Saracenic, 
as  is  indeed  the  case  with  some  of  the 
carved  and  fretted  work  of  the  interior. 
The  east  bay  of  the  chancel  is  as  built  by 
Robert  de  Efteley,  a  prior  of  Kenil worth, 
about  1270.  The  ornamented  piers  and 
capitals  of  the  south  and  north  doorways 
and  the  chevron  and  sunflowers  of  the 
tower  arches  in  the  interior,  are  very  note- 
worthy. The  vaulted  chancel  roof  is  boldly 
groined.  The  building  appears  to  be  un- 
usually narrow  in  proportion  to  its  length. 
Above  the  doorway  at  the  west  end  is  a 
characteristic  circular  window.  The  font 
is  large  and  massive,  and  is  said  to  be 
coeval  with  the  church  itself.  The  windows 
are  of  stained  glass  of  no  great  interest, 
except  in  so  far  that  the  west  window 
commemorates  the  author  of  ' '  The  Cres- 
cent and  the  Cross."  The  churchyard 
is  famous  for  its  yew,  certainly  one  of 
the  finest  old  trees  of  that  class  in  the 
country,  and  which  it  requires  no  great 
stretch  of  imagination  to  believe  might 
have  been  planted  at  a  date  not  very 
much  later  than  the  foundation  of  the 
church  itself.  Near  it  stands  a  monu- 
mental cross  of  ancient  date,  which  has 
recently  been  restored  by  Mr.  G.  Street, 
R.A.  The  rectory  house,  which  abuts 
on  the  churchyard,  harmonises  well  with 
its  venerable  neighbours.  The  west  side 
contains  some  excellent  perpendicular 
work,  and  with  the  old  Norman  tower 


behind  it,  and  its  garden  sloping  to  the 
river,  forms  one  of  the  prettiest  pictures 
on  the  Thames.  The  Manor  House 
(which  overlooks  the  lock),  though  per- 
haps older  by  a  century  than  the  rectory, 
has  been  altered  and  patched  until  scarcely 
any  traces  of  what  it  was  remain.  Dr. 
Johnson  visited  this  house  with  Boswell 
on  nth  June,  1784,  when  Dr.  No  well 
resided  there.  Boswell  says  :  "  We  were 
well  entertained  and  very  happy  at  Dr. 
Nowell's,  where  was  a  very  agreeable 
company,  and  we  drank  '  Church  and 
King'  after  dinner  with  true  Tory  cor- 
diality." The  name  of  the  village  has, 
it  is  said,  been  found  spelt  in  eighty 
different  ways  during  the  last  1,000  years. 

Iffley  lock  is  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
lasher,  immediately  on  passing  which  the 
lock  comes  into  view,  leaving  the  river  a 
little  distance  up  stream.  The  weir,  on 
which  is  the  mill,  has  a  very  rapid  stream, 
and  has  a  somewhat  evil  reputation  for 
accidents.  Some  care,  therefore,  should 
be  exercised  when  waiting  for  the  lock  to 
open.  The  lock  is  of  stone,  in  good  re- 
pair except  as  to  the  gates.  A  roller  slip 
has  been  recently  added.  The  fall  is  from 
i\  to  3  feet.  Excellent  dace-fishing  with 
the  fly  on  the  scowers  and  shallows  from 
Iffley  Mid-tail  to  Rose  Island,  Kenning- 
ton. 

Inns.  — "Isis"  (Grandpont  on  the 
river);  "The  Trees,"  in  the  village. 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Mary's. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Mails  from 
London,  6.23  a.m.,  2.5  p.m.;  Sundays, 
6.23a.m.  Mails  for  London,  6.20  p.m.; 
Sundays,  3.19  p.  m.  Nearest  money  order 
and  telegraph  office,  Cowley. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Oxford  ;  down, 
Abingdon  about  7  miles.  Locks,  Iffley  f 
down,  Sandford  if  miles.  Railway 
StationSy  Oxford  and  Littlemore. 

Fares,  Oxford  to  Paddington  :  1st, 
11/-,  18/6  ;  2nd,  8/4,  14/- ;  3rd,  5/7.  From 
Littlemore  the  fares  are  a  trifle  lower. 

Ilex  Swimming  Club.-— This  club 
was  founded  in  1871,  its  members  being 
drawn  from  the  ranks  of  amateur  rowing, 
yachting,  canoe,  cruising,  athletic,  and 
football  clubs.  It  is  managed  bya  presi- 
dent, vice-president,  captain,  secretary, 
and  twelve  committee  men.  These  officers 
are  all  elective,  with  the  exception  of  the 
captaincy,  which  is  annually  swum  for  in 


ILE-ISL 


114 


Thames.  Members  are  elected  by  ballot, 
one  black  ball  in  five  excluding.  The 
subscription  for  active  members  is  10s.  per 
annum,  or  £2  2s.  for  life;  non-active 
members  pay  5^.  per  annum,  or  £1  is.  for 
life.  The  headquarters  of  the  club  are  at 
the  Lambeth  Baths,  where  most  of  its 
races  take  place;  colours,  black  and 
crimson. 

Isis. — A  name  frequently  given  to  the 
Thames  until  it  is  joined  by  the  Thame  a 
mile  below  Day's  Lock,  near  Dorchester. 
Camden  thus  derives  the  word  Tamesis, 
or  Thames,  from  the  junction  of  the 
names  of  the  two  rivers.  This  fanciful 
derivation  appears  to  have  no  foundation 
in  actual  fact,  but  has  been  perpetuated 
by  the  poets  who  have  sung  of  the  nuptials 
of  Thame  and  Isis  ;  "  Beautiful  Isis  and 
her  husband  Thame,"  Warton  calls  them. 

In  Julius  Caesar's  time  the  river  was 
known  as  Tamesis,  and  the  Anglo-Saxon 
name  was  Temese  ;  very  like  the  "  Tamise 
ripe  "  of  other  days.  Whether  Camden 
considered  that  he  had  sufficient  evidence 
to  justify  Isis,  or  whether,  misled  by  the 
other  river  Thame,  he  merely  invented  the 
derivation  as  the  shortest  way  out  of  a 
difficulty,  is  not  quite  clear. 

Probably  he  followed  Leland,  as  other 
chroniclers  in  their  turn  followed  him  :  a 
sheep-like  practice  much  in  favour  in  such 
cases,  and  productive  of  considerable  con- 
fusion. But  as  there  can  be  no  good 
reason  why  a  river  for  a  portion  of  its 
course  should  bear  one  name,  and 
presently  change  it  for  something  quite 
different,  it  seems  desirable  that,  except 
as  a  poetical  conceit,  the  Isis  legend 
should  be  abandoned,  and  the  river 
throughout  be  called  the  Thames. 

Isle  of  Dogs,  on  the  left  bank  opposite 
Greenwich. — An  uninviting  title  euphe- 
mistically derived  from  "Isle  of  Ducks," 
.  and  applied  to  what  was  till  lately  about 
the  best  imitation  on  a  small  scale  of 
the  Great  Dismal  Swamp  to  be  found 
in  England.  The  place,  it  may  be 
observed  en  passant,  was  not  until  late 
years  an  island  at  all,  but  simply  a 
peninsula  jutting  out  into  the  river  be- 
tween Limehouse  and  Blackwall. 

Just  at  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century,  however,  the  Corporation,  which 
had  long  been  exercised  by  the  demands 
of  enterprising  engineers  for  permission  to 
put  the  river  straight  and  take  possession 


of  its  old  Scamandering  bed  for  docks, 
took  heart  of  grace,  and  cut  a  canal  through 
the  neck  of  the  "unlucky  Isle  of  Doggs," 
as  Master  Pepys  hath  it,  and  so  opened 
a  short  cut  for  ships  bound  up  or  down 
the  river.  Apparently,  however,  the  new 
road  was  not  found  satisfactory,  for  it  has 
been  long  since  closed  and  sold  to  the 
West  India  Dock  Company,  who  now 
use  it  as  a  timber  dock. 

Nearest  Steamboat  Piers.  Mill  wall 
(west)  and  Cubitt  Town  (east)  ;  Ferries, 
Ferry-street  to  Greenwich  Pier,  and  north- 
east corner  of  Commercial  Docks  ;  RaiU 
way  Station,  West  India  Dock ;  Omfiibus 
Route,  Blackwall. 

Isle  of  Grain.— (See  Grain,  Isle  of). 

Isleworth,  Middlesex,  on  the  left 
bank  ;  from  London  15  miles,  from  Oxford 
96J  miles.  A  station  on  the  South 
Western  Railway  12  miles  from  Waterloo. 
Trains  average  about  40  minutes,  or  from 
Ludgate-hill  about  an  hour  and  a  half. 
Population,  about  12,000.     Soil,  light. 

Isleworth,  known  to  Doomsday  Book 
as  Ghistelworde,  and  called  in  Elizabeth's 
time  Thistleworth,  is  a  place  of  some 
antiquity  ;  but  is  now  generally  known  in 
consequence  of  its  market  gardens,  which 
are  very  numerous  and  prolific.  Here, 
also,  are  extensive  flour  mills,  cement 
works,  &c.  Close  to  the  little  town  is 
Syon  House,  the  seat  of  the  Duke  of 
Northumberland.  It  is  a  large,  plain 
mansion  facing  the  river,  and  stands  on 
the  site  of  a  nunnery  founded  in  the  time 
of  Henry  V.  In  the  natural  course  of 
events  the  nunnery  was  dissolved  by 
Henry  VIII.  It  was  given  by  Edward 
VI.  to  Seymour,  Duke  of  Somerset,  and 
after  several  confiscations  was  finally 
granted,  in  1604,  to  the  Earl  of  North- 
umberland, who  built  the  present  house. 
The  well-known  Lion  from  Northumber- 
land House,  Strand,  having  retired  from 
public  life,  now  takes  his  ease  at  Syon. 
Half  a  mile  above  Syon  House  is  the 
Church  Ferry,  and  another  ferry  is  above 
the  eyots,  half  a  mile  nearer  Richmond. 

Among  the  local  institutions  are  the 
Isleworth  and  St.  John's  Working  Men's 
Clubs,  and  the  Public  Reading-room  and 
Library.  The  subscription  to  the  latter 
is  $s.  annually,  is.  6d.  quarterly.  The 
Reading-room  is  in  South-street.  Oppo- 
site the  Church  Ferry  is  the  Green  School, 
a  red  brick  building,  erected  in  1861  by 


Ii5 


ISL-KEN 


the  late  Duchess  of  Northumberland. 
This  school  is  endowed  to  clothe  and 
educate  40  girls  between  the  ages  of  seven 
and  fourteen.  The  Blue  Schools  are  for 
girls  and  boys.  In  addition  to  various 
places  of  worship  is  a  Roman  Catholic 
convent.  The  list  of  charities  and  alms- 
houses is  very  extensive. 

The  parish  church,  All  Saints,  was 
rebuilt  in  1705,  and  restored  in  1866.  It 
is  a  fine  building,  with  a  remarkably 
beautiful  ivy-covered  tower.  In  it  are 
some  good  brasses,  one  of  the  15th  cen- 
tury, and  one  in  front  of  the  Duke  of 
Northumberland's  pew  to  the  memory  of 
Margaret  Dely,  who  died  1561,  having 
been  a  nun  at  Syon  when  it  was  restored 
to  its  original  purposes  by  Queen  Mary. 

Fire.  — Volunteer  Fire  Brigade,  Station- 
house-square. 

Inns. — "  London  Apprentice,"  Church- 
street  ;  "  Northumberland  Arms,"  Brent- 
ford End  ;  "  Orange  Tree,"  Mill  Bridge. 

Places  of  Worship. — All  Saints  (pa- 
rish), St.  John  the  Baptist,  and  St.  Mary's. 
The  Roman  Catholic  Church  of  St.  Mary 
Immaculate  and  St.  Bridget,  and  the  Con- 
vent Chapels  ;  also  Congregational  and 
Wesleyan  Chapels,  and  Friends'  Meeting 
House. 

Police.— Metropolitan  (T  Division), 
Station,  Worple-road. 

Postal  Arrangements.—- Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance).  Mails  from  London,  7 
and  9  a.m.,  2.30  and  6.45  p.m.  (Satur- 
days, 8.30  p.m.)  No  Sunday  delivery. 
Mails  for  London,  6.15  and  9.45  a.m., 
12.45,  5.15,  and  9.30  p.m.  Sundays, 
9  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Richmond  about 
\  mile  ;  down,  Kew  about  2  miles.  Lock, 
up,  Teddington,  3J  miles.  Ferries,  Isle- 
worth  and  Brentford.  Railway  Station, 
Isleworth. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  and  Ludgate-hill : 
ist,  1/2,  1/9  ;  2nd,  1/-,  1/6  ;  3rd,  -/io,  1/4. 

Jenkin  Buoy.— An  8-foot  cylinder 
buoy,  made  of  iron,  and  painted  with 
black  and  white  chequers.  It  is  situated 
in  Sea  Reach,  to  the  westward  of  the 
Nore  Sand,  and  marks  a  depth  of  water, 
at  low- water  spring. tide,  of  21  feet.  It  is 
moored  with  12  fathoms  of  chain.  The 
Jenkin  buoy  belongs  to  the  Trinity  House. 

Junior    Kingston    Rowing    Club, 

Sun  Hotel,  Kingston.— Election  by  ballot; 


one  black  ball  in  three  excludes.  Entrance 
fee,  55-. ;  subscriptions,  £1  ij.  Boathouse, 
High-street,  Kingston.  Colours,  black 
and  gold. 

Junior  Thames  Yacht  Club,  White 
Hart  Hotel,  Greenhithe,  and  Royal  Oak 
Hotel,  Ramsgate. — The  object  of  the 
club  is  the  encouragement  of  practical 
amateur  yachtsmen.  For  this  purpose 
the  crews  of  yachts  in  all  sailing  matches 
must  be  amateurs,  with  the  exception  of 
one  paid  hand  in  the  5-ton  class,  two 
in  the  10-ton  class,  and  three  in  the  20-ton 
class,  such  hands  not  to  touch  the  tiller. 
Yachts  limited  to  20  tons  only  are  allowed 
to  take  part  in  the  club  matches.  The 
officers  are  commodore,  vice  commodore, 
rear  commodore,  hon.  treasurer,  secre- 
tary, and  two  auditors.  The  committee 
consists  of  twenty  members,  the  flag- 
officers  being  ex-officio  members.  Elec- 
tion by  ballot  of  the  club  ;  one  black  ball 
in  three  excludes.  Entrance  fee,  ^1  if. ; 
subscription,  £1  is.  Burgee,  white,  with 
blue  cross  running  through.     Ensign  red. 

Kempsford. — A  village  in  Gloucester- 
shire on  the  Thames  and  Severn  Canal, 
and  not  far  from  the  Thames  at  Castle 
Eaton,  situated  about  4^  miles  from  Lech- 
lade  and  6  from  Cricklade.  Kempsford 
is  of  no  particular  importance,  but  is 
worth  visiting  for  the  very  fine  square 
tower,  with  two  noble  windows,  which 
rises  from  the  centre  of  the  church  of  St. 
Mary  the  Virgin.  The  interior  of  the 
church,  though  possessing  many  features 
of  architectural  interest,  is  rather  plain, 
except  for  the  roof  of  the  tower,  which 
is  very  rich  in  colour,  and  for  some  good 
stained  glass.  In  the  chancel  is  a  stone 
altar  tomb  with  figures  considerably  muti- 
lated ;  and  in  the  vestry,  which  is  notable 
for  a  good  Norman  arch,  is  a  curious  old 
picture  which  apparently  represents  King 
David,  and  was  "the  gift  of  Robert  Pope, 
London."  The  population  is  about  1,000. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
in  the  village.  Letters  through  Fairford. 
Mails  arrive  at  7.30  a.m.,  and  are  des- 
patched at  6.10  p.m. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Fairford, 
distant  about  3  miles. 

Fares  to  Paddington,  ist,  18/6,  27/6  -, 
2nd,  12/-,  20/-;  3rd,  8/5 J. 

Kempton  Park.— (See  Sunbury.) 

Kennington  Island,  sometimes  called 
Rose  Island,  opposite  the  little  village  of 


KEN— KEW  118 

Kennington  in  Berkshire,  about  i\  miles 
from  Oxford.  Here  is  a  good  little  inn, 
"  The  Swan,"  to  which  is  attached  some 
private  fishing.  From  the  railway  bridge, 
just  above,  is  a  pleasant  view  of  the 
distant  spires  of  Oxford. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Oxford  about 
2J  miles  ;  down,  Abingdon  about  5^  miles. 
Locks,  up,  Ifrley  \  mile ;  down,  Sandford 
1^  mile.     Railway  Station,  Littlemore. 

Fares,  Littlemore  to  Paddington  :  ist, 
10/9,  18/-;  2nd,  7I6,  12/6  ;  3rd,  5/2. 

Fares,  from  Paddington :  ist,  10/9, 
18/-;  2nd,  7/6,  12/6;  5rd,  5/2. 

Kensington  Rowing  Club.— Head- 
quarters, Biffen's,  Hammersmith.  Election 
by  ballot,  either  at  general  or  committee 
meeting;  two  adverse  votes  at  a  com- 
mittee, or  four  at  a  general  meeting,  ex- 
cluding. Entrance  fee,  iar.  6d.  Sub- 
scription, 30J.  acting  members,  21s.  ho- 
norary members.  Boathouse,  Biffen's, 
Hammersmith.    Colours,  pink  and  black. 

Kew,  Surrey,  on  the  right  bank ;  from 
London  12J  miles,  from  Oxford  99  miles. 
Kew  Bridge  is  a  station  on  the  South 
Western  Railway,  9J  miles  from  Waterloo; 
trains  take  about  half  an  hour.  There  is 
another  route  to  Ludgate-hill,  trains, 
average  ij  hour.  The  Kew  Gardens 
station  is  on  the  Surrey  side,  and  is  in 
connection  with  mo^t  of  the  Metropolitan 
Railway  stations,  via  District,  &c.  The 
Kew  Bridge  station  is  on  the  Middlesex 
side,  the  two  counties  being  here  con- 
nected by  a  stone  bridge,  where  there  is 
also  a  steamboat  pier.  Population,  1033. 
Soil,  gravel. 

Like  most  villages  near  London,  Kew 
is  losing  most  of  its  distinctive  features, 
and  but  for  the  quaint  old  green  with  its 
picturesque  surroundings,  there  is  little 
to  remind  of  the  Kew  of  even  twenty  years 
ago.  By  the  side  of  Kew  Green  is  Cam- 
bridge Cottage,  and  near  it  an  entrance 
to  the  magnificent  Botanical  Gardens, 
among  the  finest  in  the  world. 

Kew  Gardens  are  not  only  among  the 
most  favourite  resorts  of  the  London 
holiday-maker,  but  have  special  value  to 
the  botanist  and  horticulturist.  The 
judicious  expenditure  of  public  money 
has  made  the  gardens  and  houses  at 
Kew  almost  unique  among  public  insti- 
tutions of  the  kind.  Here  are  to  be  seen 
flourishing  in  an  atmosphere  of  their  own. 


though  in  an  uncongenial  clima'.e,  the 
most  beautiful  tropical  palms,  plants, 
ferns,  fern-trees,  and  cacti ;  and  the 
pleasure-grounds  and  arboretum  contain 
in  endless  and  exhaustive  profusion  speci- 
mens of  the  flowers,  shrubs,  and  trees 
indigenous  to  Great  Britain.  Attached 
to  the  gardens  is  a  valuable  museum  of 
useful  vegetable  products.  The  Gardens 
are  at  present  open  free  to  the  public  every 
day  in  the  week,  Sundays  included,  in  the 
afternoon ;  the  morning  hours  being  re- 
served for  the  necessary  work  of  the 
gardeners,  curators,  and  a  few  favoured 
students.  On  Bank  Holidays,  however, 
the  Gardens  are  opened  at  10  a.m. 

Kew  Palace  was  built  by  Sir  Hugh 
Port  man  during  the  reign  of  James  I., 
and  is  close  to  the  gardens.  It  is  a  plain 
building  of  red  brick,  and,  like  many 
other  plain  things  and  people,  was  high 
in  favour  with  George  III.  and  Queen 
Charlotte. 

The  Church  of  St.  Anne  was  built  in 
1714,  and  enlarged  in  1840.  It  is  chiefly 
noteworthy  for  its  graveyard,  which  con- 
tains the  tombs  of  many  celebrated  men, 
amongst  them  being  Gainsborough  and 
Zoffany,  the  latter  having  been  a  resident 
of  Strand-on-the-Green  just  across  the 
river.  Gainsborough  was  not  a  resident 
in  the  neighbourhood,  but  was  buried 
here  by  his  own  desire.  A  brief  inscrip- 
tion on  the  stone  records  Gainsborough's 
death,  and  in  the  church  is  a  tablet  to  his 
memory,  erected  by  E.  M.  Ward,  R.A. 
In  Kew  churchyard  also  lie  Meyer  the 
painter,  and  Sir  William  Hooker,  the  late 
director  of  the  Botanic  Gardens.  To  the 
east  of  the  church  is  the  mausoleum  of 
the  late  Duke  of  Cambridge.  The  follow- 
ing curious  epitaph  is  inscribed  on  a  slab 
at  the  entrance  to  the  church  : 

Here  lyeth  the  bodys  of  Robert  and  Ann 
Plaistow,  late  of  Tyso,  near  Edy  Hill,  died 
August  the  28,  1728. 

At  Ty*o  they  were  born  and  bred, 
And  in  the  same  good  lives  they  led 
Until  they  came  to  marriage  state, 
Which  was  to  them  most  fortunate. 
Near  sixty  years  of  mortal  li'e 
They  were  a  happy  man  and  wife  ; 
And  being  so  by  nature  ty'd, 
When  one  fell  sick  the  other  dy'd, 
And  both  together  laid  in  dust 
To  wait  the  rising  of  the  just. 
They  had  six  children,  born  and  bred, 
And  five  before  them  being  dead, 
Their  only  one  surviving  son 
Hath  caus'd  this  stone  for  to  be  done. 


n7 


The  foundation  stone  of  the  Queen's 
Free  School  for  boys  and  girls  was  laid 
by  William  IV.;  the  Queen  and  Royal 
Family,  especially  the  Cambridge  branch, 
are  liberal  benefactors. 

Inns.— "Star  and  Garter,"  Middlesex 
side;  "Coach  and  Horses,"  "Grey- 
hound," "Cumberland Arms,"  Kew-road; 
"  King's  Arms,"  "  Rose  and  Crown,"  the 
Green. 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Anne's. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  and  tele- 
graph). Mails  from  London,  7  and  8.30 
a.m.,  2.20,  6.30,  and  8.40  p.m.;  Sunday, 
7.30  a.m.  Mails  to  London,  6.15,  9.40 
a.m.,  12.50,  5.10,  and  9.5  p.m.  ;  Sunday, 
9.15  p.m. 

NearestZ?W^,  Kew ;  nearest  Bridges, 
up,  Richmond  3  miles;  down,  Hammer- 
smith 4  miles.  Lock,  up,  Teddington 
about  6  miles.  Ferry,  Kew,  above  the 
Eyots.     Railway  Station,  Kew. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  :  1st,  1/-,  1/6  ; 
2nd,  -/g,  1/2  ;  3rd,  -/8,  1/-.  Kew  Gardens 
to  Mansion  House  :  1st,  1/2, 1/9  ;  2nd,  1/-, 
1/4 ;  3rd,  -/q,  1/2. 

Kingston,  Surrey,  on  the  right  bank, 
from  London  20J  miles,  from  Oxford  91 
miles.  A  station  (at  Surbiton)  on  the 
main  line  of  the  London  and  South  West- 
ern Railway,  12  miles  from  Waterloo  ; 
trains  take  about  25  minutes.  Kingston 
station  is  connected,  via  Twickenham, 
with  the  Windsor  branch  of  the  same 
railway,  and  is  also  in  communication 
with  the  Metropolitan  and  North  Lon- 
don systems.  Flys  meet  the  trains. 
The  Guildtord  Coach  (see  Coaching) 
passes  through  Kingston.  Population, 
about  17,000.  The  town  is  divided  into 
four  wards,  and  is  governed  by  a  high 
steward,  mayor,  eight  aldermen,  and 
twenty-four  councillors.  It  is  an  assize 
town  ;  the  present  Recorder  being  William 
Hardman,  Esq.  It  is  the  headquarters 
of  the  47th  Infantry  Brigade  Depot,  and 
the  barracks  are  in  King's-road  ;  the  dis- 
trict includes  the  1st  and  3rd  regiments 
Surrey  Militia,  the  1st  and  2nd  Adminis- 
trative Battalions,  and  the  1st,  7th,  and 
1 2th  corps  of  Surrey  Volunteers,  the  latter 
being  the  Kingston  corps,  with  head- 
quarters in  Orchard-road.  The  rifle  range 
— 600  yards — is  near  the  cemetery. 

Kingston,  once  called  Kyningestun,  was 
a  place  of  considerable  importance  in  the 


KEW— KIM 

very  early  times  of  English  history,  having 
been  intimately  connected  with  the  Saxon 
kings  so  far  back  as  the  ninth  century 
The  ubiquitous  Coesar  had,  of  course,  al- 
ready left  his  mark  in  the  neighbourhood. 
Many  Roman  remains  and  fragments  of 
camps  have  been  found  all  about  Kingston 
and  Wimbledon,  and  some  writers  prefer 
to  believe  that  the  Romans,  when  in  pur- 
suit of  Cassivelaunus,  crossed  the  Thames 
at  Kingston,  and  not  at  Causeway  or 
Coway  Stakes.  In  838,  Kingston  was 
selected  as  the  seat  of  the  Great  Council 
or  Wittenagemot,  convened  by  King 
Egbert,  which  his  son  Athelwolf,  and 
many  bishops  and  nobles  attended,  the 
president  being  Ceolnothus,  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury.  The  fact  that  the  records 
of  this  meeting,  describing  the  town  as 
Kyningestun  famosa  ilia  locus  does  away 
with  the  legend  that  the  town  derived  its 
name  from  the  subsequent  coronation  of 
Saxon  kings  on  the  stone  in  the  market- 
place. There  is,  however,  no  doubt  that 
such  coronations  did  take  place  here,  and 
perhaps  on  the  stone  which  is  still  pre- 
served. Leland  says  "  the  townisch  men 
have  certen  knowledge  of  a  few  kinges 
crownid  there  afore  the  Conqueste."  The 
names  and  dates  of  these  "kinges,"  as  re- 
corded on  the  pedestal  of  the  stone,  are  : 

Eadweard 

Adelstan 

Eadmund 


Eadwig  . . 
Eadweard 
i^delred 


955 
975 
978 


.   901 

•  923 

•  943 
Eadred  ..      ..  946 

A  picturesque  account  of  the  crowning  of 
Adelstan  will  be  found  in  Dean  Hook's 
1 '  Lives  of  the  Archbishops  of  Canter- 
bury." The  coronation  of  these  kings  at 
Kingston  appears  to  be  sufficiently  esta- 
blished. Whether  young  Edwy,  who 
married  his  cousin  Elgiva,  and  became, 
with  his  unfortunate  queen,  the  victim  of 
the  cruelty  and  brutality  of  "Saint" 
Dunstan  and  his  friend  Odo,  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury— far  nobile  fratrum — was 
crowned  at  Kingston  is  less  certain.  The 
story  goes  that  the  king  withdrew  early 
from  the  rough  coronation  feast  to  seek  the 
society  of  Elgiva,  and  greatly  excited  the 
wrath  of  the  nobles.  Dunstan  and  Odo 
were  sent  to  bring  the  king  back,  and 
forcibly  dragged  him  from  his  apartments, 
assailing  the  queen  with  foul  and  oppro- 
brious epithets.  Unfortunately  for  poor 
Elgiva,  she  had  her  revenge  on  Dunstan, 
who  was  finally  banished  from  the  king- 
dom, and  whose  fall  was  bitterly  avenged 


KIN-KIN 

by  his  friend  Odo.  First  branded  with 
hot  irons  to  destroy  the  beauty  which  had 
so  much  power  over  the  young  king,  she 
fell,  at  a  later  period,  again  into  the  hands  of 
Odo,  and  was  cruelly  put  to  death,  the  king 
dying  of  a  broken  heart  shortly  afterwards. 

In  Domesday  Book  the  town  is  called 
Chingestune.  The  townsmen  received 
their  first  and  second  municipal  charters 
from  King  John  ;  that  of  1209  is  still 
preserved.  Another  charter  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  corporation  is  one  granted 
by  Henry  III.,  in  1256,  and  subsequent 
charters  of  Henry  VI.,  1441,  James  I., 
1603,  Charles  I.,  1629,  and  finally,  James 
II.,  1685,  conferred  various  privileges  on 
the  municipality  and  burgesses.  In  1264, 
Henry  III.  took  and  destroyed  Kingston 
Castle,  at  that  time  the  property  of  the 
Earl  of  Gloucester.  For  about  sixty 
years  from  the  beginning  of  the  four- 
teenth century  the  town  was  represented 
ir  Parliament.  During  the  great  civil 
war,  Kingston  was  frequently  occupied 
by  one  or  other  of  the  contending  parties, 
and  in  1648  Lord  Francis  Villiers  was 
killed  here  in  a  skirmish. 

There  is  little  in  the  present  thriving 
and  busy  town  of  Kingston  to  recall  its 
ancient  history,  unless  it  be  the  corona- 
tion stone,  which  has  been  set  up  and 
fenced  in  by  a  gorgeous  railing,  close 
to  the  Assize  Courts.  The  principal 
business  centre  is  the  Market-place,  in 
the  middle  of  which  stands  the  Town 
Hall,  a  modern  building  supported  on 
arches  and  columns,  and  displaying  over 
the  southern  en  trance  the  inevitable 
statue  of  Queen  Anne,  which  formerly 
adorned  the  old  building.  The  Council 
Chamber,  a  handsome  apartment,  con- 
tains a  full-length  portrait  of  Queen  Anne, 
by  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller  ;  a  drawing  of 
Kingston  Bridge,  by  Edward  Lapidge, 
the  architect  ;  and  some  other  pictures 
of  inferior  merit.  The  middle  window 
has  eight  very  curious  panes  of  painted 
and  stained  glass,  displaying  armorial 
bearings  and  mottoes,  which  are  well 
worth  careful  examination.  In  the  justices' 
room  is  some  good  old  oak  carving, 
formerly  in  the  old  Town  Hall. 

The  bridge  which  connects  Surrey  and 
Middlesex,  is  close  to  the  Market-place. 
It  is  a  handsome  stone  structure  of  five 
arches,  was  opened  in  1828,  and  freed  in 
1870.  It  affords  very  pleasant  views 
both  up  and  down  stream.   A  little  below 


118 


it  is  the  railway-bridge,  Kingston  station 
being  close  to  the  river. 

Kingston  has  largely  increased  in 
importance,  owing  to  the  growth  of  its 
suburbs,  Norbiton,  Surbiton,  and  New 
Maiden  ;  the  convenience  of  access  from 
London,  and  the  pleasant  surroundings 
of  the  neighbourhood,  having  attracted 
a  large  residential  population.  Along 
the  riverside  road  the  authorities  of  Sur- 
biton have  constructed  and  laid  out 
public  walks  and  gardens,  which  extend 
as  far  as  the  Water-works  and  Raven 
Eyot  and  Boat-houses.  From  Raven  Eyot 
to  Surbiton  railway-station  is  by  Grove- 
road,  nearly  opposite  the  Ferry,  about 
ten  minutes'  walk. 

The  Grammar  School  has  been  rebuilt, 
and  was  opened  January  30,  1878,  for 
one  hundred  boys,  including  boarders. 
The  building,  and  master's  house  adjoin- 
ing, form  a  handsome  block  of  buildings, 
facing  London-street.  The  old  school- 
room is  the  only  part  of  the  old  buildings 
left  standing.  It  was  built  as  a  chapel 
(chantry),  and  dedicated  to  St.  Mary 
Magdalene,  by  Edward  Lovekyn,  a.d. 
I3°S-  Jonn  Lovekyn,  his  heir,  rebuilt 
the  chapel  and  house  contiguous  thereto, 
and  improved  the  foundation  by  the  addi- 
tion of  another  chaplain  ;  he  gave  to  the 
new  foundation  considerable  property  in 
Kingston,  and  houses  in  St.  Michael's, 
Crooked-lane,  London,  where  he  resided. 
Leland  says  :  J '  He  was  a  native  of  Kings- 
ton .  .  .  and  was  Lord  Mayer  in  1347, 
1357,  1364,  and  1365.  He  was  buried  in 
St.  Michael's  Church,  under  a  large  raised 
tomb,  having  the  figures  of  himself  and 
his  wife  in  alabaster — but  this  was  destroyed 
by  the  Great  Fire  of  London."  The 
famous  William  Walworth  was  an  ap- 
prentice of  John  Lovekyn,  and  he  added 
another  chaplain  to  the  foundation.  The 
chapel  was  seized  by  Henry  VIII.,  and 
Queen  Elizabeth  converted  it  into  a  school, 
a.d.  1561.  In  March,  1873,  a  new  scheme 
for  the  management  of  the  school,  in 
combination  with  several  other  charities, 
was  issued  by  the  Endowed  Schools 
Commissioners,  giving  io-24ths  to  the 
Upper  Grammar  School,  and  7-24ths  to 
Tifnns's  School  for  Boys,  and  7-24ths 
to  Tiffins's  School  for  Girls,  for  lower 
middle-class  children.  The  buildings  for 
Tiffins's  School  stand  in  the  Fair-field. 
The  fees  for  the  Upper  or  Grammar 
School  are  10  guineas   per  annum,  and 


for  the  other  not  less  than  ^3  nor  more 
than  j£5.  The  members  for  Mid-Surrey, 
Sir  H.  W.  Peek  and  Sir  T.  Lawrence, 
have  each  given  a  scholarship  for  five 
years,  clearing  school  fees.  Scholarships 
are  to  be  given  at  Tiffins's  for  boys  from 
the  National  Schools,  and  at  the  Grammar 
School  for  scholars  from  Tiffins' s,  and, 
as  the  funds  permit,  from  the  Grammar 
School  to  the  Universities. 

There  are  at  Kingston,  Surbiton,  and 
Norbiton  a  large  number  of  institutions 
of  a  charitable  or  public  character.  Some 
of  these  will  be  found  under  their  proper 
headings  below.  Amongst  the  others 
may  be  mentioned  :  The  Society  for 
Organising  Charitable  Relief  and  Repress- 
ing Mendicity,  of  which  the  Rev.  F.  M. 
Arnold  is  secretary  ;  Cleave's  Almhouses, 
founded  by  William  Cleave,  1665,  for  the 
benefit  of  six  poor  men  and  six  poor 
women,  single  residents  of  Kingston, 
being  over  sixty  years  of  age — the  Cleave 
Foundation  has  been  augmented  by  the 
dividends  of  ^1,000  Three  Per  Cents, 
bequeathed  by  John  Tilsey  in  the  reign 
of  Queen  Anne ;  the  Children's  Con- 
valescent Institute,  in  connection  with 
the  Metropolitan  Institution  at  Walton-on- 
Thames,  is  at  Kingston  Hill,  and  contains 
i5obeds  ;  theYoung  Men's  Reading  Room, 
Brick-lane  ;  the  Soup  Kitchen,  in  con- 
nection with  the  Charity  Organisation 
Society  ;  and  the  Workmen's  Club  and 
Institute,  Fairfield-road.  There  are  also 
the  Kingston  and  Surbiton  Horticul- 
tural and  Chrysanthemum  Societies. 

The  parish  church  is  dedicated  to  All 
Saints,  and  stands  close  to  the  Market- 
place. It  is  a  plain  brick  building,  with 
a  square  tower,  principally  of  flint  and 
rubble,  which  has  been  very  lately  re- 
stored. Adjoining  the  old  church  once 
stood  the  chapel  of  St.  Mary,  which  is 
said  to  have  been  the  scene  of  the  coro- 
nation of  several  of  the  Saxon  kings,  and 
in  which  their  effigies  were  preserved. 
In  1729  this  building  fell,  and  the  sexton 
and  another  man  were  killed.  The  sex- 
ton's daughter,  who  was  working  in  a 
grave  at  the  time,  was  saved  by  the  falling 
of  a  portion  of  a  column  across  the 
opening  of  the  grave.  The  piece  of  stone, 
inscribed  "Life  preserved,  1731/'  is  still 
to  be  seen  in  the  church.  The  present 
building  consists  of  nave,  chancel,  and 
north  and  south  aisles,  the  latter  disfigured 
by  galleries.     The  tower  contains  a  good 


119  KIN— KIN 

peal  of  ten  bells.  There  are  numerous 
monuments.  Near  the  chancel  is  a 
statue  in  white  marble,  by  Chantrey :  a 
seated  figure  of  the  Countess  of  Liver- 
pool, who  died  in  June,  1821.  Close  by, 
under  a  canopy  on  the  south  wall,  is  the 
altar  tomb  of  Sir  Anthony  Benn,  once 
recorder  of  Kingston,  who  died  in  1618. 
Under  the  canopy  lies  the  alabaster  effigy 
of  the  deceased,  in  his  official  robes. 
Also  against  the  south  wall  are  several 
monuments  of  the  Davidson  family,  one 
being  a  white  marble  figure,  and  another 
a  somewhat  conventional  mourning  figure, 
with  urn  and  drapery.  There  are  signs 
of  numerous  brasses,  and  a  few  still  re- 
main. The  best  is  that  to  the  memory  of 
Robert  Skern,  and  Joan  his  wife,  which 
is  on  the  south  wall.  It  represents  two 
figures,  some  three  feet  in  length,  is 
elaborately  executed,  and  is  of  the  fifteenth 
century.  Another  brass,  with  two  kneel- 
ing figures,  is  on  a  column  near  the  north 
entrance,  and  records  the  deaths  of  John 
and  Katherine  Hertcombe,  who  died 
respectively  1488  and  1487.  The  brass  to 
Dr.  Edmund  Staunton's  ten  children  has 
the  following  curious  inscription : 


z 
o 

t  » 

to  6  *>£ 

f*  -c   o   u 

S  i  3 

S  giJ  ^ 


o  N 


•g  T2  v  «>  %  $ 


«        *  !3  e 

2  °     §  > 


h  9  a    •- 

tirat 

rtto  a  &  a 


bJOn 

'53  d  u<*«  <u 
~-  fiji  ^  > 

%&  %  i  g 

rtOQ  a*    . 

-a  aT  g<  g  § 
-*«  <u  5  <u    .^ 

<u  £  u-Z,  <u  «2 
>:  «  rt.£.c  S 
a*  ■£  .*  3;  -m.S 

<u  2  o  >  u§ 
ofi^  a*- 3 

.s-g'g.s'a* 

■JgW  OJ3   ?g 

HwUHWw 


H 


4) 
ft 


T3 
1) 

U    .IS    . 

.^^.^^^ 

W  «  o  u  2 

22-d  S4- 


eJ  h 


Sri  i  § 


•  W.  2  ^ 
h         .  in 

OH  «  o 

H     H^H 


KIN-KIN 

Another  curious  epitaph  is  that  on  a  me- 
morial stone  of  Thos.  Hayward,  1665  • 

.   ,  .   ,  Earth  to  earth 

Ashes  on  Ashes  lye,  on  Ashes  tread 

Ashes  engrav'd  these  words  which  Ashes  read 

1  hen  what  poore  thing  is  Man  when  any  gust 

Can  blow  his  Ashes  to  their  elder  dust  ? 

More  was  intended  but  a  wind  did  rise 

And  filled  with  Ashes  both  my  Mouth  and  Eyes. 

There  are  a  vast  number  of  other  tablets, 
some  curious,  in  the  church.  The  other 
churches  in  Kingston  are  St.  John  the 
Evangelist,  and  St.  John  the  Baptist. 
The  Congregational  Church,  Eden-street, 
was  founded  in  1662,  by  the  Rev.  Richard 
Mayo,  Vicar  of  Kingston,  who  seceded 
from  the  Established  Church  on  the 
passing  of  the  Act  of  Uniformity. 

CabStands.— Kingston  and  Surbiton 
Railway  stations,  and  Market-place. 
Cab  Fares.— -If  by  distance:  Not  exceed- 
ing one  mile,  is.  ;  exceeding  one  mile— 
for  each  mile  or  part  of  a  mile,  is.  If  by 
time :  For  one  hour  or  less,  2s.  6d.  ; 
above  one  hour,  for  every  15  minutes,  8d. ; 
for  any  less  period,  8d.  Extra  payments, 
whether  hired  by  distance  or  by  time: 
For  each  package  carried  outside,  2d.; 
for  each  person  above  two,  6d. ;  for  each 
child  under  10  years,  3d. ;  by  distance- 
waiting,  for  every  15  minutes  complete, 
od. 

Banks.— London  and  County,  Market- 
place; Shrubsole  and  Co.,  11,  Market- 
place. 

Fair.— Nov.  13. 

Fire.  —  Borough  Fire  and  Escape 
Brigade,  Church-street  (steam-engine, 
escape,  &c.);  Volunteer  Steam  Fire 
Brigade,  London-street  (steam-engine, 
etc. ). 

Hotels.— "Griffin,"  "Sun,"  "Wheat- 
sheaf,    all  in  Market-place. 

Markets.— Thursday  and  Saturday. 

Places  of  Worship. —  All  Saints 
(parish  church)  ;  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
Springfield-road  ;  St.  Paul's,  Kingston! 
hill;  and  Baptist,  Congregational, 
Presbyterian,  Primitive  Methodist,  and 
Wesleyan  Chapels,  and  Friends'  Meeting- 
house. & 

Poltce.— Station,  London-street. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph 
and     insurance),      Eden-street.        Mails 
from  London,  6.30  and  9  a.m.,  4.30  and 
7-30  p.m.     Sunday,  6.30  a.m.,  by  letter- 


120 


carrier  ;  delivery  over  the  counter,  8  to  10 
a.m.  Mails  for  London,  7.20  and  10 
a.m.  12.30,  3,  4,  4.50,  8.30,  and  10  p.m. ; 
Sunday,  10  p.  m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  Kingston;  up, 
Hampton  Court  about  3  miles  ;  down, 
Richmond  5  miles.  Locks,  up,  Molesey, 
3i  miles ;  down,  Teddington  if  mile. 
Ferry,  Surbiton.  Railway  Station,  Sur- 
biton and  Kingston. 

Fares,  Kingston  and  Surbiton  to 
Waterloo:  1st,  2/-,  2/6;  2nd,  1/6,  2/-; 
3rd,  1/-,  1/8. 

Kingston  Amateur  Regatta— 

Races  in  1884. 

July  19. 

JUNIOR  SCULLS. 

First  Heat. 

Station  3  —  G.  R.  B.  Earnshaw, 
London  R.C 1 

Station  1 — B.  W.  Looker,  Thames 
R.C o 

Station  2 — H.  Blackmore,  Twicken- 
ham R.C o 

Second  Heat. 

Station  3— G.  A.  S.  Buckley,  King- 
ston R.C 1 

Station  1 — W.  Stevenson,  Kingston 
R.C o 


Final  Heat. 

Station  1 — Earnshaw   ... 
Station  2 — Buckley 


JUNIOR  FOURS. 

Station  1— Kingston  R.C 1 

Station  2— London  R.C o 

Kingston.— A.  Spurling,  F.  Butler,  C. 
L.  Fyfe,  S.  G.  Lushington  (stroke),  F.  J. 
Bell  (cox). 

London— Q.  F.  Schlotel,  A.  S.  Bryden, 
E.  S.  M'Ewen,  W.  J.  Leeman  (stroke), 
W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 

SENIOR  PAIRS. 

First  Heat. 

Station  1— Twickenham  R.C.  ...  1 
Station  2— London  R.C o 

Twickenham.— E.  Hodgkin  and  L. 
Frere. 

London.—'?.  Ullman  and  J.  F.  Stills- 
well. 


Second  Heat. 
Station  2— Kingston  R.C. 

F.  Cobb  and  R.  H.  Cobb. 


,r.o. 


Station  2- 
Station  1- 


Final  Heat. 
-Kingston    ... 
-Twickenham 

JUNIOR  EIGHTS. 

First  Heat. 


121  KIN-LAL 

Twickenham. — G.  G.  Vertue,  H.  Black- 
more,  S.  Hodgkin,  E.  Hodgkin,  Stuart 
Green,  G.  A.  Bonnor,  F.  D.  Leader,. 
L.  Frere  (stroke),  D.  Caddy  (cox). 


Station  3 — Thames  R.C 1 

Station  2— West  London  R.C.          ...    o 
Station  1 — Kingston  R.C o 

Thames.— C.  E.  Smith,  F.  Bolt,  G.  A. 
Herdman,  W.  Andrews,  F.  W.  Guerrier, 
C.  S.  Sowerby,  W.  Theobald,  H.  Atkin- 
son (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

West  Londo?i.  —  L.  Thierry,  W.  D. 
Gilbert,  J.  R.  Withers,  G.  S.  Herschell, 
A.  C.  Ellis,  C.  J.  Scott,  F.  A.  Knight, 
C.  H.  Hickman  (stroke),  W.  R.  Wheeler 
(cox). 

Kingston.— A.  Spurling,  W.  Butler,  C. 
L.  Fyfe,  W.  Stevenson,  M.  W.  Wadham, 
F.  Butler,  S.  G.  Lushington,  E.  Bazal- 
gette  (stroke),  F.  G.  Bull  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 

Station  3 — London  R.C 1 

Station  2 — East  Sheen o 

London.—  C.  F.  Schlotel,  P.  A.  N. 
Thorn,  W.  R.  Bishop,  A.  B.  Coutts,  A. 
Silversparre,  A.  S.  Bryden,  E.  S.  M'Ewen, 
W.  J.  Leeman  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard 
(cox). 

East  Sheen.— H.  F.  Highton,  A.  P. 
Parker,  F.  B.  Lewis,  H.  O.  F.  Luckie, 
H.  R.  Parker,  R.  H.  Barron,  J.  F.  C. 
Glossop,  A.  Hughes  (stroke),  H.  M. 
Ripley  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Station  2 — Thames       I 

Station  1 — London       o 

KINGSTON   GRAND  CHALLENGE   CUP 
FOR   EIGHT  OARS. 

Station  1 — Thames  R.C.        ...         ...     1 

Station  2 — London  R.C o 

Station  3 — Twickenham  R.C.  ...     o 

Thames.— B.  W.  Looker,  B.  E.  Cole, 
Gordon  Smith,  A.  M.  Hutchinson,  W. 
Liddle,  J.  Hastie,  H.J.  Rust,  J.  A.  Drake- 
Smith  (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

London. — G.  R.  B.  Earnshaw,  C.  Earn- 
shaw,  W.  Bergh,  J.  F.  Stillwell,  H.  J. 
Hill,  A.  S.  J.  Hurrell,  J.  T.  Crier,  W.  W. 
Hewett  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 


SENIOR   SCULLS. 

First  Heat. 

Station    2  —  C.     J.     Standen     Batt, 
Thames  R.C r.o- 

Second  Heat. 

Station  1— E.  F.  Griin,  London  R.C.      r 
Station  2 — F.  J.  Browne,  Grove  Park 
R.C.     o 

Final  Heat. 

Station  2 — Griin  r 

Station  1 — Batt ...  disq, 

SENIOR  FOURS. 

Station  3 — Kingston  R.C 1 

Station  1 — Thames  R.C o 

Kingston. — F.  Cobb,  H.  A.  Harvey,. 
H.  S.  Till,  R.  H.  Cobb  (stroke). 

Thames.— B.  W.  Looker,  J.  Hastie, 
H.  J.  Rust,  J.  A.  Drake-Smith  (stroke). 

Kingston  Rowing  Club This  club 

consists  of  ordinary  members  and  three 
classes  of  life  members.  Full  members 
are  those  who  live  within  a  radius  of  six 
miles  from  the  club  boat-house,  for  any 
period  not  less  than  one  month  during 
the  rowing  season,  or  who  row  in  any 
races  in  club  boats.  Half  members  are 
those  who  live  beyond  a  radius  of  six 
miles  from  the  club  boat-house,  or  resident 
members  of  the  Universities  of  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  and  publ:c  schools.  Honorary 
members  shall  be  entitled  to  the  use  of 
the  club-room  only.  Entrance  fee  for 
full  and  half  members,  £1  is. ;  subscrip- 
tions, full  members,  £2  2s.  ;  half  and 
honorary  members,  £1  is. ;  life  full  mem- 
bers»  £15  iSJ-  ;  half,  ^8  8s.  ;  honorary, 
£5  $s.  Election  is  by  ballot  in  general, 
meeting  :  one  black  ball  in  six  excludes. 
Boat-house,  The  Island,  Surbiton.  The 
Raven's  Ait  Company  (Limited)  are  now 
the  proprietors  of  the  island.  Colours, 
scarlet  and  white,  horizontal. 

Laleham,  Middlesex,  on  the  left  bank ; 
from  London  33  miles  ;  from  Oxford  78J 
miles.  Population,  566.  Soil,  gravel 
*nd  brick  earth.     A  village  rather  more 


LAL-LEC 


122 


than  two  miles  from  Staines,  and  about 
a  mile  and  a  half  from  Chertsey,   well 
known  for  its  ferry,  where  there  is  a  long 
shallow  for  the  fly.     On  the  south  side  of 
the  river  near  the  ferry-house  is  a  Roman 
camp,  evidently  intended  to  guard  the 
ford  ;  while  on  the  north  side,  about  half 
a   mile  from   the  river,    there   are    still 
traditions  of  another  Caesar's  camp.   The 
tract  of  meadow  land  on  the  south  side 
of  the  river,  known  as  the  Burway,  used 
to  belong    and    pay  rates   to   Laleham 
parish,  but  on  the  occasion  of  Laleham 
parish  refusing  to  pay  for  the  burial  of  the 
body  of  a  drowned  man  cast  on  shore  on 
the  Burway,  Chertsey  parish  buried  the 
corpse  and  claimed  the  rates,  which  it 
has   retained  ever  since.     The  Earl  of 
Lucan  owns  a  considerable  quantity  of 
land  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  claims  as 
his  property  a  chapel  on  the  north  side  of 
the  church.    The  church,  dedicated  to 
All  Saints,  contains  some  fine  old  Nor- 
man pillars  and  arches,  some  of  which  are 
built  in  the  south  wall,  showing  that  in 
the  old  Norman  'time  there  was  a  south 
aisle  to  the  church.     This  was  cut  off  in 
the  decorated  Gothic  period,  and  windows 
of  that  date  inserted  in  the  arches.    This 
seems  to  point  to  the  much  greater  com- 
parative importance  of  villages  on  a  great 
waterway  when  the  uplying  parts  were 
heavily  clothed  with  forest   than  when, 
200  years  later,  the  forests  were  to  a  large 
extent  cut  down.     The  tower  is  a  brick 
structure  of  George   I.'s  time.     In  the 
chancel  is  a  large  altar-piece  of    Our 
Saviour  and  St.  Peter  on  the  sea,  painted 
by  Harlowe  during  a  stay  in  the  village  ; 
and  on   the  south   of   the  chancel  is  a 
mural  monument  to  Mrs.   Hartwell,   by 
Chantrey,  not  a  very  favourable  specimen 
of  the  master.     In  the  churchyard  at  the 
foot  of  the  tower  is   an  epitaph,    date 
1789,  which  offers  a  variation  on  the  old- 
fashioned  "Affliction  sore  long  time  I 
bore": 

Pain  was  my  portion,  physic  was  my  food, 
-Groans  my  devotion,  drugs  did  me  no.  good, 
Christ  my  physician  knew  which  way  was  best 
To  ease  my  pain  and  set  my  soul  at  rest. 

Inns. —The  "Feathers,"  and  the 
•'  Horse  Shoes." 

Place  of  Worship. — All  Saints. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
near  the  church  (money  order  and  tele- 
graph office).      Mails   from   London,   7 


a.m.  and  12  noon  ;  Sunday,  7  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  10.10  a.m.  and  6.40 
p.m.;  Sunday,  10  a.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Staines  2 \ 
miles  ;  down,  Chertsey  1  mile.  Locks, 
up,  Penton  Hook  J- mile  ;  down,  Chertsey 
ij  mile.  Ferry,  Laleham.  Railway 
Stations,  Staines  and  Chertsey. 

Fares  from  Staines  :  1st,  3/3,  5/-;  2nd, 
2/3,  3I6  ;  3rd,  1/7,  3/-.  From  Chertsey, 
1st,  4/-,  5/6 ;  2nd,  3/-,  4/-;  3rd,  1/10,  3/4. 

Lambeth  Bridge  is  perhaps,  on  the 
whole,  the  ugliest  ever  built.  It  was 
also,  when  it  was  built,  supposed  to 
be  the  cheapest.  It  is  a  suspension 
bridge  of  three  spans,  and  one  great 
economy  in  its  construction  consists  in 
the  use  of  wire  cables  in  place  of  the 
usual  chains.  It  connects  Westminster 
with  Lambeth,  where  it  lands  close  to 
the  Archbishop's  Palace. 

Leander  Club.— This  old-established 
rowing  club  (sometimes  called  the  "  Bril- 
liants") consists  of  members  and  hono- 
rary members  ;  the  subscription  for  the 
former  is  £2,  2s.,  for  the  latter  £1  is. 
Members  of  the  Universities  of  Oxford 
and  Cambridge  are  only  liable  to  a  sub- 
scription of  10s.  6d.  per  annum  so  long 
as  they  are  resident  undergraduates. 
The  election  of  members  is  entrusted  to 
the  committee.  Colours,  red.  Boat- 
house,  Biffen's,  Hammersmith. 

Lechlade,  Gloucestershire,  on  the  left 
bank,  distant  from  Oxford  33  miles.  A 
station  on  the  Great  Western  Railway, 
86  miles  from  Paddington,  the  time 
occupied  by  the  fast  trains  being  about 
2|  hours.  The  station  is  some  little  dis- 
tance from  the  town,  but  an  omnibus 
meets  the  trains.  .  Population  about  1,300. 
Soil,,  loam  ;  subsoil,  gravel.  Lechlade 
is  situated  a  short  distance  below  the 
junction  of  the  Thames  with  the  Thames 
and  Severn  Canal.  The  river  Lech  here 
falls  into  the  Thames,  which  at  Lechlade 
first  becomes  navigable  for  practical  pur- 
poses, and  runs,  except  in  very  dry 
seasons,  in  a  goodly  stream  under  the 
handsome  arch  of  the  bridge.  Lechlade 
is  a  pretty  little  place,  with  a  sheep  and 
cattle  market  on  the  last  Tuesday  in 
each  month,  but,  except  for  its  position 
on  the  river,  is  not  of  any  import- 
ance. The  ideas  of  its  inhabitants  on 
the  subject  of  paving  are,  it  may  be 
remarked,  open   to  considerable  except 


123 


LEO-LIG 


tion.  Its  church  of  St.  Lawrence,  which 
was  built  by  one  Conrad  Ney,  the  then 
vicar,  in  the  time  of  King  Edward  IV., 
is,  with  its  tower  and  spire,  a  conspicuous 
object  in  the  landscape  for  many  miles 
round,  and  is  a  rather  plain  but  handsome 
building  in  the  Gothic  style.  It  appears, 
however,  to  have  been  somewhat  severely 
restored.  The  most  pretentious  monu- 
ment it  contains  is  on  the  south  wall  of 
the  chancel,  and  consists  of  a  medallion 
of  Mrs.  Anne  Simons  (1769),  to  which 
one  of  the  fat  and  ugly  naked  boys,  who 
were  so  popular  with  the  sculptors  of  that 
period,  is  pointing  ;  and  in  the  east  of 
the  south  nave  is  a  mural  tablet  with  coats 
of  arms  and  two  fat  marble  children,  the 
whole  being  dedicated  to  the  memory  of 
certain  members  of  the  Coxeter  family. 
Nearly  under  this  is  an  imperfect  brass 
and  in  the  north  nave  are  two  more,  one 
of  a  male  and  another  of  a  female  figure, 
in  good  preservation. 

Lechlade  is  the  point  at  which  boats 
may  be  taken  for  the  trip  down  the  river 
(see  Trip  from  Lechlade  to  Oxford),  and 
boats  may  either  be  sent  from  Salter's  at 
Oxford  by  van  or  by  the  Great  Western 
Railway  Company,  who  make  arrange- 
ments for  conveying  them  from  the  station 
to  the  river.  There  is  a  good  hotel  in 
the  town  (the  "  New  Inn  "),  but  boating 
parties  occasionally  prefer  to  put  up  at 
the  "Trout  Inn,"  at  St.  John's  Bridge, 
about  half  a  mile  down  the  stream,  which 
is  also  favourably  spoken  of,  but  of  which 
the  Editor  has  no  personal  experience. 

Banks. — County  of  Gloucester  Banking 
Company  and  Gloucestershire  Banking 
Company. 

Fire  Engine. — In  the  town. 

Hotels. — "New  Inn,"  in  the  town  ; 
"Trout,"  St.  John's  Bridge,  about  half  a 
mile  off. 

Market  Day. — Last  Tuesday  in  each 
month. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  telegraph,  savings  bank, 
and  insurance)  near  the  "New  Inn." 
Mails  from  London,  4.50  a.m.  and  1  p.m.  ; 
mails  for  London,  10  a.m.  and  8.45  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Hannington,  3 
miles-;  down,  St.  John's,  about  half  a 
mile.  Lock,  down,  St.  John's,  about  half 
a  mile,  the  first  lock  on  the  Thames. 

Fares,  from  Lechlade  to  Paddington, 
1st,  15/9,  26/3;  2nd,  11/7,  19/6;  3rd, 
7/i  ij. 


Legal  Quays  and  Sufferance 
Wharves  are  the  places  licensed  for  the 
landing  of  goods  in  the  Port  of  London  ; 
the  term  "Sufferance"  being  taken  from 
the  phraseology  of  the  old  writs,  which 
ran  :  "Suffer  such  and  such  persons  "  to 
land  or  warehouse  such  and  such  articles. 
The  licences  vary  in  respect  of  the  par- 
ticular articles  which  may  be  landed  at 
each  place. 

Leigh,  Essex,  on  the  left  bank,  from 
London  about  42  miles.  A  station  on 
the  London,  Tilbury,  and  Southend 
Railway,  about  one  hour  and  a  half  from 
Fenchurch- street.  Population,  1,688. 
Soil,  loam,  clay,  and  gravel.  Leigh  is  a 
picturesque  fishing  village  situated  on  a 
creek  of  the  Thames,  and  of  but  little 
importance.  Behind  the  village,  which 
is  built  close  on  to  the  river,  rises  a  some- 
what steep  hill,  on  which  are  the  church, 
the  post-office,  and  some  few  houses. 
The  church,  which  is  dedicated  to  St. 
Clement,  is  a  large  building  in  the  per- 
pendicular style,  with  a  handsome  and 
lofty  tower,  which  is  a  well-known  land- 
mark, and  commands  an  extensive  pros- 
pect. It  contains  a  few  brasses,  notably 
that  to  Richard  Hadock  and  wives  (1453) 
in  the  north  aisle.  In  the  chancel  is  a 
bust  of  Robert  Salmon  (died  1641), 
curiously  painted,  and  with  an  inscription 
in  Latin  and  English  setting  forth  the 
fact  that  he  had  restored  the  ancient  art 
of  navigation,  which  had  been  almost 
lost.  The  church  also  contains  an  ancient 
alms-box,  with  three  massive  locks,  in- 
scribed, "  I  pray  you  the  pore  remem- 
ber." Just  below  the  church,  on  the  way 
to  the  river,  are  the  school  buildings. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Clement's, 
and  Wesleyan  Chapel. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  half-way  down  the  hill, 
between  the  church  and  the  village. 
Mails  from  London  10.45  a.m.  Mails 
for  London,  11.20  a.m.  and  7  p.m. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Leigh  ; 
Steamboat  Pier  and  Ferry,  Southend. 

Fares  to  London :  1st,  4/1,  6/10 ;  2nd, 
3/-,  5/-;  3^,  2/1. 

Lights  to  be  carried  by  vessels  under 
the  Conservancy  bye-laws. — Every  steam- 
vessel    navigating    the    River    Thames 


LIG-LOO  124 

(except  as  hereinafter  provided)  shall, 
between  sunset  and  sunrise,  while  under 
way,  exhibit  the  three  following  lights 
of  sufficient  power  to  be  distinctly  visible 
with  a  clear  atmosphere  on  a  dark  night 
at  a  distance  of  at  least  one  mile,  namely : 

(a)  At  the  foremast,  or,  if  there  be  no 
foremast,  at  the  funnel,  a  bright  white 
light  suspended  at  the  height  of  not  less 
than  ten  feet  from  the  deck,  and  so  fixed 
as  to  throw  the  light  from  right  ahead  to 
two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  either  side. 

(b)  On  the  starboard  side,  a  green  light 
so  fixed  and  fitted  with  an  inboard  screen 
as  to  throw  the  light  from  direct  ahead 
to  two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  the  star- 
board side,  (c)  On  the  port  side,  a  red 
light  so  fixed  and  fitted  with  an  inboard 
screen  as  to  throw  the  light  from  direct 
ahead  to  two  points  abaft  the  beam  on 
the  port  side,  (d)  Provided,  however,  that 
no  passenger  steam  vessel  whilst  navigat- 
ing the  said  river  above  London  Bridge, 
and  when  under  way,  shall  be  bound  to 
exhibit  between  sunset  and  sunrise  any 
other  lights  than  two  bright  white  lights, 
one  at  her  mast-head,  and  one  at  her 
stem.  Steamers  towing  vessels  shall, 
between  sunset  and  sunrise,  exhibit,  in 
addition  to  the  above-mentioned  three 
lights,  a  white  light  on  the  foremast  or 
funnel  not  less  than  four  feet  vertically 
above  the  first-mentioned  white  light,  of 
the  like  power  and  similar  to  it  in  every 
respect.  Every  steam  dredger  moored 
in  the  River  Thames  shall,  between  sun- 
set and  sunrise,  exhibit  three  bright  lights 
from  globular  lanterns  of  not  less  than 
eight  inches  in  diameter,  the  said  three 
lights  to  be  placed  in  a  triangular  form, 
and  to  be  of  sufficient  power  to  be  dis- 
tinctly visible  with  a  clear  atmosphere  on  a 
dark  night  at  a  distance  of  at  least  one  mile, 
and  to  be  placed  not  less  than  six  feet 
apart  on  the  highest  part  of  the  framework 
athwart  ships.  All  barges  on  the  River 
Thames  above  Putney  Bridge,  whether 
navigated  by  sail,  towed  by  steam  or 
horses,  shall  between  sunset  and  sunrise, 
while  under  way,  exhibit  in  their  bows  or 
on  their  masts  a  red  light  of  sufficient 
power  to  be  distinctly  visible  with  a 
clear  atmosphere  On  a  dark  night  at  a 
distance  of  at  least  one  mile.  (The 
report  of  the  committee  appointed  by 
the  Board  of  Trade  to  inquire  into  the 
navigation  of  the  Thames,  which  was 
presented  to  both  Houses  in  the  summer 


of  1879,  recommended  the  abolition  of 
this  clause,  which  the  committee  stated 
" appears  never  to  have  been  obeyed.") 
All  vessels  under  sail  east  of  London 
Bridge  shall  exhibit  between  sunset  and 
sunrise  two  lights,  viz.,  a  green  light  on 
the  starboard  and  a  red  light  on  the  port 
side,  such  lights  to  be  visible  on  a  dark 
night  with  a  clear  atmosphere  at  a  distance 
of  at  least  one  mile.  Every  person  in 
charge  of  a  dumb-barge  when  under  way 
and  not  in  tow  shall,  between  sunset  and 
sunrise,  when  below  or  to  the  eastward 
of  a  line  drawn  from  the  upper  part  of 
Silvertown,  in  the  county  of  Essex,  to 
Charlton  Pier,  in  the  county  of  Kent,  have 
a  white  light  always  ready,  and  exhibit 
the  same  on  the  approach  of  any  vessel. 
The  person  in  charge  of  the  sternmost 
or  last  of  a  line  of  barges,  when  being 
towed,  shall  exhibit,  between  sunset  and 
sunrise,  a  white  light  from  the  stern  of 
his  barge.  All  vessels  and  barges,  when 
at  anchor  in  the  fairway  of  the  river, 
shall  exhibit  the  usual  riding  light.  All 
vessels,  when  employed  to  mark  the 
position  of  wrecks  or  other  obstructions, 
shall  exhibit  two  bright  lights  placed 
horizontally  not  less  than  six  feet  apart. 

The  penalty  for  breach  of  any  of  these 
bye-laws  is  a  sum  not  exceeding  £5. — 
(And  see  RULE  OF  THE  ROAD,  and 
Steam  Launches.) 

Limehouse  Reach  extends  from  the 
Lower  Pool  to  the  beginning  of  Deptford 
Reach.  On  the  right  bank  are  the  Com- 
mercial Docks.  At  the  top  of  the  Reach 
are  Limehouse  and  Shadwell  churches. 
Bearings  N.N.E.  and  S.S.W. 

Little  Stoke. — A  ferry  between  Ox- 
fordshire and  Berkshire,  nearly  opposite 
the  Berks  county  lunatic  asylum,  in  the 
parish  of  Cholsey,  and  about  one  mile 
from  Moulsford. 


Locks 


Above  Oxford. 


Name. 

Miles            Miles 

from              from 

Cricklade.     Oxford. 

St.  John's... 
Buscot 

... 

...     io£     ...     32i 
...       I2j      ...      30J 

Rushy 
Pinkhill      ... 

... 

...       20         ...       23 

...     34i     -.       8J 

Godstow   ... 

... 

...     39i     •••       3f 

Osney 

<•• 

...     424     ...        J 

Below  Oxford. 


125  LOC-LON 

The  rates  from  Waterloo  to  the  station 
on  the  river  are  as  under  : 


Name. 


Miles 

from 

Oxford. 


Iffley 

Sandford  ... 
Abingdon  ... 
Culham     .. 
Clifton 
Day's 
Bensington 
Cleeve"     ... 
Goring 
Whitchurch 
Mapledurham 
Caversham 
Sonning    ... 
Shiplake   ... 
Marsh 
Hambleden 
Hurley 
Temple 
Marlow 
Cookham  ... 
Boulter's    ... 
Bray 

Boveney    ... 
Romney    ... 
Old  Windsor 
Bell  Weir  ... 
Penton  Hook 
Chertsey    ... 
Shepperton 
Sunbury    ... 
Molesey    ... 
Teddington 


The  length  of  the  locks  is  about  130 
feet,  and  a  vessel  of  16-feet  beam  can 
pass  through  them  as  far  as  Oxford. 

(And  see  Trip  from  Cricklade, 
Trip  from  Oxford,  and,  for  tolls,  etc., 
Navigation,  Upper  Thames.) 


London  and  South  Western  Rail- 
way. —  Horses  and  Carriages.  — 
Horses  and  carriages  are  conveyed  to  or 
from  Richmond,  Twickenham,  Tedding- 
ton, Kingston,  Shepperton,  Staines, 
Windsor,  Virginia  Water,  Reading,  Sur- 
biton, Hampton  Court,  Walton,  and 
•Chertsey.  They  are  conveyed  by  certain 
trains   only,   for  which   see    time-tables. 


FROM 

Waterloo 
Station 

Horses. 

Carriages. 

1 

If  property 
of  one  person. 

■*3 
i) 

A 
* 

•* 

~77~~d. 

7  6 

8  6 

8  6 

9  0 
10    6 
10   6 
it    0 
18    0 

8    0 

8    6 

10    0 

12    0 

7> 

V 

to 

2 

3 

Richmond    . . 
Twickenham  . 
Teddington  . . 
Kingston  .... 
Shepperton  .. 

Staines 

Windsor    .... 

Reading    

Surbiton    .... 
Hamptgn  Crt. 

Walton 

Chertsey  .... 

s.  d. 
6   0 
6    0 
6    0 

6  0 

7  6 

7  6 

8  6 

12     O 

6   0 

6  0 

7  0 

8  0 

s.   d. 

9    0 

9    0 

9    0 

9    0 

10   6 

10   6 

13   6 

19   0 

8  6 

9  0 
10   0 
12    0 

s.   d. 
12    0 
12    0 
12    0 
12    0 
IS    0 
15    0 
20    0 
28    6 

10  6 

11  0 

12  6 
15    0 

X.      d. 
12      O 

Compartments  Retained.— Com- 
partments, in  carriages  of  any  class,  are 
reserved  for  families  or  parties  of  friends 
who  are  desirous  of  travelling  together. 
Application  should  be  made  beforehand 
to  the  Traffic  Superintendent,  Waterloo 
Station,  as  passengers  cannot  depend 
upon  getting  an  empty  compartment 
after  they  arrive  at  the  station  if  no 
previous  notice  has  been  given.  The 
number  of  the  party  should  always  be 
stated. 

Cloak  Rooms.— Passengers'  luggage 
may  be  deposited  in  the  cloak  rooms  at 
all  stations.  The  charge  which  the 
company  makes  for  warehousing  passen- 
gers' luggage,  which  has  been,  or  is  about 
to  be  conveyed  on  the  railway  is  2d.  for 
each  package  for  any  period  not  exceed- 
ing two  days,  and  id.  per  package  for 
every  day  or  part  of  a  day  after  two  days. 

Picnic  or  Pleasure  Parties.— 
During  the  summer  months  first,  second, 
and  third  class  return  tickets,  at  a  re- 
duced fare,  are  issued,  with  certain  limi- 
tations, at  all  the  principal  stations  to 
parties  of  not  less  than  six  first  class,  or 
ten  second  or  third  class  passengers 
desirous  of  making  pleasure  excursions 
to  places  on  or  adjacent  to  this  railway. 
The  tickets  will  be  available  for  return 
the  same  day  only,  and  parties  can  only 
proceed  and  return  by  the  trains  which 
stop  at  the  stations  where  they  wish  to 
join  and  leave  the  railway,  and  having 
that  class  of  carriage  attached  for  which 


LON-LON  128 

they  have  taken  tickets.  All  persons 
forming  this  party  must  travel  by  the 
same  train  in  bofh  directions.  To  obtain 
these  tickets  application  must  be  made 
at  any  of  the  stations  not  less  than  three 
clear  days  before  the  excursion,  stating 
the  following  particulars,  viz.  :  That  it 
is  exclusively  a  pleasure  party  ;  the 
station  from  and  to  which  tickets  are 
required  ;  for  what  class  of  carriage  ;  the 
date  of  the  proposed  excursion  ;  and  the 
probable  number  of  the  party.  The 
power  of  refusing  any  application  is 
reserved.  These  tickets  will  not  be 
issued  by  the  London  and  South  Western 
Railway  Company  from  or  to  London. 

Anglers'  Tickets.— Cheap  second 
and  third  class  return  tickets  to  the  un- 
dermentioned stations  are  issued  from  all 
London  Stations  to  anglers  who  are  bona 
fide  members  of  anglers'  clubs,  and  who 
produce  their  cards  of  membership  at 
the  time  of  taking  their  tickets.  The 
fares  from  Waterloo  are  as  under  ; 

2nd  Class.     3rd  Class. 

s.  d.  s.  d. 

Fulwell      ..  ..  ..     20..  14 

Hampton  Wick  and  King- 
ston          20..  13 

Esher         23..  16 

Hampton  ..         ..         ..     23..  16 

Sunbury    ..  ..  . .     26..  18 

Walton 2     6     ..  1  10 

Shepperton  . .         . .     30     . .  20 

Weybridge  . .  . .     32     . .  20 

Staines       ..         ..         . .     2  10     ..  2    o 

Egham       ..         ..         ..     32..  23 

Wraysbury  . .  . .     32     . .  23' 

Addlestone  ..         ..     36     ..  22 

Datchet     ..         ..         ..     3    6     ...  2     3 

Windsor    ..         ..         -.39     ••  26 

Virginia  Water    . .  . .     39     . .  26 

Chertsey    ..  ..  ..     39..  24 

Woking 46..  26 

These  are  "return"  tickets,  available  for 
three  days. 

Outside  Porters  for  Transfer  of 
Luggage. — Where  two  stations  belong- 
ing to  separate  companies  are  adjacent 
to  each  other,  out-porters  are  appointed 
to  convey  luggage  from  one  station  to 
the  other  at  fixed  charges. 

The  fares  charged  for  through  tickets 
do  not  in  any  case  include  the  conveyance 
of  luggage  between  the  stations. 

The  men  appointed  to  the  duty  are  in 
uniform,  and  the  companies  cannot  con- 
trol the  charges  made  by  any  other 
persons  whom  passengers  may  employ 
to  convey  their  luggage. 


Cheap     Saturday     to     Monday 
Tickets. — On  Saturdays  and  Sundays 
1st  and  2nd  class  return  tickets  to  Wind- 
sor are  issued  at   Waterloo,   Vauxhall, 
Clapham  Junction,    Chelsea,    and   Ken- 
sington, available  for  the  return  journey 
ti-11    the    Monday    following    inclusive. 
These   tickets  are   also  available  to  or 
from  Datchet.     Fares,  from  either  of  the 
above-named  stations  :  1st  class,  4*.  6d. ; 
2nd  class,  3s.  6d. 

Boats  and  Canoes.— These  are  con- 
veyed in  the  guard's  van  or  on  the  roof 
of  a  carriage  at  the  rate  of  2d.  per  mile* 
with  a  minimum  charge  of  $s.     If  a  car- 
riage truck  is  required,  the  same  charge 
is  made  as  for  a  private  carriage  ;  if  two 
trucks  are  required,  a  charge  is  made  for 
one  private   carriage  with  50  per  cent, 
added.      In   cases,    however,   where  the 
crew,  not  less  than  four  in  number,  travel 
with  the  boat,  the  charge  for  the  latter 
will  be  reduced  one  half ;  but  in  order  to 
obtain  this  reduction,  previous  applica- 
tion must  be  made  to  the  superintendent 
of  the  traffic,  Waterloo  Station,  who  will 
send  a  written  authority  to  the  applicant, 
to  be    produced   when   the   tickets  are 
taken. 

Cheap    Day    Excursions. —Cheap 
Day  Excursion  Tickets  are  issued  by  cer- 
tain specified  trains  from  May  1  to  Octo- 
ber  31,    to  the  following  places,    from 
Waterloo,  Vauxhall,  Clapham  Junction, 
Chelsea,  Kensington  (Addison-road),  and 
from  Hammersmith,  there  and  back,  in 
3rd    class    carriages,    at    the    following 
fares—  : 

s.  d. 
Windsor         ..  ..  ..26 

Twickenham  . .         . .     16 

Kingston       ..         ...         ..16 

J     6 

..10 


Teddington  .. 
Kew  Bridge  . . 


Also  to  Virginia  Water  and  back  :  1st 
class,  4-f. ;  2nd,  35-. 

Passengers  holding  Windsor  tickeij 
can  return  from  Virginia  Water  on  pay- 
ment of  6d.  each. 

The  trains  by  which  these  tickets  are 
available  are  published  month  by  month 
in  the  South  Western  Company's  Book 
of  Time  Tables.  Passengers  must  be 
careful  to  note  that  if  the  cheap  tickets 
are  used  by  any  other  than  the  specified 
trains,  or  if  the  journey  there  and  back 
be  not  completed  in  the  one  day,  the  full 
ordinary  fares  will  be  charged. 


127 


LON—LON 


Saloon  Carriages.— Saloon  carri- 
ages constructed  to  carry  about  10  pas- 
sengers (ist  class  only)  may  be  retained 
for  parties  of  not  less  than  seven  passen- 
gsrs.  Application  should  be  made  to  the 
superintendent  of  the  traffic,  Waterloo, 
some  days  before  the  date  on  which  the 
carriages  will  be  required,  as  the  number 
is  limited,  and  in  the  summer  there  is 
often  a  great  demand  for  them.     These 


carriages  are  not  retained  for  parties 
holding  picnic  or  other  tickets  issued  at 
reduced  rates. 

Private  Broughams.  —  Broughams 
and  private  omnibuses  may  be  hired  at 
the  Waterloo  Station  at  moderate  charges. 
A  note  to  the  station-master  will  always 
secure  the  attendance  of  as  many  car- 
riages as  may  be  required  on  the  arrival 
of  the  train. 


SCALE  OF  CHARGES  FOR  RESIDENTIAL    OR  SEASON  TICKETS. 


Waterloo  Bridgb  or  KEN- 
SI  NtOTON. 

To  or  From 


c 
o 

6 

A 

V 


& 


(  Wands  worth 

Putney  .... 

Barnes    .... 

Mortlake    .. 

Richmond  ....^ 

St.  ^Margaret's 

Twickenham . . 

Feltham 

Ashford 

Staines    

Wraysbury    . . 

Datchet 

^Windsor.. .... 


v 

£ 

9 


iChiswick  . . 
Kew  Bridge 
Brentford  .. 
Isleworth  .. 
Hounslow  . . 


M 


Strawberry  Hill 
Teddington   . . . . 


4     >  f  Shepperton   I 


.Hampton 


First  Class. 


Twelve 

Months. 


£ 

IO 

TO    IO 
12       O 

14    O 
16     O 

16  IO 

17  „ 

20    O 


s.    d. 
O     o 

o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 


24    o    o 


Six 

Months. 


£ 

6 

6 
7 


s. 
o 

5 
o 

8  10 

9  ro 
10  o 
10  10 


r3     5    o 
14    o    o 


Three 
Months. 


6  s. 

3  5 

3  10 

4  o 

4  15 

5  10 
5  10 

5  IS 

6  15 

7  10 

7   IO 


second  Class. 


Twelve 
Months. 


£  s. 

7  10 

7  17 

9  o 

IO  IO 

12  O 

12  7 

12  15 


15  o    O 

16  IO     O 


18 


Six 
Months. 


£    s. 

4  IO 

4  15 

5  5 

6  7 

7  2 
7  10 
7  17 


IO   IO     o 


Three 
Months. 


£  s. 

2  7 

2  12 

3  o 

3  10 

4  0 
4  © 
4  © 


13  o  o 

15  o  o 

15  o  o 

16  o  o 

17  o  o 


8  o 

9  o 
9  o 
9   IO 

10  ip 


4  10  o 
500 
500 

5  10  o 
5  IS     o 


Hampton  Wick 

§  6 J  /Kingston    I  §'. 

ȣ  >A  Fulwell fm 

?Hs  JSunbury     I  .«s  . . 


20     o     o 

22       O       O 
IQ       O      O 


12  O      O 

13  5    o 

II    IO      o 


urbiton     

lorbiton    , 

Kingston    

hames  Ditton 
[ampton  Court 

sher 

Walton  

feybridge 
ddlestone 
hertsey    


6  15    o 

7  10    o 
676 


9  15     o 
1000 

11  5    o 

12  o    o 
12  15    o 


3  10 


15  o    o 

16  10     o 
14     o    o 


600 

676 

6  15     o 
726 

7  17     6 


900 

10    o     o 

8  10     o 


I 


18  o  o 

20  o  o 

21  O  O 

22  O  O 


12      O      O 

12  XO      O 

13  5    © 


600 

6  15    o 
700 

7  IO     o 


13  10  o 

15    o  o 

15  IS  o 

16  XO  o 


800 

900 
976 

1000 


5  12    6 

5  12    6 


3    7    6 
3  10    o 

3  IS     o 
426 

4  S     o 


4     o 


526 
5  12  6 
4   15     o 


400 

526 
5  5© 
5  i2    6 


Windsor  and  Datchet.— Nine  Months :  ist,  £20 ;  2nd,  £15.  Two  months  :  ist,  £5  5*.;  2nd,  £3 17s.  6d. 
ne  month  :  ist,  £3  ;  2nd,  £1  5s. 
Stations.— Strawberry  Hill  to  Fulwell  :    Nine  months,  2nd,  £u. 
Reading. — Nine  months  :  ist,  ,£31 ;  2nd,  £23  5$. 


LON— LON 


128 


Season  Tickets.  —  Season  Tickets 
may  be  obtained  at  the  Season  Ticket 
Office,  No.  114,  Waterloo-road,  S.E.  ;  or 
by  letter  to  Mr.  C.  Harvey,  Season  Ticket 
Office. 

A  reduction  is  made  of  10  per  cent, 
when  two  tickets,  and  of  15  per  cent., 
when  three  or  more  tickets  are  taken  by 
the  same  family  residing  in  the  same 
house  for  the  same  period,  but  not  as 
lodgers  (that  is,  commencing  and  expiring 
on  the  same  dates),  and  between  the  same 
stations. 

Children  under  three  years  of  age, 
accompanying  adult  passengers,  no 
charge  ;  above  three  years  and  under 
twelve,  half-price  by  all  trains. 

London  Bridge — built  in  1824-27  from 
the  designs  of  John  Rennie,  architect 
of  Southwark  and  Waterloo  Bridges, 
partly  by  himself,  partly  on  his  death  by 
his  son,  Mr.  J.  Rennie.  Altogether  some 
eight  or  nine  designs  for  London  Bridge 
were  prepared  by  members  of  the  Rennie 
family.  The  cost,  from  various  causes, 
was  enormous,  and  a  good  deal  of  mis- 
apprehension seems  to  exist  upon  this 
point ;  some  authorities  placing  it  at  a 
little  under  a  million  and  a  half,  while 
others  give  it  at  over  two  and  a  half  mil- 
lions. It  is  built  of  granite  in  five  arches  ; 
the  centre  arch  being  152  ft.,  the  two 
next  140  ft.,  and  the  two  shore  arches 
130  ft.  each  in  span.  In  order  to  facilitate 
traffic,  police-constables  are  stationed 
along  the  middle  of  the  roadway,  and  all 
vehicles  travelling  at  a  walking  pace  only 
are  compelled  to  keep  close  to  the  curb. 
There  are  still,  however,  frequent  blocks, 
and  the  bridge  should  be  avoided  as 
much  as  possible,  especially  between  9 
and  10 a.m.  and  4  and  6  p.m.  Seen  from 
the  river,  it  is  the  handsomest  bridge  in 
London. 

Nearest  Railway  Stations,  Cannon- 
street  and  London  Bridge ;  Omnibus 
Routes,  Cannon-street,  King  William- 
street,  London  Bridge,  and  Southwark- 
street. 

London  Docks.— The  London  Docks 
belong  to  the  same  company  as  the  St. 
Katharine  and  Victoria  Docks  {which  see), 
and  lie  immediately  to  the  eastward  of 
the  former,  from  which  they  are  divided 
by  Nightingale-lane,  running  from  Upper 
East  Smithfield  to  Wapping  High-street. 


The  best  means  of  approach  is,  from  the 
west,  by  way  of  Aldgate  and  the  Minories 
to  East  Smithfield,  or  from  the  east,  by 
way  of  the  Leman-street  Station.  The 
entrance  is  at  the  corner  of  Nightingale- 
lane,  where  East  Smithfield  and  Upper 
East  Smithfield  join. 

London  Hospital   Rowing    Club, 

Hammersmith.  —  Subscription  :  Effective 
members,  10s.  6d.  ;  hon.  members,  "not 
less  than  10s.  6d."  Candidates  for  mem- 
bership shall  become  members  on  giving 
in  their  names  and  subscriptions  to  the 
secretary.  Boat-house,  Biffen's,  Hammer- 
smith. Colours,  red  and  black  stripe. 
Badge,  red  and  black  oar,  serpent  and 
garter.     Motto,  Celer  et  certus. 

London  Rowing  Club,  Putney.-^ 
Was  founded  in  1856.  In  1869,  for  the 
purpose  of  borrowing  funds  for  the 
erection  of  a  new  boat-house,  the 
members  formed  themselves  into  the 
London  Boat-house  Co.,  Limited, 
which  was  duly  incorporated  in 
January,  1870.  The  new  house  was 
opened  in  January,  1871,  and  some 
additions  were  made  to  it  in  1875.  The 
sum  expended  was  nearly  ^3,000,  and 
the  money  was  raised  by  debentures, 
some  of  which  are  drawn  by  lot  for  pay- 
ment in  each  year.  The  number  of 
members  is  upwards  of  500. 

The  election  of  members  is  by  ballot  in 
general  meeting :  one  black  ball  in  five 
excludes.  Entrance  £2,  being  the  cost  of 
a  share  in  the  Boat-house  Co.,  on  which 
there  is  no  further  liability.  Subscription, 
£2  2S.  A  payment  of  £15  155.  at  the 
time  of  election,  or  of  £7  17s.  6d.  after 
five  years'  membership,  constitutes  a  life- 
membership.  The  share  reverts  to  the 
company  on  resignation,  forfeiture,  or 
expulsion  of  a  member.  Sons,  brothers, 
or  nephews  of  members  may  be  elected 
by  ballot  in  general  meeting  under  certain 
restrictions  as  cadet  members,  but  the 
cadet  member  at  the  time  of  his  election 
must  not  be  less  than  ten  years  of  age, 
and  not  more  than  sixteen  ;  he  must  be 
able  to  swim,  and  cadet  membership 
ceases  at  the  age  of  eighteen.  Cadets 
pay  no  subscriptions  or  entrance  fee* 
Boat-house,  Putney.  Colours,  blue  and 
white  vertical  stripes.  Members  who 
have  passed  an  examination,  and  have 
qualified  as  "oarsmen,"  are  also  entitled 
to  wear  a  silver  badge. 


129 


London  Sailing  Club.— Club-bouse, 
1'he  Rutland  Hotel,  the  Mall,  Hammer- 
smith.  The  officers  are  commodore,  vice 
and  rear-commodores,  treasurer,  and  hon. 
secretary,  who  with  eight  members  con- 
stitute the  committee  both  for  sailing  and 
general  purposes.  Election  is  by  ballot 
in  general  meeting  :  one  black  ball  in  four 
excludes.  Entrance  fee,  ios.  6d.  Subscrip- 
tion :  owners  of  boats,  £1  is. ;  non- 
owners,  or  honorary  members,  ios.  6d. 
Burgee,  blue  with  yellow  dolphin. 

Long  Reach  extends  from  Crayford- 
ness  to  Greenhithe,  3  miles.  Purfleet, 
with  its  powder  magazines,  the  training- 
ship  Cornwall,  and  its  hotel,  so  well 
known  for  fish  dinners,  is  at  the  west  of 
the  left  (Essex)  bank.  A  ferry  crosses 
here  to  "  Long  Reach  Tavern,"  a  little 
to  the  westward  of  which  is  Dartford 
Creek,  on  the  right  (Kent)  bank,  at  the 
eastern  extremity  of  the  reach.  Stone 
Church  is  a  prominent  object  just  before 
arriving  at  Greenhithe.  Bearings,  S.E. 
by  S.  and  N.W.  by  W. 

Long  Wittenham.— A  village  in  Berk- 
shire, on  the  right  bank,  4  miles,  S.E. 
from  Abingdon.  Population,  629.  Soil, 
gravel  on  gault  clay,  with  upper  green- 
sand. 

The  parish  church,  dedicated  to  St. 
Mary  the  Virgin,  is  of  mixed  age,  as 
shown  by  the  variety  of  its  architecture. 
The  earliest  portions  are  Norman  and 
Early  English  (decorated)  of  several 
periods,  and  late  perpendicular.  The 
chancel,  which  is  of  the  same  period,  is 
divided  from  the  nave  by  a  good  Norman 
arch.  The  chancel  was  originally  Nor- 
man, as  shown  by  a  small  round-headed 
window  and  a  piscina  of  the  same  date. 
The  remainder  of  the  chancel  is  Early 
English,  as  shown  by  one-light  lancet- 
windows  ;  others  are  of  the  decorated 
period.  The  north  and  south  aisles  are 
divided  from  the  nave  by  piers  and  arches 
of  very  Early  English.  The  font,  standing 
in  the  north  aisle,  is  of  lead,  resting  on  a 
base  of  stone.  It  bears  on  it  a  row  of 
figures  of  a  mitred  bishop  under  an 
arcade,  holding  a  cross,  and  in  the  act  of 
blessing.  In  a  chapel  to  the  south  is  a 
small  piscina,  with  the  effigy  of  a  cross- 
legged  knight  in  full  armour  treading  on 
a  serpent,  with  the  figures  of  two  angels 
sculptured  on  the  arch  above  him.     The 


LON-MAQ 

figure  is  only  two  feet  in  length,  and  is 
thought  to  be  of  unique  design.  The 
tower  is  late  perpendicular.  The  south 
porch  is  of  the  decorated  period  ;  the 
barge  board  of  elegant  design. 

Inns. — "Plough,"  "Vine  Cottage," 
"Three  Poplars,"  "Machine  Man's 
Inn." 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Mary  the 
Virgin. 

Police. — A  constable  lives  in  the 
village. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Nearest 
money  order  and  telegraph  offices, 
Abingdon  and  Dorchester.  Mail  from 
London,  8  a.m.  Mail  to  London,  5.35 
p.m.     Sunday,  10  a.m. 

Nearest  Bridge,  Clifton  Hampden  ; 
Lock,  Clifton  ;  Railway  Station,  Culham 
(which  see  for  Fares). 

Magna  Charta  Island,  a  mile  and  a 
half  from  Old  Windsor  Lock,  near  the 
Middlesex  bank,  one  of  the  most  charm- 
ing islands  on  the  river,  and  of  historical 
interest  as  the  scene  of  the  little  arrange- 
ment between  King  John  and  his  barons, 
which,  as  "every  schoolboy  knows,"  was 
the  foundation  of  the  freedom  of  England. 
In  a  cottage  which  stands  on  the  island 
is  a  stone  on  which  it  is  said  that 
Magna  Charta  was  signed.  The  usual 
uncertainty  and  vagueness  which  cha- 
racterise all  history  step  in  even  at  what 
ought  to  be  so  very  simple  a  matter  as 
this.  Tradition  undoubtedly  assigns  the 
honour  of  being  the  scene  of  signature  to 
the  island,  but  in  the  charter  itself  it  is 
said  to  be  given  at  Runningmede,  so  that 
it  would  seem  to  be  doubtful  whether  the 
finishing  stroke  was  given  to  the  palladium 
of  English  liberties  on  this  island  itself, 
or  on  Runnymede  on  the  Surrey  bank. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  C.  Hall,  who  give  an  ex- 
cellent account  of  Magna  Charta  in  their 
delightful  "Book  of  the  Thames,"  express 
a  regret  "that  no  monument  marks  the 
spot  at  Runnymede  where  the  rights  and 
liberties  of  the  people  of  England  were 
maintained  and  secured,  although  several 
attempts  have  been  made  to  raise  one 
here."  The  same  page  gives  us  the  in- 
scription on  the  stone  on  which  the  parch- 
ment is  said  to  have  been  signed  :  "  Be  it 
remembered  that  on  this  island,  in  June, 


MAG-MAI  130 

1215,  King  John  of  England  signed  the 
Magna  Charta,  and  in  the  year  1834  this 
building  was  erected  in  commemoration 
of  that  great  event  by  George  Simon  Har- 
court,  Esq. ,  lord  of  the  manor,  and  then 
high  sheriff  of  the  county." 

Maidenhead,  Berkshire,  on  the  right 
bank  ;  from  London  50  miles,  from  Ox- 
ford 61J  miles  ;  a  station  on  the  Great 
Western  Railway  25  miles  from  Padding- 
ton  ;  trains  take  from  35  to  80  minutes. 
The  station  is  twenty  minutes'  walk  from 
Bond's  boat-house  at  the  bridge,  and  about 
five  minutes  from  the  town-hall.  Flys  and 
omnibuses  meet  the  trains.     For  boating 
purposes  or  for  visitors  to  the  Orkney  Arms 
Hotel,  Taplow  station  is  somewhat  nearer 
and  more  convenient  than  Maidenhead. 
The  counties  of  Berks  and  Bucks  are  here 
connected  by  a  stone  bridge  of  thirteen 
arches,  and  the  Great  Western  Railway 
crosses  the  river  a  little  below  on  a  brick 
bridge  of  two  arches,  designed  by  the  late 
Sir  Isambard  Brunei,  and  being  remark- 
able as  exhibiting  the  greatest  span  of 
brick  extant,  as  also  for  its  acoustic  pecu- 
liarities.   Population,  6,473.    Maidenhead 
is  a  corporate  town,  governed  by  a  high 
steward,  mayor,  four  aldermen,  and  twelve 
councillors.      It   consists  mainly  of  two 
Streets,  High-street  and  Queen-street,  and 
is  not  very  important  or  in  itself  attractive. 
There  are,  however,  many  good  houses 
in  the  outskirts,  more  particularly  along 
the  bank  of  the  river  between  Maidenhead 
Bridge  and  the  Great  Western  Railway- 
bridge,  and  between  the  bridge  and  Boul- 
ter's Lock,  in  which  direction  a  little  inland, 
a  new  suburb  of  Maidenhead,  known  as 
Ray  Park,  has  sprung  into  existence.  The 
Town   Hall  is  in  the  High-street,  as  is 
also    the    post-office.      The    Church    of 
Saints  Andrew  and  Mary  is  in  the  High- 
street,  occupying  the  site  of  two  older 
churches,    dates    from    1826,    and    was 
finished  in  1878.     It  affords  in  itself  no 
points  of  attraction.     Part  of  the  vicar's 
income  is  a  Crown  payment  of  "seven 
marks  (£4  13^.  4^. ),  dating  from  the  time 
of  Philip  and  Mary,  in  compliance  with 
the  prayer  of  the  inhabitants,  who  base 
their  application   on   the  fact  that  their 
chapel  is  distant  from  the  mother  churches 
"  too    myles    or    nere    thereaboutes,    to 
which  yr.  sede  subjects  cannot  at  sundry 
tymes  in  the  yere,  cum  and  make  ther 


repaire,  to  here  the  dyvyne  seruice  of 
Allmyghty  God,  and  to  serue  God  there, 
as  of  duty  they  are  bounde  to  doe,  by- 
cause  manie  tymes  thereof  letted  through 
vysytacyon  of  sycknesse,  women  labrynge 
and  travelynge  in  childbedd  ;  and  also 
bycause  the  seid  toune  of  Maydenhedd 
is  scituat  in  a  loo  con  tree,  and  very  nere 
adjoynynge  to  the  ryver  Thamys,  so  that 
the  seid  contre'is,  dyvers  tymes  in  the 
yere,  so  surrounded  and  overfiowen  wyth 
water  that  yr.  Highnes  seid  subjects  can- 
not passe  goe  nor  travell  to  their  seid 
churches  ;  by  reson  whereof  the  dutie  of 
yr.  seid  subjects  towards  Allmyghtye  God 
hath  byn  many  tymes,  agenst  ther  wyll, 
left  undon."  Allusion  is  then  made  to 
the  endowment,  by  John  Husbonde,  "  in 
the  tyme  of  Kynge  Edward  the  Thirde, 
oon  of  yr.  Grace's  noble  progenitors,  and 
of  whose  worthie  stock  and  most  noble 
lineage  yr.  Maiesties  bothe  are  dyscended 
and  lynyally  comen,"  and  to  the  loss  of 
this  revenue  by  "ye  dyssolucyon  of  ye 
Pryorye  of  Hurley,"  the  petitioners  plain- 
tively adding,  "Sithen  wyche  dyssolucyon 
the  pore  inh'itants  of  the  toune  of 
Maydenhedd  haue  not  hadd  ther  dyvyne 
seruice  celebrated  in  the  seyd  chapell,  as 
accustomably  heretofore  they  haue  hadd, 
bycause  they  be  not  able  to  fynde  and 
mayntayn  a  convenyent  prest  to  say 
•  dyvyne  seruice  in  the  seid  chapell,  to 
the  greete  decay  and  hyndraunce  of 
Godd's  seruice  and  to  the  discorage- 
ment  of  yr.  faythfull  subjects  dwelling 
in  the  seid  toune."  Finally,  coming  to 
the  point,  they  implore  their  majesties 
"to  graunt  an  ordynarye  pencyon  and 
lyvynge  to  on  honest  and  secular  prest, 
to  celebrate  dyvyne  seruice  in  the  seid 
chapell  of  Maydenhedd,  for  the  ease  of  ye 
pore  inh'itants. "  This  petition  is  thought 
by  the  Rev.  C.  G.  Gorham  (whose  full 
and  learned  account  of  this  church  will 
be  found  in  Vol.  VI.  of  the  "  Collectanea 
Typographica  et  Genealogica  ")  to  have 
been  written  in  1557.  The  patronage  of 
the  church  was  in  the  hands  of  the  prior 
of  Hurley  until  the  dissolution  of  the 
monasteries,  when  it  seems  to  have  been 
assumed  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  town, 
until  the  Charter  of  Incorporation, 
granted  by  Queen  Elizabeth  in  1582, 
when  the  corporation  assumed  the  right. 
The  advowson  was  sold  by  the  corpora- 
tion under  the  compulsory  clause  of  the 


131 


Act  for  municipal  reform,  and  purchased 
by  Mr.  Fuller  Maitland  in  1838.  Mr. 
Gorham's  opinion  as  to  the  etymology  of 
the  name  of  the  town  is  very  clear.  He 
derives  it  from  "Maiden  Hythe,"  "the 
New  Wharf,"  rejecting  as  absurd  all 
connection  with  the  head  of  "one  of 
St.  Ursula's  virgins,"  or  any  other  holy 
person.  The  present  name  first  appears 
about  A.D.  1300,  previous  to  which  date 
the  place  is  called  Elington,  Elyngton,  or 
South  Elington.  The  Sacrament  plate 
dates  chiefly  from  1657.  There  are  a 
number  of  charitable  funds  in  connection 
with  the  church.  On  the  road  to  the 
river  are  the  almshouses,  founded  in  1659 
by  James  Smyth,  citizen  and  saKer. 

The  Hambletonian  Hall  seats  2,000, 
and  may  be  hired  at  a  cost  of  £2  2s.  per 
night,  including  gas,  piano,  &c.  There 
is  a  large  swimming-bath  attached. 

Although  Maidenhead  itself  has  few 
charms  for  the  visitor,  the  country  about 
it,  more  particularly  the  woods  of  Clive- 
den and  Hedsor,  a  short  distance  up  the 
river  on  the  Bucks  side,  is  charming  in- 
deed. Between  Maidenhead  and  Marlow 
is,  perhaps,  the  best  known  and  the  most 
popular  part  of  the  river.  And  its  popu- 
larity is  well  deserved  ;  for  whether  for 
the  angler,  the  artist,  the  oarsman,  or 
the  simple  tourist ;  whether  for  fishing, 
picnicking,  and  it  has  been  even  whispered 
"spooning,"  to  say  nothing  of  camping- 
out,  there  are  few  places  in  England  to 
beat  the  Cliveden  Reach  at  Maidenhead 
or  Quarry  Woods  at  Marlow. 

The  interests  of  anglers  in  Maidenhead, 
Cookham,  and  Bray  waters  are  attended 
to  by  the  Maidenhead,  Cookham,  and 
Bray  Angling  Association  [which  see). 

There  are  many  and  pleasant  walks 
and  drives  about  Maidenhead  to  supple- 
ment the  river  excursions.  Among  them 
may  be  mentioned  Burnham  Beeches  (4 
miles),  one  of  the  grandest  collection  of 
trees  in  England,  and  remarkably  in- 
teresting for  the  varied  growth  of  ferns 
and  mosses.  The  Corporation  of  the 
City  of  London  has  recently  saved 
Burnham  Beeches  from  the  hands  of  the 
brick  and  mortar  spoilers,continuingthere 
the  good  work  commenced  at  Epping 
-Forest.  Hurley  and  Bisham  are  each 
about  4J  miles  from  Maidenhead  by 
road,  and  Great  Marlow  is  about  6  miles. 
In  the  other  direction  Windsor  is  also 


MAI-MA! 

about  6  miles  distant.  From  Winter 
Hill,  near  Cookham  Dene,  a  distance  of 
about  4  miles,  a  grand  view  may  be 
obtained  on  a  clear  day.  Shorter  walks 
are  those  to  Maidenhead  Thicket,  Cook- 
ham, and  Bray. 

Banks. — London  and  County,  High- 
street  ;  Stephens,  Blandy,  and  Co., 
High-street. 

Faiits. — Whit  Wednesday,  September 
29,  November  30. 

Fire. — Volunteer  Brigade.  Strength: 
Captain,  deputy-captain,  3  first  lieu- 
tenants, 3  second  lieutenants,  2  engineers, 
1  deputy-engineer,  18  pioneers,  secretary, 
foreman  of  fire-escape,  3  manual-engines. 

HOTELS.— The  "Bear,"  High-street; 
the  ''Ray  Mead,"  near  the  river,  above 
bridge  ;  "  Skindle's,"  across  the  Bridge,  in 
Bucks;  the  "Thames,"  Ray  Park;  the 
"  White  Hart,"  High-street. 

Market  Day. — Wednesday. 

Places  of  Worship.— All  Saints, 
Boyn  Hill ;  St.  Andrew  and  St,  Mary, 
High-street  ;  St.  Luke's  ;  The  Roman 
Catholic  Church  of  St.  Mary  the  Im- 
maculate; and  Baptist,  Congregational, 
Primitive  Methodist,  and  Wesleyau 
Chapels. 

Police.  —  Borough  police  -  station, 
Queen-stfeet  :  county  police  -  station, 
South-street. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  High-street.  Mails  from 
London,  7  and  10.30  a.m.,  6.30  p.m.  ; 
Sunday,  7  a.m.  Mails  to  London,  10.30 
a.m.,  12.45,  4-3°»  ando.45  p.m.;  Sunday, 
9.30  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  Maidenhead  ;  up, 
Cookham  3  miles;  down,  Windsor  7 
miles.  Locks,  up,  Boulter's  |  mile  ;  down, 
Bray  i|  mile.  Railway  Station,  Maiden- 
head. 

Fares  to  Paddington  :  ist,  4/4,  7/6 ; 
2nd>  3b>  5/9  i  3rd,  2/o£. 

Maidenhead,  Cookham,  and  Bray 
Thames  Angling  Association — The 

object  of  this  association  is  the  improve- 
ment of  the  fishery  from  the  Shrubbery 
to  Monkey  Island.  The  annual  sub- 
scription is  £1  is.  Water-bailiffs  and 
watchers  are  appointed  at  the  discretion 
of  the  committee.  A  large  number  of 
fish,  more  especially  trout,  have  been 
turned  into  the  river  by  the  association. 


E  2 


MAI-MAP  132 

The  water-bailiffs  are  required  to  keep 
live  baits  for  the  accommodation  of 
members  free  of  charge  (lob  worms  and 
other  baits  to  be  paid  for).  A  reward  of 
xos.  is  offered  to  anyone  who  shall  give 
sufficient  information  to  any  member  of 
the  committee  of  any  illegal  fishing,  or  of 
being  in  unlawful  possession  of  fish  dur- 
ing the  close  season,  provided  that  it  be 
considered  by  the  committee  a  fit  case  for 
prosecution,  and  that  if  the  persons  so 
prosecuted  be  convicted  by  the  magis- 
trates, the  amount  shall  be  doubled.  A 
reward  of  £i  is  offered  to  anyone  cap- 
turing an  otter  in  the  waters  under  the 
supervision  of  the  association. 

Maidenhead  Rowing  Club.— Elec- 
tion by  committee  of  thirteen  :  three  black 
balls  exclude.  Subscription,  ior.  6d. 
Members  subscribing  £l  is.  and  up- 
wards may  introduce  a  friend  to  the 
privileges  of  the  club,  free  for  one  week, 
and  for  one  month  on  payment  of  $s.  ; 
such  friend  not  being  resident  in  or  with- 
in five  miles  of  Maidenhead.  There  is  a 
challenge  cup  for  monthly  competition. 
Colours,  dark  blue  and  primrose. 

Mapledurham,  Oxfordshire,  on  the 
left  bank ;  from  London  78J  miles,  from 
Oxford  33  miles.  Population,  479.  Soil, 
chalk.  The  chief  glory  of  this  village  is  the 
grand  old  Elizabethan  Mapledurham 
House,  belonging  to  the  Blount  family, 
of  which  Pope's  Martha  Blount  was  a 
member.  The  house,  from  the  river,  has 
a  somewhat  conventual  or  monastic 
appearance,  and  the  principal  front, 
facing  the  park  and  not  the  river,  is 
approached  by  a  magnificent  avenue 
of  ancient  elms.  A  great  old-fashioned 
pair  of  iron  gates  afford  access  from 
Mapledurham  House  to  the  churchyard, 
in  which,  nestling  amongst  noble  trees, 
is  the  church  of  St.  Margaret,  which  has 
been  extensively  restored,  and  exhibits 
some  remarkable  combinations  of  colour, 
which  might,  perhaps,  be  described  as 
the  barber's-pole  style  of  decoration. 
The  greater  part  of  the  church,  as  well 
as  the  roof  of  the  chancel,  is  curiously 
picked  out  with  every  variety  of  brilliant 
colour,  and  the  idea  is  still  further  carried 
out  by  the  font,  which  is  painted  red, 
white,  blue,  and  gold,  and  further  exhibits 
the  real  barber's  pole  blue  and  gilt  stripes. 
There     is     a    handsome    reredos,    and 


between  the  south  aisle  and  the  nave 
is  a  grand  monument  of  Sir  Richard 
Blount  and  his  wife  Elizabeth,  with  two 
recumbent  life-sized  figures,  the  one  in 
armour,  the  other  in  rough  and  far- 
thingale. A  close  inspection  of  this  is 
difficult,  as  it  is  jealously  enclosed  with 
spiked  iron  railings.  Indeed,  the  whole 
of  the  south  aisle  presents  the  curious 
anomaly  of  being  walled  and  railed  off 
from  the  rest  of  the  church.  It  is 
claimed  by  the  Blount  family  as  a  private 
mortuary  chapel,  and  is  kept  rigidly 
locked  and  strictly  private.  It  is  under- 
stood that  the  opinion  of  ecclesiastical 
lawyers  has  been  found  favourable  to 
this  exercise  of  power. 

Just  above  Mapledurham  is  another 
singularly  fine  mansion  —  Hardwick 
House — where  it  is  said  that  Charles  I. 
frequently  indulged  in  his  favourite 
pastime  of  bowls,  and  if  the  royal  martyr 
had  been  as  judicious  in  all  matters  as 
he  undoubtedly  was  when  he  selected 
Hardwick  for  a  playground,  the  course 
of  English  history  might  have  been 
considerably  changed. 

Mapledurham  Reach  is  celebrated  for 
its  jack  and  perch,  for  the  latter  par* 
ticularly.  The  Caversham  and  Reading 
fishermen  generally  make  for  this  district. 

Inn. — "The  Roebuck,"  on  the  Berk- 
shire bank,  about  a  mile  below  the  lock. 
There  is  a  ferry  here. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  Margaret ; 
Catholic,  attached  to  Mapledurham 
House. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Reading.  Letter-box  in  Vicarage- 
wall  cleared  6.30  p.m.  week-days,  and 
noon  on  Sundays.  Nearest  money  order, 
telegraph,  &c,  offices,  Caversham  and 
Pangbourne. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Whitchurch  about 
2  miles  ;  down,  Caversham  4  miles.  Locks, 
up,  Whitchurch  2J  miles ;  down  .Caversham 
4J  miles.  Ferry,  Parley.  Railway  Station, 
Pangbourne. 

Fares,  Pangbourne  to  Paddington  ; 
1st,  7/4,  13/-;  2nd,  5/6,  9/6  ;  3rd,  3/5J. 

Maplin  Sands  begin  just  to  the  east- 
ward of  Southend  and  extend  to  beyond 
the  Maplin  Light.  They  are  on  the  north 
sid'.1,  and  are  well  buoyed. 


133 
Maps: 

PAGE 

Hampton  Court        . .         . .         . .         . .  94 

Hampton  Court  Palace.  State  Apartments  95 

Henley  Regatta  Course      . .         . .         . .  105 

London  to  Erith       ..         ..         ..         ..  154 

Erith  to  Gravesend  . .         ..         ..         ..  155 

Gravesend  to  Canvey  Island         ..         ..  156 

Canvey  Island  to  the  Nore            ..         ..  157 

Oxford 176 

Reading  ..  ..         ..         ..         ..211 

Oxford  to  Mongewell          255 

Mongewell  to  Reading       . .         . .         . .  256 

Reading  to  Great  Marlow. .         ..         ..  257 

Great  Marlow  to  Datchet 258 

Datchet  to  Brentford          259 

Kingston  to  London           . .         . .         . .  260 

Putney  to  Mortlake            ..         ..         ..  271 

Oxford  Regatta  Course 277 

Windsor  and  Eton   ..          ..          ..          ..  295 

Windsor  Castle  State  Apartments           . .  300 

Windsor  Castle         . .         . .         . .         . .  301 

Margaret  Ness.— (See  Tripcock 
Reach.  ) 

Marino  Board,  Local. — Office  for 
examination  of  masters  and  mates,  St. 
Katharine  Dock  House,  Tower-hill. — 
Nearest  Railway  Station,  Cannon-  street ; 
Omnibus  Route,  Fenchurch-street. 

Marine  Society,  Office,  Bishopsgate- 
street-within.  Training  ship,  Warspite, 
off  Charlton  Pier,  Woolwich. — The  report 
of  the  society  for  1881  gives  the  following 
complete  account  of  its  history  and  pro- 
gress. The  Marine  Society  owes  its  origin 
to  the  sentiments  of  humanity  and  bene- 
volence exerted  on  behalf  of  a  number  of 
wretched  and  distressed  boys,  who  were 
in  the  spring  of  the  year  1756  collected 
together  by  that  active  magistrate,  Sir  J  ohn 
Fielding,  clothed  at  the  expense  of  the 
Duke  of  Bolton,  and  sent  to  serve  on  board 
His  Majesty's  ship  Barfleur,  then  under 
His  Grace's  command.  The  utility  of 
this  humane  design,  in  rescuing  from 
misery  and  reclaiming  as  many  as  possible 
of  this  class  of  neglected  youfhs  from  the 
paths  of  idleness,  and  too  probably  of 
infamy  and  perdition,  was  so  obvious, 
that  the  plan  was  immediately  followed 
up  with  the  most  active  philanthropy  by 
a  private  gentleman  (Mr.  Walker,  of 
Lincoln's-inn),  who  had  accidentally  met 
with  those  lads  on  their  way  to  join  the 
Barfleur.  By  subscription,  which  he 
promoted,  from  three  to  four  hundred 
boys  were  in  a  short  time  clothed  and 
provided  for  in  a  profession  most  likely 


MAP-MAR 

to  make  them  useful  and  creditable  mem- 
bers of  the  community.  At  a  subsequent 
meeting  of  merchants  and  shipowners  in 
June,  1756,  Mr.  Jonas  Han  way,  a  mer- 
chant totally  unconnected  with  the  noble- 
man and  both  the  gentlemen  before- 
mentioned,  proposed  that  they  should 
form  themselves  into  a  society  to  give 
clothing  to  boys  for  the  sea-service.  The 
proposal  being  readily  adopted,  the  Marine 
Society  was  instituted  ;  and  eventually,  in 
the  year  1772,  incorporated  by  Act  of 
Parliament.  The  boys  selected  for  the 
sea  service  are  taken  from  the  labouring 
classes,  the  utterly  destitute  being  the  first 
to  be  admitted.  No  dishonest  boys  are 
received.  Parish  boys  may  be  received  to 
fill  vacancies  on  board  the  society's  ship, 
on  payment  of  £4  4s.  No  boys  are  re- 
ceived whose  friends  appear  to  be  in  a 
capacity  to  fit  them  out  for  sea  at  their 
own  charge.  Various  plans  were  at  dif- 
ferent times  brought  under  the  contempla- 
tion of  the  society  for  a  more  beneficial 
arrangement  as  to  some  receptacle  for  the 
objects  of  the  charity,  in  which  they  might 
be  taken  care  of,  and  receive  the  benefit 
of  instruction,  both  religious  and  profes- 
sional, until  such  time  as  they  could  be 
properly  provided  for.  In  the  year  1786, 
a  proposition,  originating  with  Alderman 
Brook  Watson,  M.P.,  was  adopted  by 
the  society.  They  first  procured  a  mer- 
chant vessel,  named  the  Beatty;  this  ship 
having  become  decayed  and  worn  out  in 
1799,  application  was  made  to  the 
Admiralty  for  the  loan  of  a  Government 
ship.  The  application  was  complied  with, 
and  from  that  time  the  Lords  Commis- 
sioners, in  order  to  promote  the  views  of 
the  Marine  Society,  have  accommodated 
them  with  one  of  Her  Majesty's  ships  as  a 
training  vessel  for  boys.  The  Warspite,  a 
noble  two-decker,  formerly  the  Conqueror, 
is  the  ship  now  lent  to  the  society.  The 
society  holds  in  trust  the  following  special 
funds,  devoted  solely  to  the  purposes  for 
which  they  were  given  or  bequeathed  : — 
1.  Consols,  ,£17,045  9J-.,  under  the  will 
of  William  Hickes,  Esq. ,  of  Hamburg, 
for  apprenticing  poor  boys  and  girls.  In 
time  ol  war  the  income  of  this  fund  is  ap- 
propriated, with  the  general  funds  of  the 
society,  in  clothing  and  fitting  out  boys 
for  sea,  rendering  them  thereby  fit  for 
service  in  the  Royal  Navy.  2.  Consols, 
j£i4,333  6s.  8d.,  ten  thousand  pounds  of 
this  amount  being  the  gift  of  the  late 


MAR— MAR  134 

Isaac  Hawkins,  Esq.  The  annual  in- 
terest of  this  trust  fund  produces  ^430, 
which  is  appropriated  every  year  in  the 
month  of  June,  in  donations  of  ^10  each 
to  forty-three  widows  of  captains  and 
lieutenants  in  the  Royal  Navy.  The 
Marine  Society  is  also  entrusted  with  the 
payments  of  certain  annuities  to  the 
widows  of  the  sufferers  in  the  engage- 
ment of  the  nth  October,  1797,  under 
Admiral  Lord  Duncan,  under  rules  and 
regulations  transmitted  by  the  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  of  Lloyd's  Coffee  House, 
on  the  15th  of  October,  1802. 

Marlow,  Groat,  Buckinghamshire, 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  river,  is  a 
terminus  on  the  Bourne  End  and  Marlow 
branch  of  the  Great  Western  Railway, 
35J  miles  from  Paddington,  the  trains 
averaging  a  little  over  an  hour.  The 
station  is  about  five  minutes'  walk  from 
the  bridge.  Fly  and  omnibus  meet  the 
trains.  The  distance  from  London  is  57 
miles,  from  Oxford  54^  miles.  Population, 
4,701.  Soil  :  flint,  chalk,  gravel,  and 
loam.  The  name  Marlow,  or,  as  it  is 
called  in  Domesday  Book,  Merelaw,  is 
derived  by  Camden  from  "the  chalk 
commonly  called  marie,"  which  he  asserts 
to  be  very  plentiful  here  ;  a  piece  of 
etymology  derided  by  Langley  in  his 
Hundred  of  Desborough,  who  derives 
the  name  from  a  mere,  or  piece  of  stand- 
ing water,  which  he  supposes  to  have 
been  here  in  ancient  times.  Langley, 
who  has  strong  and  usually  common- 
sense  views  on  these  matters,  derives  the 
name  of  Desborough  Hundred  from  duo 
burgi — Wycomb  and  Marlow — quite  re- 
pudiating Danesborough.  Marlow  is  a 
very  ancient  manor,  and  appears  from  its 
earliest  history  to  have  been  connected 
with  royalty.  Before  the  Conquest  it  was 
held  by  Algar,  Earl  of  Mercia,  from  whose 
son  it  was  taken  by  William  the  Con- 
queror, and  bestowed  upon  Queen 
Matilda.  Later  on  it  became,  through 
his  wife,  the  property  of  Richard  Nevil, 
Earl  of  Warwick,  the  king-maker,  who 
was  slain  at  Barnet,  and  is  buried  in 
Bisham  Abbey  ;  later  still  it  was  granted 
by  Philip  and  Mary  to  Lord  Paget  of 
Beaudesert,  an  extraordinary  statesman, 
who  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  four  suc- 
ceeding sovereigns  :  an  unusual  tenure 
he  possibly  owed  to  the  practice  of  the 


following  precepts  discovered  in  his 
commonplace  book : 

Fly  the  courte, 
Speke  little, 
Care  less. 
Devise  nothing. 
Never  earnest, 
In  answer  cold. 
Lerne  to  spare  ; 
Spend  with  measure, 
Care  for  home. 
Pray  often. 
Live  better. 
And  dye  well. 

Court  Garden,  which  is  on  the  left  just 
above  the  bridge,  the  last  part  of  the 
estate  remaining  in  the  Paget  family,  was 
sold  by  Lord  Uxbridge  in  1758. 

Marlow  is  a  parliamentary  constituency, 
and  returns  one  member  to  Parliament,  the 
present  member  being  Major-Gen.  Owen 
Williams,  of  Temple,  a  Conservative. 
The  borough  was  first  summoned  to  return 
burgesses  by  Edward  I.  in  1299,  the  first 
two  burgesses  whose  names  are  recorded 
being  Richard  le  Mouner  and  Richard  le 
Veel;  but  from  1308  until  1622,  when 
the  privilege  was  restored  by  Parliament, 
no  members  were  returned  on  "account 
of  the  expence." 

Since  the  time  the  Knight  Templars 
were  at  Bisham,  the  counties  of  Berks 
and  Bucks  have  been  here  united  by 
various  bridges,  the  present  suspension 
bridge,  which  cost  ,£20,000,  having  been 
erected  in  1835.  There  is  still  in  exist- 
ence a  writ  for  the  repairs  of  the  bridge^ 
dated  27  Edward  III.,  1352,  directed 
probis  hominibus  villce  de  Merlawe,  The 
bridge  in  more  modern  times  has  acquired 
a  certain  notoriety  in  connection  with  a 
"puppy  pie,"  concerning  which  succulent 
pastry  there  are  various  traditions :  and 
'  'Who  ate  the  puppy  pie  under  Marlow 
Bridge?"  is  popularly  supposed  to  be  a 
crushing  retort  to  any  bargee  imperti- 
nence. From  Marlow  Bridge,  the  view 
up  or  down  the  river  is  hardly  to  be  sur- 
passed on  the  Thames. 

Indeed,  whether  for  fishing,  boating, 
holiday,  or  sketching  purposes,  there  is 
no  more  fascinating  spot  on  the  river 
than  Marlow.  From  Bourne  End  to  New 
Lock  —  the  backwater  by  Harleford 
Manor  House — the  river  teems  at  various 
points  with  trout,  pike,  barbel,  roach, 
chub,  perch,  and  gudgeon,  a  result 
greatly  attributable  to  the  constant  care- 


135 


of  the  Marlow  Angling  Association,  and 
the  liberality  of  some  of  its  individual 
members,  who  have  at  their  own  expense 
turned  large  numbers  of  trout  and  other 
fish  into  the  river.  For  boating  purposes, 
the  reaches  from  Cookham  to  Marlow 
and  from  Marlow  to  Temple  Hurley  and 
Medmenham,  are  excellently  adapted, 
and  for  camping-out  purposes  there  is 
no  more  favourite  spot  on  the  river  than 
the  Quarry  Woods  below  Marlow.  As 
to  its  attractions  for  the  artist,  the  nume- 
rous pictures  that  yearly  appear  on  the 
walls  of  the  Academy  and  the  Water 
Colour  Societies  abundantly  testify.  Boats 
are  taken  care  of  by  Haynes  and  R.  Shaw, 
under  the  bridge,  and  the  numerous 
hotels  in  the  town  afford  excellent 
accommodation  for  tourists  of  all 
classes.  Ordinary  boating  parties  will  do 
well  to  remember  that  it  is  unwise  to  rely 
upon  obtaining  quarters  at  the  well-known 
"Complete  Angler,"  near  the  bridge, 
without  considerable  previous  notice  ; 
but  great  improvement  has  recently 
taken  place  in  the  management  here, 
and  much  more  space  than  of  old  has 
been  made  available  for  dinners,  etc. 
The  "Crown,"  at  the  end  of  the  main 
street,  and  five  minutes'  walk  from  the 
river,  is  a  comfortable,  old-fashioned 
house,  with  a  first-rate  billiard-room. 

In  the  town  itself  there  is  little  of  interest ; 
the  old  quaint  houses  have  nearly  all  given 
place  to  staring  brick  or  vulgar  stucco 
erections  ;  the  only  really  ancient  remains 
being  a  portion  of  a  house  in  St.  Peter's- 
street,  known  as  the  Deanery,  with  fine 
old  mullioned  windows.  There  are  two 
principal  streets :  High-street,  leading  up 
from  the  river  ;  and  West-street,  at  right 
angles  to  it.  In  the  latter  is  the  house, 
on  which  is  now  a  tablet,  in  which  Shelley 
lived  and  was  visited  by  Lord  Byron.  Of 
this  period  Mrs.  Shelley  says  :  "  During 
the  year  1817  we  were  established  at 
Marlow,  in  Buckinghamshire.  Shelley's 
choice  of  abode  was  fixed  chiefly  by  this 
town  being  at  no  great  distance  from 
London,  and  its  neighbourhood  of  the 
Thames.  The  poem,  'The  Revolt  of 
Islam,'  was  written  in  his  boat,  as  it 
floated  under  the  beech  groves  of  Bisham, 
or  during  wanderings  in  the  neighbouring 
country."  At  Remnantz,  a  house  nearly 
opposite  to  Shelley's,  was  for  thirteen  or 
fourteen  years  the  Royal  Military  College, 


MAR— MAR 

before  it  was  removed  to  Sandhurst. 
Seymour  Court,  Mr.  Wethered's  resi 
dence,  is  asserted  to  have  been  the  birth- 
place of  Henry  VIII. 's  Jane  Seymour, 
but  the  honour  is  disputed  by  the  family 
seat  of  the  Seymours  in  Wiltshire.  Harley- 
ford  House,  the  seat  of  Sir  William 
Clayton,  is  about  two  miles  up  the  river. 

The  church,  a  modern  structure  of  a 
style  of  architecture  variously  described 
as  Late  English  or  Modern  Gothic,  is  ugly 
without  and  bald  within,  although  it 
must  at  one  time  have  been  rich  in  brasses 
and  monuments,  some  of  the  former 
dating  from  the  latter  end  of  the  fourteenth 
century.  Langley  records  several  curious 
entries  in  the  church  books,  commencing 
with  one  in  1592:  "Paid  for  mendynge 
the  bells  when  the  queen  came  to  Bysham, 
is."  The  loyalty  of  the  bellringers  ap- 
pears to  have  outrun  their  discretion. 
There  are  many  entries  for  payments  to 
bellringers  when  the  kings  passed  through 
the  town,  in  1604,  1605,  1612,  1617,  and 
1647.  In  1608,  among  the  church  goods 
are  catalogued  : 

Fy  ve  pair  of  garters  and  bells, 
Fyve  coats  and  a  fool's  coat. 

In  1650  appears  the  significant  entry, 
"  For  defacing  of  the  king's  arms,  ij-.  ;" 
and  in  1651,  "Paid  to  the  painter  for 
setting  up  the  State's  arms,  16s."  The 
Catholic  church,  in  St.  Peter's-street,  one 
of  the  elder  Pugin's  last  works,  was 
opened  in  1846 ;  but,  together  with  Holy 
Trinity,  a  chapel  of  ease  to  the  parish 
church,  will  scarcely  repay  a  visit.  Mar- 
low has  a  literary  and  scientific  institu- 
tion, with  a  library  and  reading-room, 
well  supplied  with  books  and  newspapers. 
Subscription:  1st  class  members,  £1  is. 
per  annum  :  2nd,  10s. ;  3rd,  5^.  It  also 
possesses  a  Lawn-Tennis  Club,  a  Choral 
Society,  and  Cricket  and  Football  Clubs. 
A  Cottager's  Horticultural  Show  is  held 
every  year,  and  there  is  a  Lecture  or  Music 
Room  in  St.  Peter's-street.  The  Maiden- 
head and  Marlow  Regatta  is  held 
alternately  at  Marlow  and  Maidenhead, 
and  there  is  in  addition  an  annual 
town  regatta.  The  town  is  also  privileged 
to  possess  a  Constitutional  Association, 
established  for  the  modest  purpose  of 
securing  on  an  income  of £76  per  annum, 
"the  proper  registration,  as  voters,  of 
all  persons  within  the  several  parishes  of 


MAR—MAR  136 

the  borough  who  hold  constitutional 
principles;  of  resisting  any  movement 
directed  against  the  institutions  of  the 
country ;  of  defending  the  rights  and 
privileges  of  the  people ;  and  of  promot- 
ing beneficial  legislation  in  the  spirit  of 
the  Constitution.'' 

The  walks  and  excursions  from  Marlow 
are  varied  and  numerous.  Within  easy 
walking  distance  are  Henley,  Maiden- 
head, and  the  quaint  and  interesting 
towns  of  High  or  Chipping  Wycombe, 
and  Cookham.  Hurley  and  Medmen- 
ham  are,  as  it  were,  next  door.  Wy- 
combe is  well  worth  a  visit,  and  its 
church,  All  Saints,  which  dates  from 
1273,  restored  by  Mr.  Street  at  a  cost  of 
^10,000,  is  one  of  the  finest  in  the  county, 
and  contains  many  brasses  and  memorials. 
The  Quarry  Woods  are  within  a  ten 
minutes'  saunter  of  Marlow  Bridge,  and 
offer  in  every  direction  the  pleasantest  and 
most  picturesque  walks  by  the  riverside, 
or  across  the  hill  to  Cookham  Dene. 
From  Winter  Hill,  the  extremity  of  the 
woods  in  the  Cookham  direction,  a  view 
as  magnificent  as  it  is  extensive  is  to  be 
obtained,  and  includes  the  course  of  the 
Thames  from  Henley  to  Maidenhead. 
Bisbam  Abbey  and  Church  are  close  at 
hand,  and  Mr.  Borgnis's  grounds  at  High- 
field  are  a  short  mile  from  the  town  on 
the  Henley  road. 

Borlase's  School,  or,  as  it  is  more  gene- 
rally denominated,  the  Blue  Coat  School, 
was  founded  by  Sir  William  Borlase  in 
1624  for  the  education  of  twenty-four  boys 
— of  whom  three  are  chosen  from  Meden- 
ham,  three  from  Little  Marlow,  and 
eighteen  from  Great  Marlow.  They  are 
each  allowed  £2  to  apprentice  them,  but 
this  at  the  present  day  being  insufficient 
for  the  purpose  is  generally  added  to  by 
contribution  of  j£8  or  £12— from  Loftin's 
Charity — bequeathed  by  Benjamin  Loftin 
in  1759.  The  education  comprised  read- 
ing, writing,  and  casting  accounts.  Sir 
William  Borlase  also  made  bequests  for 
founding  a  school  for  teaching  twenty- 
four  girls  to  knit,  spin,  or  make  bone  lace, 
and  for  establishing  a  house  of  correction. 
The  income  being  found  insufficient  for 
its  purpose  the  girls'  school  was  some 
years  ago  merged  in  the  National  and 
Infants'  Schools.  In  order  to  increase 
the  public  usefulness  of  Borlase's  boys' 
school,  negotiations  have  been  opened  by 
the  feoffees  with   the  Charity  Commis- 


sioners, who  propounded  a  scheme  on 
the  following  lines  :  Tuition  fees  are  to  be 
not  less  than  £3  or  more  than  ^5  per 
year.  School  to  be  unsectarian.  Edu- 
cation to  comprise  reading,  writing, 
arithmetic,  geography,  history,  English 
grammar,  composition,  and  literature, 
mathematics,  Latin,  at  least  one  foreign 
European  language,  natural  science,  draw- 
ing, drill,  and  vocal  music.  This  scheme 
has  since  been  elaborated,  and  the  school 
is  of  considerable  importance  as  a  middle- 
class  Grammar  School. 

Bank.— Stephens,  Blandy,  &  Co. 

Fair. — October  29. 

Fire. — Volunteer  Brigade:  Superin- 
tendent, foreman,  engineer,  sub-engineer* 
hon.  treasurer,  9  firemen,  and  5  reserve. 
Manual  engine.     Next  the  "  Crown." 

Hotels  and  Inns.  —  "Complete 
Angler"  (by  the  river,  in  Bisham  parish); 
"Crown,"  up  the  town;  "Fisherman's 
Retreat,"  "George  and  Dragon,"  "Rail- 
way." 

Places  of  Worship. — All  Saintsr 
and  Holy  Trinity ;  the  Roman  Catho- 
lic Church  of  St.  Peter's  ;  and  Congrega- 
tional, Baptist,  and  Primitive  Methodist 
Chapels. 

Police. — Station  in  the  town. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph, 
and  insurance),  West-street.  Mails  from 
London,  7.30  and  10.45  a.m.,  6.45  p.m., 
Sunday,  7.30  a.m.  Mails  for  London, 
9.40  a.m.,  noon,  and  3.40  and  7.50  p.m.; 
Sunday,  7.50  p.m.  Wall  letter-box  op- 
posite the  church,  cleared  10.50  a.m., 
3.30  and  7.40  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  7.40  p.m. 
Station  wall  box  cleared  10.40  a.m.  and 
7.40  p.m.  Thames  Lawn  wall  box  cleared 
8.25  a.m.,  10.45  a.m.,  and  7.35  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Henley  8  miles  ; 
down,  Cookham  3!  miles.  Locks,  up, 
Temple  ij  mile ;  down,  Cookham  4 
miles.  Ferry,  Temple.  Railway  Sta- 
tion, Marlow. 

Fares  to  Paddington  :  1st,  6/-,  9/1 1  ; 
2nd,  4/6,  7I6  ;  3rd,  2/7J. 

Marlow  (Great)  Amateur  Rowing 
Club. — Usual  amateur  qualification. 
Donors  of  ^"io  10s.  and  upwards  are  life 
members,  and  all  life  members  and 
annual  subscribers  of  £2  2s.  and  upwards 
are  vice-presidents.     No  subscription  is 


137 


Jess  than  los 
commitu, 
exclude 
com 


6d.     Election  by  ballot  in 

-   two   black    balls   in  five   to 

uae.    The  n.^ttiiy  challenge  cup  is 

peted  for  the  last  Wednesday  in  ever* 


'dnesday  in  every 


month.     The  club,  estabii^^  m  lg 
now   numbers    about    ninety  members! 


Boat-house,    Haynes's, 
Club  colours,  cardinal. 


Marlow 


!dge. 


Marlow  (Great)  Regatta- 
Saturday,  July  s,  1884. 

JUNIOR  SCULLS. 

Bucks  Station— A.  V.  H.  Bone,  West 
London  R.C....         

Centre  Station— R.  E.  Cole,  Thames 
R.C 

SENIOR  SCULLS. 
First  Heat. 
Berks  Station-  -E.  St.  J.  Christophers, 

Thames  R.C 

Bucks  Station— E.  C.Kendall,  Chester 
R.C 

Second  Heat. 
R.  H.  Smith,  Thames  R.C.   ... 

Final  Heat. 
Bucks  Station — Christophers... 
Berks  Station— Smith 


..r.o. 


JUNIOR   FOURS. 
Bucks  Station— Reading  R.C.  ...     1 

Berks  Station— Clare  College  B.C.  ...     o 
Centre  Station— Cookham  R.C.        ..,     o 

Reading.—].  H.  Cooper,  D.F.Cooksey, 
J.  H.  Tyrell,  F.  Cuttrill  (stroke),  T.  Rose 
(cox). 

Clare  College.— -E.  E.  Dorling,  J.  R. 
Fuller,  A.  D.  Flower,  R.  G.Wilde  (stroke), 
J.  Frome  (cox). 

Cookham.—  E.  Ford,  F.  T.  Ford,  A.  C. 
Bloomfield,  F.  Speller  (stroke),  F.  Hyde 
(cox). 

grand  challenge  cup  (for  eight  oars). 
First  Heat. 

Centre  Station— Abney  R.C 1 

Berks  Station — London  R.C.  ...     o 

Bucks  Station — Thames  R.C.  disq. 

Abney.—  H.  S.  Close,  A.  H.  Knox, 
R.  C.  Lehman,  E.  W.  Haig,  F.  E. 
Churchill,  A.  R.  Patterson,  D.H.Maclean, 
F.J.  Pitman  (stroke),  Humphreys  (cox). 

London.— B.  James,  W.  H.  Wells,  P. 
D.  Ullman,  E.  S.  M'Ewan,  W.  R.  Lyne, 
F.  Earnshaw,  J.  Kerr,  C.  Wood  (stroke), 
W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 


MAR-MAR 

Thames.— C.  N.  Hughes,  B.  E.  Cole, 
Gordon  Smith,  B.  Looker,  W.  Liddle, 
A.  M.  Hutchinson,  S.  Fairbairn,  H.  At- 
kinson (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 
Centre  Station— Royal  Chester  R.C. 
Bucks  Station— West  London  R.C. 
_  Royal  Chester.— C.   A.    Beam,   T. 
P.  Small,  A.  M.  Robertson,  E. 


R3J1 


1 
o 

G. 

R. 


F.  G.  froI\Billington>  J-  J-  Gardiner, 
West  LondJ,9M>  J.  J.  Lowe  (cox). 

Vaux,  J.  H.  Welcn7i_H.  Bowen,  A.  B. 
less,  C.  E.  Brown,  A?  Ifiett,  A.  Law- 
Vaux  (stroke),  W.  R.  Wheeler  r^G.  C. 

Third  Heat. 
Centre  Station — Twickenham  R.C.  ...     1 
Bucks  Station— Albion  R.C o 

Twickenham. — E.  Vertue,  H.  Black- 
more,  S.  Hodgkin,  Stuart  Green,  G.  J. 
Bonner,  J.  Lowndes,  F.  Leader,  L. 
Frere  (stroke),  B.  Caddy  (cox). 

Albion. — J.  W.  Macqueen,  S.  E.  Carlin, 

G.  H.  Capper,  C.  R.  Sutherland,  W.  W. 
Butler,  A.  Edwards,  C.  F.  Munro,  E. 
Christian  (stroke),  A.  Barnard  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Bucks  Station — Twickenham  R.C,  ...  I 

Berks  Station— Chester  R.C o 

Centre  Station— Abney  R.C o 

SENIOR   FOURS. 

First  Heat. 
Bucks  Station— Marlow  R.C.  ...     1 

Centre  Station — London  R.C.  ...     o 

Berks  Station— Royal  Chester  R.C. ...     o 

Marlow.— -W.  T.  Shaw,  W.  T.  Porter, 
C.  H.  Yates,  J.  S.  Kirkpatrick  (stroke). 

London.— -P.  D.  Ullmann,  W.  Bergh, 
H.  J.  Hill,  C.  Wood  (stroke). 

Royal  Chester— C.  R.  Royston,  J.  Bil- 
lington,  J.  J.  Gardiner,  J.  G.  Frost  (stroke). 

Second  Heat. 
Bucks  Station— Thames  R.C.  ...     1 

Centre  Station— Clare  College  B.  C. . . .     o 

Thames— B.  Looker,  W.  Liddle,  S. 
Fairbairn,  A.  M.  Hutchinson  (stroke). 

Clare  College.—].  R.  Fuller,  E.  K. 
Mead,  A.  D.  Flower,  R.  G.  Wilde  (stroke). 

Final  Heat. 
Centre  Station— Thames  R.C.  ...     1 

Bucks  Station — Marlow  R.C.  ...    o 


Kingston  R.C 
Cobb   ... 


SENIOR   PAIRS. 

R.  H.  Cobb  and  F. 


• 


.r.o. 


MAR— MED  138 

TOWN  CHALLENGE  CUP. 
Centre  Station — Marlow  R.C.  ...     I 

Bucks  Station — Reading  R.C.  ...     o 

Marloiv,  —  SN '.  T.  Shaw,  W.  T.  Porter, 
C.  H.  Yates,  J.  S.  Kirkpatrick  (stroke), 
N.  Shaw  (cox). 

Reading. — H.  Q.  Lovejoy.W.  J.  Brown, 
H.  E.  Cottrell,  T.  H.  Clark  (stroke),  T. 
Rose  (cox). 

Marlow  (Great)  Thames  Angling 
Association.— The  water  held  by  the 
association  reaches  from  Temple  Mills 
to  the  "Shrubbery."  The  annual  sub- 
scription is  j£i  is.  A  head  water-bailiff, 
assistant  bailiffs,  and  sub-assistant  bailiffs 
are  appointed  by  the  committee,  who  are 
required  to  provide  live  bait  for  the  mem- 
bers free  of  charge.  A  reward  of  ios.  is 
offered  to  any  one  who  shall  give  infor- 
mation of  any  poaching  or  illegal  fishing 
to  the  water-bailiff,  provided  that  it  be 
considered  by  the  committee  a  fit  case  for 
prosecution  ;  if  the  person  prosecuted  be 
convicted  the  reward  is  doubled.  A  re- 
ward of  ios.  is  offered  for  every  dead 
otter  proved  to  have  been  caught  between 
the  top  of  the  reach  immediately  above 
Temple  Lock  and  the  "  Shrubbery." 
The  association  has  turned  a  very  large 
number  of  fish,  more  especially  trout, 
into  the  river,  and  to  it  Marlow  owes 
much  of  the  enhanced  reputation  it  now 
enjoys  among  anglers. 

Medmenham,  Buckinghamshire,  on 
the  left  bank  ;  a  small  village  of  about 
350  inhabitants,  from  London  60J  miles, 
from  Oxford  51  miles,  from  Marlow, 
the  nearest  railway-station,  3  miles  by 
road ;  chiefly  notorious  from  its  connec- 
tion with  the  Medmenham  Monks  of 
Francis  Dashwood  and  John  Wilkes. 
There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  con- 
siderable "high  jinks"  were  indulged  in 
by  this  fraternity,  and  that  they  were  not 
altogether  what  is  generally  known  as 
respectable  society.  But  it  is  probable 
that  exaggeration  has  had  much  to  do 
with  the  records,  or  rather  legends,  of  its 
proceedings,  as  is  always  the  case  where 
an  affectation  of  mystery  and  secrecy  is 
maintained.  The  monks  of  Medmenham, 
sometimes  politely  called  the  Hell  Fire 
Club,  lived  at  a  time  when  drunkenness  and 
profanity  were  considered  to  be  amongst 
the  gentlemanly  virtues,  and  probably,  as 
a  matter  of  fact,  they  were  not  very  much 
worse  than  other  people.    The  audacious 


motto  of  the  club  may,  perhaps,  have-  had 
something  to  do  with  the  holy  horror 
whiph  it  excited.  "Fay  ce  que  voudras " 
was  not  a  good  motto  at  a  time  when 
doing  as  you  pleased  was  about  the  last 
thing  that  good  old-fashioned  Toryism 
was  likely  to  tolerate ;  and  when  amongst 
the  people  who  were  to  do  as  they  liked 
was  the  hated  Wilkes,  the  prejudices  of 
respectability  were  certain  to  be  even 
further  outraged.  ' '  Fay  ce  que  voudras," 
as  it  appears  over  a  doorway  at  the  abbey, 
has  in  these  times  quite  a  hospitable 
look,  and  the  invitation  is  readily  accepted 
by  the  scores  and  scores  of  picnic  parties 
who  resort  to  Medmenham  in  the  summer, 
and  whose  innocent  merrymaking  is,  at 
all  events,  an  improvement  on  Wilkes 
and  his  monks,  however  much  they  may 
have  been  libelled.  Medmenham  Abbey, 
as  it  stands  at  present,  is,  architecturally, 
but  a  bogus  affair,  and,  except  an  ancient 
archway  and  a  single  pillar  of  the  church, 
there  is  little  of  the  ancient  abbey  to  be 
found  in  the  present  edifice,  but  it  stands 
in  so  beautiful  a  position,  and  commands 
such  lovely  views,  that  its  artificial  ap- 
pearance will  be  readily  forgiven.  Once 
upon  a  time  there  was  indeed  a  very 
important  monastery  here,  founded  by 
Hugh  de  Bolebec,  to  whom  a  charter  was 
given  by  King  John  in  1201.  The 
monastery  was  originally  colonised  from 
the  Cistercian  Abbey  of  Woburn  in  1204, 
but  the  Woburn  monks  did  not  seem  able 
to  make  much  of  it,  and  very  shortly  after- 
wards returned  whence  they  had  come. 
In  1212  a  second  colonisation  was  effected 
by  Cistercian  monks  from  Cisteaux  in 
the  bishopric  of  Chalons,  in  France. 
Their  rules  certainly  would  not  have 
suited  Wilkes  and  his  friends.  "  They 
neither  wore  skins,  nor  shirts,  nor  even 
eat  flesh,  except  in  sickness  ;  and  abstained 
from  fish,  eggs,  milk,  and  cheese  ;  they 
lay  upon  straw  beds  in  tunics  and  cowls  ; 
they  rose  at  midnight  to  prayers  ;  they 
spent  the  day  in  labour,  reading,  and 
prayer  ;  and  in  all  their  exercises  observed 
a  continual  silence."  This  cheerful  com- 
munity held  possession  of  the  abbey  for 
several  hundred  years.  In  the  beginning 
of  the  16th  century  it  was  annexed 
to  the  Abbey  of  Bristleham  or  Bisham, 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  and  so 
remained  until  the  suppression  of  the 
monasteries  by  Henry  VIII.  ;  and  from 
the    report    of    the    commissioners    at 


that  time,  the  institution  seems  to  have 
fallen  upon  very  evil  days.  The  clear 
value  was  returned  at  £20  6s.  2d. 
"Monks,"  continues  the  report,  "  there 
are  two  ;  and  both  desyring  to  go  to 
houses  of  religion;  servants,  none;  bells, 
•&c,  &c,  worth  £2  6s.  2>d.  ;  the  house 
wholly  in  ruin  ;  the  value  of  the  move- 
able goods,  j£i  3J.  Sd.  ;  woods,  none  ; 
debts,  none."  Whether  the  last  item  is 
due  to  the  care  of  the  monks  or  to  the 
caution  of  the  local  tradespeople,  may 
remain  an  open  question.  The  most 
distinguished  of  the  real  monks  of  Med- 
jrienham  was  John,  who  was  elected 
Abbot  of  Chertsey  in  1261,  and  of  whom 
there  is  an  interesting  memorial  in  the 
British  Museum  in  the  shape  of  his  seal. 
At  one  time  the  Abbot  of  Medmenham 
was,  ex  officio,  epistolar  of  the  Order  of 
the  Garter,  and  it  was  his  duty  to  read 
the  epistle  in  the  morning  service  on  St. 
George's  Day  at  Windsor. 

The  church  has  been  considerably 
restored,  but  still  presents  traces  of  its 
Norman  origin.  There  are  more  con- 
siderable portions  Early  English,  but  the 
church  must  have  been  nearly  rebuilt  in 
the  days  of  the  perpendicular  style.  It 
"has  chancel,  nave,  and  square  embattled 
tower,  and  a  good  oid  carved  oak  pulpit. 
There  are  not  many  ancient  monuments 
in  the  church,  but  a  brass  remains  in 
memory  of  Richard  Levyng  and  Alicia 
his  wife,  bearing  dates  1415  and  1419. 
The  church  and  post-office  are  five  or  six 
minutes'  walk  from  the  river. 

The  principal  mansion  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood is  Danesfield,  the  seat  of  C.  R. 
Scott-Murray,  Esq.,  which  owes  its  name 
to  the  time  when  the  Danes,  after  seizing 
and  fortifying  Shoebury,  marched  along 
the  river  until  they  came  to  Boddington 
in  Gloucestershire.  The  encampment 
called  the  "Danes'  Ditches"  and  the 
41  Horse-shoe  Entrenchment,"  date,  no 
-doubt,  from  this  campaign.  Attached  to 
the  house  is  a  fine  chapel  built  by  the 
Pugins,  containing  some  good  pictures. 

There  are  fine  roach  swims  all  the  way 
up  this  reach. 

Hotel. — The  "Ferry  Boat,"  adjoining 
the  abbey. 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Peter's. 

Postal  Arrangements. —  Letters 
through  Marlow.  Nearest  savings  bank, 
telegraph  office,  &c,  Marlow.  Mails 
from  London,  7.40  a.m.  week-days  and 


139  MED-MET 

Sundays;  mails  to  London,  6.15  p.m.; 
Sunday,  9.25  a.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Henley  4J  miles ; 
down,  Marlow  3 \  miles.  Locks,  up, 
Hambleden  2  mfles ;  down,  Hurley  ij 
mile.  Ferry,  Medmenham.  Railway 
Station,  Marlow. 

Fares,  Marlow  to  Paddington  :  1st, 
6/-,  9/11  ;  2nd,  4/6,  7J6  ;  3rd,  2/74. 

Mercantile   Marine    Offices.  —  See 

Shipping  Office. 

Metropolitan  Amateur    Regatta, 

Putney.  This  regatta,  which  was  founded 
in  1866,  arose  out  of  a  challenge  given 
by  the  West  London  Rowing  Club  to 
the  London  Rowing  Club  in  the  previous 
year  for  a  junior  eight-oared  match. 
Other  clubs  connected  with  the  then 
existing  Amateur  Rowing  Clubs  Associa- 
tion joined  in/and  several  crews  started, 
with  the  result  that  the  final  heat  from 
Putney  to  Chiswick  Church  was  won  by 
the  London  Rowing  Club  Crew,  the 
Thames  being  second,  and  the  West 
London  third.  The  event  was  so  suc- 
cessful that  it  was  decided  to  establish  an 
annual  regatta  on  the  Putney  water,  and 
a  large  amount  being  collected  amongst 
the  members  of  the  associated  clubs  and 
others,  valuable — perhaps  even  too  valu- 
able—challenge prizes  were  bought,  and 
the  regatta  was  duly  started  under  the 
management  of  the  association.  That 
body,  however,  experienced  the  fate  that 
has  befallen  so  many  attempts  at  com- 
bination amongst  amateur  clubs,  and 
was  in  a  short  time  dissolved.  Since  then 
the  management  of  the  regatta  has  been 
in  the  hands  of  the  London  Rowing 
Club,  the  members  of  which  subscribe 
and  collect  among  their  friends  by  far  the 
greater  portion  of  the  money  required  to 
carry  on  the  regatta,  which  takes  place 
on  the  first  available  tide  after  Henley, 
when  it  is  high  water  at  about  5  p.m., 
that  is  to  say. 

The  course— about  a  mile  and  three- 
quarters— is  from  Putney  to  Hammer- 
smith, or  vice  versd,  according  to  the  state 
of  the  tide.  The  winners  of  the  challenge 
cups  are  as  follows  : 

METROPOLITAN   CHAMPION  CUP  FOR 
EIGHTS. 

1866  London  Rowing  Club 

1867  London  Rowing  Club 

1868  London  Rowing  Club 


MLT-MET 

1869  London  Rowing  Club 

1870  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1 871  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1872  London  Rowing  Club 

1873  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1874  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1875  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1876  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1877  London  Rowing  Club 

1878  London  Rowing  Club 

1879  London  Rowing  Club 

1880  Thames  Rowing  Club 
i88a  London  Rowing  Club 

1882  London  Rowing  Club 

1883  Twickenham  Rowing  Club 

1884  London  Rowing  Club 

THE  THAMES  CUP  FOR  FOURS. 

1866  London  Rowing  Club 

1867  London  Rowing  Club 

1868  London  Rowing  Club 

1869  London  Rowing  Club 

1870  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1871  London  Rowing  Club 

1872  London  Rowing  Club 

1873  London  Rowing  Club 

1874  London  Rowing  Club 

1875  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1876  London  Rowing  Club 

1877  London  Rowing  Club 

1878  London  Rowing  Ciub 

1879  Bath  Avon  Rowing  Club 

1880  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1881  London  Rowing  Club 

1882  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1883  Thames  Rowing  Clnb 

1884  Thames  Rowing  Club 

METROPOLITAN  CHALLENGE   CUP  FOR 
JUNIOR   EIGHTS. 

1866  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1867  London  Rowing  Club 

1868  North  London  Rowing  Club 

1869  West  London  Rowing  Club 

1870  Ino  Rowing  Club 

1871  London  Rowing  Club 

1872  Ino  Rowing  Club 

1873  West  London  Rowing  Club 

1874  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1875  Ino  Rowing  Club 

1876  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1877  London  Rowing  Club 

1878  London  Rowing  Club 

1879  Thames  "Rowing  Club 

1880  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1881  West  London  Rowing  Club 

1882  London  Rowing  Club 

1883  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1884  Anglian  Boat  Club 


140 


THE   LONDON   CUP   FOR   SCULL^  RSw 


1866  George  Ryan,  London  R.C. 

1867  W.  B.  Woodgate,  O.U.B.C. 

1868  W.  Stout,  London  R.C. 

1869  A.  de  L.  Long,  London  R.C. 

1870  W.  L.  Slater,  West  L.R.C. 

1871  W.  Faucus,  Tynemouth  R.C. 

1872  C.  C.  Knollys,  O.U.B.C. 

1873  C.  C.  Knollys,  O.U/B.C. 

1874  H.  S.  Freeman,  Thames  R.C. 

1875  F.  L.  Playford,  London  R.C. 

1876  F.  L.  Playford,  London  R.C. 

1877  A.  H.  Grove,  London  R.C. 

1878  A.  Payne,  Molesey  R.C. 

1879  C.  G.  White,  London  R.C. 

1880  W.  A.  D.  Evanson,  London  R.C. 

1881  J.  Lowndes,  Hertford  Coll.  Oxford. 

1882  W.  R.  Grove,  London  R.C. 

1883  J.  Lowndes,  Twickenham  R.C. 

1884  R.  H.  Smith,  Thames  R.C. 

Races  in  1884. 
Thursday,  July  10. 

Course  between  Putney  and  Hammer- 
smith. The  first  five  races  were  rowed 
up,  and  the  remainder  down,  the  stations 
counting  from  the  Surrey  shore. 

METROPOLITAN   PAIRS  (rowed  Up). 

F.  W.  Long  and  J.  Hastie,  Thames 
R.C r.o. 

junior  sculls  (rowed  up). 

Fifth  Station— C.  J.  S.  Batt,  Thames 
R.C 1 

Fourth  Station— W.   H.   Bone,  West 
London  R.C o 

Second  Station— G.  R.  B.  Earnshaw, 
London  R.C o 

First  Station— B.  W.  Looker,  Thames 
R.C o 

METROPOLITAN  CHALLENGE  CUP. 

First  Heat  (rowed  up). 

First  Station— Anglian  B.C 1 

Second  Station— London  R.C.         ...    o 
Third  Station— Kensington  R.C.      ...    o 


14!  MET— MET 

Anglian— C.  G.  Poole,  R.  A.  Brown,       METROPOLITAN   CHAMPION  CUP  (rowed 

down). 

First  Station — London  R.C. 
Second  Station — Thames  R.C. 
Dead  heat. 


A.  W.  Piggott,  A.  E.  Edwards,  G.  S.  K 
Dewhirst,   C.  Humble,  J.  T.  Musgrave, 
P.  W.  S.  Ell  (stroke),  D.  F.  Rait  (cox). 


London— C.  F.  Schlotel,  P.  A.  N.  Thorn, 
W.  J.  Leeman,  A.  S.  Bryden,  A.  M.  Evan- 
son,  F.  W.  Danter,  W.  F.  Shillito,  J.  E. 
Molson  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 


Kensington — W.  A.  Spencer,  W.  E. 
Neville,  T.  G.  Jeffery,  W.  E.  Beckett, 
M.  Clarke,  H.  Venn,  jun.,  F.  W.  Upton, 
J.  B.  S.  Hickman  (stroke),  J.  W.  Staples 
(cox). 

Second  Heat  (rowed  up). 

Third  Station— West  London  R.C.  ...  i 
Second  Station— Thames  R.C  ...  o 
First  Station— East  Sheen  B.C.        ...     o 

West  London— A.  Gray,  W.  D.  Gilbert, 
A.  C.  Ellis,  G.  S.  Herschell,  C.  J.  Scott, 
W.  E.  Wallis,  F.  A.  Knight,  C.  H.  Hick- 
man (stroke),  E.  P.  Owens  (cox). 

Thames — C.  Smith,  F.  W.  Guerrier, 
G.  A.  Herdman,  W.  Andrewes,  M.  C. 
Gie,  C.  S.  Sowerby,  W.  Theobald,  H. 
Atkinson  (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

East  Sheen—].  G.  F.  Glossop,  A.  P. 
Parker,  F.  B.  Lewis,  F.  Chattaway,  H.  R. 
Parker,  R.  H.  Barron,  H.  O.  F.  Luckie, 
A.  Hughes  (stroke),  H.  M.  Ripley  (cox). 

Final  Heat  (rowed  down). 

First  Station— Anglian  B.C I 

Second  Station — West  London  R.C.      o 


THAMES  CUP  (rowed  up). 

Third  Station— Thames  R.C.  ...  i 
Second  Station — Kingston  R.C.  ...  o 
First  Station — London  R.C o 

Thames— G.  H.  Eyre,  J.  Hastie,  H.J. 
Rust,  J.  A.  Drake-Smith  (stroke). 

Kingston— -F.  H.  Cobb,  H.  A.  Harvey, 
H.  S.  Till,  R.  H.  Cobb  (stroke). 

London— -L.  Maclean,  J.  F.  Stillwell,  J. 
T.  Crier,  W.  W.  Hewett  (stroke). 


London — G.  R.  B.  Earnshaw,  C.  Earn- 
shaw,  W.  Bergh,  J.  F.  Stillwell,  H.  J. 
Hill,  A.  S.  J.  Hurrell,  J.  T.  Crier,  W.  W. 
Hewett  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 

Thames—  B.  E.  Cole,  G.  H.  Eyre, 
Gordon  Smith,  A.  M.  Hutchinson,  S. 
Fairbairn,  J.  Hastie,  H.  J.  Rust,  J.  A. 
Drake-Smith  (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 


LONDON  CUP— SENIOR  SCULLS  (rowed 
down). 

Fourth  Station— R.  H.  Smith,  Thames 
R.C i 

Second  Station— E.  F.  Griin,  London 
R.C o 

First  Station — E.  St.  J.  Christophers, 
Thames  R.C O 


SENIOR  FOURS  (with  coxswains,  rowed 
down). 

Second  Station — Twickenham  R.C...     I 
First  Station — London  R.C o 

Twickenham- -H.  Blackmore,  G.  A. 
Bonner,  .  E.  Hodgkin,  Stuart  Green 
(stroke),  D.  Caddy  (cox). 

London- -P.  D.  Ullman,  W.  Bergh,  H. 
J.  Hill,  C.  Wood  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard 
(cox). 

champion  pairs  (rowed  down). 

First  Station  — G.   R.   B.   Earnshaw 
and  C.  Earnshaw,  London  R.C.  ...     I 

Second  Station— R.  H.  Cobb  and  F. 
Cobb,  Kingston  R.C o 


MET— MOL 


142 


Metropolitan  Railway  Rowing 
Club,  Hammersmith. — Election  :  Either 
majority  at  the  general  meeting  on  elec- 
tion of  officers,  or  afterwards  by  the 
officers.  Boat-house,  Biffen's,  Hammer- 
smith.    Colours,  blue  and  violet. 

Middle  Blyth  Buoy.— A  16-ft.  can 
"buoy,  made  of  iron,  and  painted  with 
black  and  white  stripes.  It  is  situated  in 
Sea  Reach,  a  short  distance  below  Thames 
Haven,  on  the  edge  of  the  Blyth  Sand, 
and  marks  a  depth  of  water,  at  low-water 
spring  tide,  of  20  ft.  It  is  moored  with 
18  fathom  of  chain. 


Millwall  Docks  (Office,  1,  Railway- 
place,  Fenchurch-street,  E.G.)  are  situate 
on  the  Isle  of  Dogs,  just  south  of  the 
West  India  Docks,  the  access  being  by 
the  Millwall  Extension  branch  of  the 
Blackwall  Railway. 

Minnows,  stickleback,  loach,  arid 
miller's  thumb,  are  all  found  m  the 
Thames,  and  each  used  in  turn  for  bait  ; 
but  they  are  rarely  purposely  fished  for, 
even  by  tyros,  as  there  is  such  an  abund- 
ance of  choicer  game.  When  wanted  in 
quantities  the  cast-net  is  thrown,  and  they 
are  taken  in  great  numbers  on  the  shal- 
lowsand  in  the  tributaries  of  the  main  river. 

Missions  to  Seamen,  n,  Bucking- 
ham-street, Strand,  London. — The  fol- 
lowing are  the  objects  and  regulations  of 
the  society  :  The  object  of  the  -society  is 
the  spiritual  welfare  of  the  seafaring 
classes  at  home  and  abroad.  In  pursuance 
of  this  object,  the  society  uses  every  means 
consistent  with  the  principles  and  received 
practice  of  the  Church  of  England.  The 
operations  of  the  society  are,  for  the  most 
part,  carried  on  afloat,  and  for  this  pur- 
pose its  chaplains  and  scripture  readers 
are,  as  far  as  possible,  provided  with 
vessels  and  boats  for  visiting  the  ships  in 
roadsteads,  rivers,  and  harbours. 

Molesey.— See  East  Molesey. 

Molesey  Hurst.— See  Hampton. 

Molesey  Regatta.— The  course  is 
about  a  mile,  from  a  little  above  the 
cherry -orchard  to  a  flag-boat  below 
Garrick's  Villa. 


Races  in  1884. 

Saturday,  July  26. 

JUNIOR  SCULLS. 

First  Heat. 

G.  E.  B.  Kennedy,  Moulsey  B.C.  ...    1 

G.  A.  S.  Buckley,  Kingston  R.C.  ...    o 

B.  W.  Looker,  Thames  R.C.  ...  disq. 

Second  Heat. 
H.  Blackmore,  Twickenham  R,C    ..;r.o. 


Final  HeaU 


Blackmore 
Kennedy. 


...         ..        ...        .*• 


...    o 


GARRICK  PAIRS. 


Kingston  k.C— C  L.  Fyfe  and  R. 
H.  Cobb ...     1 

Moulsey  B.C.— R.  Milner  and  R.  G. 
Till       o 

London  R.C.— J.  F.  Stillwell  and  W. 
Bazalgette      ...        •..*        o 


JUNIOR  FOURS. 

Kingston  R.C t 

Moulsey  B.C o 

London  R.C o 


Kingston,— -W \  Bazalgette,  E.  Bazal- 
gette, P.  H.  Champernowne,  S.  S. 
Lushington  (stroke),  C.  Fyfe  (cox). 

Moulsey. — A.  Piper,  C.  Piper,  R.  G. 
Till,  G.  E.  B.  Kennedy  (stroke),  H.  O. 
Milner  (cox). 

London.— C  F.  Schlotel,  A.  S.  Bryden, 
E.  S.  M'Ewen,  W.J.  Leeman  (stroke), 
W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 


SENIOR  PAIRS. 

London   R.C— G.   R.   B.    Earnshaw 
and  C.  Earnshaw      1 

Twickenham  R.C. — E.  Hodgkin  and 
L.  Frere         o 

Kingston  R.C— F.  Cobb  and  R.  H. 
Cobb    ...        1*. o 


JUNIOR   EIGHTS. 

First  Heat. 

London  R.C 

Kingston  R.C.  ... 


143  MOL—MON 

London.— G.  R.  B.  Eamshaw,  C.  Earn- 
shaw,  W.  Bergh,  J.  F.  Stillwell,  H.  J. 
Hill,  A.  S.  J.  Hurrell,  J.  T.  Crier,  W. 
W.  Hewett  (stroke),  W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 


London.— C.  F.  Schlotel,  P.  A.  N. 
Thorn,  H.  H.  Winterbottom,  A.  Silver- 
sparre,  F.  W.  Daunter,  A.  S.  Bryden, 
E.  S.  M'Ewen,  W.  J.  Leeman  (stroke), 
W.  F.  Sheard  (cox). 

Kingston. — W.  Stevenson,  F.  Butler, 
W.  Bazalgette,  J.  Stevenson,  C.  L.  Fyfe, 
E.  Bazalgette,  P.  H.  Champernowne,  S. 
S.  Lushington  (stroke),  F.  J.  Bell  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 

Thames  R.C.     ...        ...         ~.        ..,     $ 

Cooper's  Hill  College  B.C o 

! 
Thames.- -C.  E.  Smith,  F.  W.  Guerrier, 
G.  A.  Herdman,  W.  Andrews,  M.  C.  Gie, 
C.   S.    Sowerby,  W.  Theobald,   H.  At- 
kinson (stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 

Cooper  s  Hill  College.  —  O.  Burne,  J.  S. 
Fowler,  H.  S.  Wildeblood,  N.  Kirby, 
C.  F.  A.  Egerton,  C.  F.  Sykes,  J.  H.. 
Burton,  J.  C.  Tyle  (stroke),  E.  J.  Reeves 
(cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Thames  ...         ...         ....        ...         »••     I 

London  ...        si        ...        •<•        •••    o 


SENIOR   SCULLS. 

W.  H.  Bone,  West  London  R.C.  ...  1 
Stuart  Green,  Twickenham  R.C.  ...  o 
G.  R.  B.  Eamshaw,  London  R.C.  ...     o 

MOULSEY   GRAND    CHALLENGE    CUP  (for 
Eights). 

Thames  R.C 1 

London  R.C .         »    o 

Thames.— -B.  W.  Looker,  S.  M.  Cooke, 
Gordon  Smith,  B.  E.  Cole,  W.  Liddle, 
J.  Hastie,  H.  Rust,  J.  A.  Drake-Smith 
(stroke),  E.  A.  Safford  (cox). 


MOULSEY  CHALLENGE    CUP— SENIOR 
FOURS. 


Thames  R.C.     ... 
Kingston  R.C.  ... 


Thames. —  B.  W.  Looker,  J.  Hastie 
(steers),  H.  J.  Rust,  J.  A.  Drake-Smith 
(stroke). 

Kingston.— Y.  Cobb,  H.  A.  Harvey, 
H.  S.  Till  (steers),  R.  H.  Cobb  (stroke). 

WINNERS  OF  CHALLENGE  CUPS. 

l       ,r        EIG"TS- 

1867  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1873  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1874  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1875  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1876  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1879  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1880  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1881  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1882  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1883  Twickenham  Rowing  Club 

1884  Thames  Rowing  Club 


FOURS. 

1875  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1876  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1879  Molesey  Boat  Club 

1880  London  Rowing  Club 

188 1  Thames  Rowing  Club 

1882  London  Rowing  Club 

1883  Kingston  Rowing  Club 

1884  Thames  Rowing  CluU 


Mongewell,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left 
bank,  about  a  mile  from  Wallingford,  from 
London  82J  miles,  from  Oxford  22  miles. 
Population,  106.  Soil,  chalk.  A  small 
village,  with  church  dedicated  to  St.  John 
the  Baptist.  Mongewell  Park,  which 
stands  on  the  bank  of  the  river  here,  is 
one  of  the  most  charming  residences  on 
the  river. 


MON-MOU 


J44 


Place  of  Worship. — St.  John  the 
Baptist. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Wallingford,  which  is  the  nearest 
money  order  office,  &c. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Wallingford  | 
mile  ;  down,  Streatley  5  miles.  Locks, 
up,  Wallingford  J  mile  ;  down,  Cleeve  4J 
miles.  Ferry,  Wallingford.  Railway 
Station,  Wallingford. 

Fares,  Wallingford  to  Paddington, 
1st,  9/5,  16/-;  2nd,  7/-,  12/-;  3rd,  4/3.  No 
Sunday  trains. 

- 

Monkey  Island  is  about  half  a  mile 
below  Bray  Lock,  and  owes  its  name  to  a 
number  of  pictures  of  monkeys,  engaged 
in  various  human  occupations,  with  which 
the  third  Duke  of  Marlborough  adorned 
a  fishing-lodge  which  he  built  upon  the 
island.  The  pictures  are  sometimes  attri- 
buted to  a  French  artist  named  Clermont, 
but  in  truth  they  are  not  sufficiently  re- 
markable to  make  the  question  of  their 
authorship  a  matter  of  any  importance. 
Mrs.  S.  C.  Hall's  "  Book  of  the  Thames" 
thus  describes  them:  "Although  clever 
in  design  they  are  of  no  great  merit  in 
execution .  One  of  the  best  of  these  groups 
represents  two  of  the  animals  awkwardly 
carrying  home  fish,  the  eels  escaping  from 
the  basket.  The  most  ludicrous  scene 
occupies  the  centre  of  the  ceiling,  and  is 
a  burlesque  on  the  triumph  of  Galatea  ; 
even  the  Cupid  attending  her  is  repre- 
sented as  a  winged  monkey  with  fluttering 
drapery,  strewing  flowers  on  the  nymph, 
who,  with  her  attendant  Tritons  and  sea- 
nymphs,  are  also  represented  as  monkeys." 
The  house  is  now  converted  into  an  inn, 
which  is  considerably  used  by  anglers,  oars- 
men, and  camping  parties.  An  outbuilding 
— a  sort  of  pavilion — which  is  sometimes 
used  as  a  billiard-room,  has  a  carved 
ceiling,  which  it  is  to  be  regretted  is 
being  allowed  to  fall  into  decay.  The 
accommodation  is  primitive  and  cheap. 
There  is  excellent  fishing  all  about  this 
neighbourhood,  and  an  extremely  rapid 
stream  runs  past  the  island  at  all  times. 
There  is  a  ferry  from  the  island  to  the 
Bucks  bank. 

Nearest  Post  Office,  Bray  [which  see); 
Telegraph  Office,  Taplow  Station  ;  Rail- 
way Station,  Taplow. 

Fares  from  Taplow  to  Paddington : 
1st,  4/1,  7/-;  2nd,  3/1,  si 3  I  3rd.  2/"- 


Mortlake,  London,  S.W.— On  the 
right  bank  from  a  river  point  of  view,  is 
chief!  v  noticeable  as  being  the  terminus 
of  the  championship  and  University 
boat-races.  From  Waterloo  (about  25 
min.).  1st,  1/-,  1/6;  2nd,  -/io,  1/3;  3rd, 
-/8.  1/-.     Nearest  Bridge,  Kew. 

Moulsey  Boat  Club.— Election  by 
committee,  who  "  have  exclusive  powers." 
Subscription  :  Honorary  members,  £1  is. 
per  annum  ;  ordinary  members,  £2  2s. 
per  annum.  Boat-house,  the  Island. 
Colours,  black  and  white  vertical  stripes. 

Moulsford,  Berkshire,  on  the  right 
bank,  87  miles  from  London,  24J  miles 
from  Oxford  ;  a  station  on  the  Great 
Western  Railway,  47J  miles  from  Pad- 
dington ;  trains  take  2  or  2J  hours.  Flys 
can  be  hired  at  the  Railway  Tavern. 
Population,  180.  Soil,  chalk.  A  village 
on  the  right  bank,  about  3J  miles  from 
Wallingford,  principally  known  to  boat- 
ing men  and  anglers  for  the  '•  Beetle  and 
Wedge  Inn,"  and  for  the  fact  that  the 
trial  eights  of  the  Oxford  University 
B:>at  Club  are  rowed  on  the  splendid 
stretch  of  water  which  here  affords,  per- 
haps, the  best  course  on  the  river.  There 
is  excellent  perch  fishing  between  the 
islands  near  the  bridge.  Moulsford 
station  and  the  Berks  lunatic  asylum  are 
in  the  adjoining  parish  of  Cholsey.  The 
church,  St.  John  the  Baptist,  is  of  the 
14th  century,  and  was  restored  by  Sir 
Gilbert  Scott  in  1847.  It  stands  imme- 
diately on  the  bank  of  the  river. 

Inns.  — "Beetle  and  Wedge,"  on  the 
river  at  the  ferry  ;  Railway  Tavern,  close 
to  the  station. 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  John's. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Wallingford.  Nearest  money 
order  office,  Cholsey  ;  telegraph  station, 
Moulsford. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Wallingford  3! 
miles  ;  down,  Streatley  2J  miles.  Locks, 
up,  Wallingford  3J  miles  ;  down,  Cleeve 
2  miles.  Ferries,  Moulsford  and  Little 
Stoke.     Railway  Station,  Moulsford. 

Fares  to  Paddington,  1st,  8/5,  14/6 ; 
2nd,  6/3,  11/-;  3rd«  3/11- 


145 


MLC-NAV 


Mucking    Flat     Lighthouse,    Sea 

Reach. — Built  of  iron  upon  a  hollow  pile 
foundation.  A  temporary  light  was  first 
exhibited  from  this  position  in  October, 
1849,  and  the  present  structure  was  built 
in  1851.  It  is  painted  black  and  white  in 
alternate  horizontal  bands,  and  is  con- 
nected with  the  shore  by  a  long  foot- 
bridge, also  built  on  piles  and  coloured 
white.  The  height  of  the  light  tower  from 
base  to  vane  is  66  feet,  and  its  central 
lamp  burns  at  40  feet  above  high  water. 
The  light  is  under  occultation  once  in 
every  half  minute,  and  the  apparatus  used 
is  lenticular,  giving  forth  a  white  beam 
with  red  sectors.  A  fog  bell  is  sounded 
during  foggy  weather.  There  are  two 
keepers  employed  in  tending  the  station, 
who,  having  their  dwellings  at  hand,  with 
coals,  light,  and  furniture  provided  for 
them,  and  living  with  their  families,  have 
a  much  more  comfortable  billet  than  their 
neighbours  at  the  Chapman  lower  down. 


Naval  Volunteers,  Royal.— Head- 
quarters for  drill,  H.M.S.  President,  West 
India  Docks.  Armoury  and  boat-station, 
H.M.S.  Rainbow,  off  Somerset  House. 
Office,  35,  Great  George  Street,  West- 
minster, 


Navigation,  Lower  Thames. 

Regulations  for  Preventing  Col- 
lisions at  Sea. 

Published  in  the  London  Gazette  of 
August  19,  1884. 

Art,  1.  In  the  following  rules  every 
steam  ship  which  is  under  sail  and  not 
under  steam  is  to  be  considered  a  sailing 
ship  ;  and  every  steam  ship  which  is 
under  steam,  whether  under  sail  or 
not,  is  to  be  considered  a  ship  under 
Steam. 

Rules  concerning  Lights, 

Art.  2.  The  lights  mentioned  in  the 
following  Articles,  numbered  3,  4,  5,  6, 
7,  8,  9,  io,  and  11,  and  no  others,  shall 
be  carried  in  all  weathers  from  sunset 
to  sunrise. 


Art.  3.  A  sea-going  steam  ship,  when 
under  way  shall  carry  :  (a)  On  or  in  front 
of  the  foremast,  at  a  height  above  the 
hull  of  not  less  than  20  feet,  and  if  the 
breadth  of  the  ship  exceeds  20  feet  then 
at  a  height  above  the  hull  not  less  than 
such  breadth,  a  bright  white  light,  so 
constructed  as  to  show  a  uniform  and 
unbroken  light  over  an  arc  of  the  horizon 
of  twenty  points  of  the  compass  ;  so  fixed 
as  to  throw  the  light  ten  points  on  each 
side  of  the  ship,  viz.  from  right  ahead  to 
two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  either  side ; 
and  of  such  a  character  as  to  be  visible 
on  a  dark  night,  with  a  clear  atmosphere, 
at  a  distance  of  at  least  five  miles,  (b) 
On  the  starboard  side,  a  green  light  so 
constructed  as  to  show  a  uniform  and 
unbroken  light  over  an  arc  of  the  horizon 
of  ten  points  of  the  compass ;  so  fixed  as 
to  throw  the  light  from  right  ahead  to 
two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  the  star- 
board side  ;  and  of  such  a  character  as  to 
be  visible  on  a  dark  night,  with  a  clear 
atmosphere,  at  a  distance  of  at  least  two 
miles,  (c)  On  the  port  side,  a  red  light, 
so  constructed  as  to  show  a  uniform  and 
unbroken  light  over  an  arc  of  the  horizon 
of  ten  points  of  the  compass  ;  so  fixed  as 
to  throw  the  light  from  right  ahead  to 
two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  the  port 
side ;  and  of  such  a  character  as  to  be 
visible  on  a  dark  night,  with  a  clear 
atmosphere,  at  a  distance  of  at  least  two 
miles,  (d)  The  said  green  and  red  side 
lights  shall  be  fitted  with  inboard  screens 
projecting  at  least  3  feet  forward  from  the 
light,  so  as  to  prevent  these  lights  from 
being  seen  across  the  bow. 

Art.  4.  A  steam  ship,  when  towing 
another  ship  shall,  in  addition  to  her  side 
lights,  carry  two  bright  white  lights  in  a 
vertical  line  one  over  the  other,  not  less 
than  3  feet  apart,  so  as  to  distinguish  her 
from  other  steam  ships.  Each  of  these 
lights  shall  be  of  the  same  construction 
and  character,  and  shall  be  carried  in  the 
same  position  as  the  white  light  which 
other  steam  ships  are  required  to  carry. 

Art.  5.  (a)  A  ship,  whether  a  steam- 
ship or  a  sailing  ship,  which  from  any 
accident  is  not  under  command,  shall  at 
night  carry,  in  the  same  position  as  the 
white  light  which  steamships  are  required 
to  carry,  and,  if  a  steamship,  in  place  of 
that  light,  three  red  lights  in  globular 
lanterns,  each  not  less  than  10  inches  in 
diameter,  in  a  vertical  line  one  over  the 


NAV— NAV 


146 


other,  not  less  than  3  feet  apart,  and 
of  such  a  character  as  to  be  visible  on  a 
dark  night,  with  a  clear  atmosphere,  at  a 
distance  of  at  least  two  miles  ;  and  shall 
by  day  carry,  in  a  vertical  line  one  over 
the  other,  not  less  than  3  feet  apart, 
in  front  of  but  not  lower  than  her  fore- 
mast head,  three  black  balls  or  shapes, 
each  two  feet  in  diameter. 

{b)  A  ship,  whether  a  steamship  or  a 
sailing  ship,  employed  in  laying  or  in 
picking  up  a  telegraph  cable,  shall  at 
night  carry  in  the  same  position  as  the 
white  light,  which  steamships  are  re- 
quired to  carry,  and,  if  a  steamship,  in 
place  of  that  light,  three  lights  in  globular 
lanterns  each  not  less  than  10  inches  in 
diameter,  in  a  vertical  line  over  one 
another,  not  less  than  6  feet  apart ;  the 
highest  and  lowest  of  these  lights  shall 
be  red,  and  the  middle  light  shall  bewhite, 
and  they  shall  be  of  such  a  character  that 
the  red  lights  shall  be  visible  at  the  same 
distance  as  the  white  light.  By  day  she 
shall  carry,  in  a  vertical  line  one  over  the 
other,  not  less  than  6  feet  apart,  in  front 
of  but  not  lower  than  her  foremast  head, 
three  shapes  not  less  than  two  feet  in 
diameter,  of  which  the  top  and  bottom 
shall  be  globular  in  shape  and  red  in 
colour,  and  the  middle  one  diamond  in 
shape  and  white. 

(c)  The  ships  referred  to  in  this  Article, 
when  not  making  any  way  through  the 
water,  shall  not  carry  the  side  lights,  but 
when  making  way  shall  carry  them. 

(d)  The  lights  and  shapes  required  to 
be  shown  by  this  Article  are  to  be  taken 
by  other  ships  as  signals  that  the  ship 
showing  them  is  not  under  command,  and 
cannot,  therefore,  get  out  of  the  way. 
The  signals  to.  be  made  by  ships  in 
distress  and  requiring  assistance  are  con- 
tained in  Article  27. 

Art.  6.  A  sailing  ship  under  way,  or 
being  towed,  shall  carry  the  same  lights 
as  are  provided  by  Article  3  for  a  steam 
ship  under  way,  with  the  exception  of 
the  white  light,  which  she  shall  never 
carry. 

Art.  7.  Whenever,  as  in  the  case  of 
small  vessels  during  bad  weather,  the 
green  and  red  side  lights  cannot  be  fixed, 
these  lights  shall  be  kept  on  deck,  on 
their  respective  sides  of  the  vessel,  ready 
for  use  :  and  shall,  on  the  approach  of  or 
to  other  vessels,  be  exhibited  on  their 
respective  sides  in  sufficient  time  to  pre- 


vent collision,  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
make  them  most  visible,  and  so  that  the 
green  light  shall  not  be  seen  on  the  port 
side  nor  the  red  light  on  the  starboard 
side.  To  make  the  use  of  these  portable 
lights  more  certain  and  easy,  the  lanterns 
containing  them  shall  each  be  painted 
outside  with  the  colour  of  the  light  they 
respectively  contain,  and  shall  be  pro- 
vided with  proper  screens. 

Art.  8.  A  ship,  whether  a  steam  ship 
or  a  sailing  ship,  when  at  anchor,  shall 
carry,  where  it  can  best  be  seen,  but  at  a 
height  not  exceeding  20  feet  above  the 
hull,  a  white  light,  in  a  globular  lantern 
of  not  less  than  8  inches  in  diameter,  and 
so  constructed  as  to  show  a  clear  uniform 
and  unbroken  light  visible  all  round  the 
horizon,  at  a  distance  of  at  least  one  mile. 

Art.  9.  A  pilot  vessel,  when  engaged 
on  her  station  on  pilotage  duty,  shall  not 
carry  the  lights  required  for  other  vessels, 
but  shall  carry  a  white  light  at  the  mast- 
head, visible  all  round  the  horizon,  and 
shall  also  exhibit  a  flare-up  light  or  flare- 
up  lights  at  short  intervals,  which  shall 
never  exceed  fifteen  minutes.  A  pilot 
vessel,  when  not  engaged  on  her  station 
on  pilotage  duty,  shall  carry  lights  similar 
to  those  of  other  ships. 

Art.  10.  Open  boats  and  fishing  vessels 
of  less  than  20  tons  net  registered  ton- 
nage, when  under  way  and  when  not 
having  their  nets,  trawls,  dredges,  or 
lines  in  the  water,  shall  not  be  obliged 
to  carry  the  coloured  side  lights  ;  but 
every  such  boat  and  vessel  shall  in  lieu 
thereof  have  ready  at  hand  a  lantern  with 
a  green  glass  on  the  one  side  and  a  red 
glass  on  the  other  side,  and  on  approach- 
ing to  or  being  approached  by  another 
vessel  such  lantern  shall  be  exhibited  in 
sufficient  time  to  prevent  collision,  so  that 
the  green  light  shall  not  be  seen  on  the 
port  side  nor  the  red  light  on  the  star- 
board side. 

Art.  11.  A  ship  which  is  being  over- 
taken by  another  shall  show  from  her 
stern  to  such  last-mentioned  ship  a  white 
light  or  a  flare-up  light. 

Sound  Signals  for  Fog,  &c. 
Art.  12.  A  steam  ship  shall  be  provided 
with  a  steam  whistle  or  ^ther  efficient 


147 


NAV-NAV 


Steam  sound  signal,  so  placed  that  the 
sound  may  not  be  intercepted  by  any 
obstructions,  and  with  an  efficient  fog- 
horn to  be  sounded  by  a  bellows  or  other 
mechanical  means,    and    also    with    an 

efficient  bell.  In  all  cases  where  the 
regulations  require  a  bell  to  be  used,  a 
drum  will  be  substituted  on  board 
Turkish  vessels.  A  sailing  ship  shall  be 
provided  with  a  similar  fog-horn  and  bell. 

In  fog,  mist,  or  falling  snow,  whether  by 
day  or  night,  the  signals  described  in  this 
Article  shall  be  used  as  follows  :  that  is 
to  say,  (a)  A  steam  ship  under  way  shall 
make  with  her  steam  whistle,  or  other 
steam  sound  signal,  at  intervals  of  not  more 
than  two  minutes,  a  prolonged  blast. 
(b)  A  sailing  ship  under  way  shall  make 
with  her  fog-horn,  at  intervals  of  not 
more  than  two  minutes,  when  on  the 
starboard  tack  one  blast,  when  on  the 
port  tack  two  blasts  in  succession,  and 
when  with  the  wind  abaft  the  beam  three 
blasts  in  succession,  (c)  A  steam  ship 
and  a  sailing  ship  when  not  under  way 
shall,  at  intervals  of  not  more  than  two 
minutes,  ring  the  bell. 

Speed  of  Ships  to  be  moderate  in  Fog,  &v. 
Art.  13.  Every  ship,  whether  a  sailing 
ship  or  steam  ship,  shall  in  a  fog,  mist, 
ox  falling  snow,  go  at  a  moderate  speed. 

Steering  and  Sailing  Rules, 
Art.  14.  When  two  sailing  ships  are 
approaching  one  another,  so  as  to  involve 
risk  of  collision,  one  of  them  shall  keep 
out  of  the  way  of  the  other  as  follows, 
viz.:  (a)  A  ship  which  is  running  free 
shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  a  ship  which 
is  close-hauled,  (b)  A  ship  which  is  close- 
hauled  on  the  port  tack  shall  keep  out  of 
the  way  of  a  ship  which  is  close-hauled 
on  the  starboard  tack,  (c)  When  both 
are  running  free  with  the  wind  on  different 
sides,  the  ship  which  has  the  wind  on  the 
port  side  shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the 
other,  (d)  When  both  are  running  free 
with  the  wind  on  the  same  side,  the  ship 
which  is  to  windward  shall  keep  out  of 
the  way  of  the  ship  which  is  to  leeward. 
■(e)  A  ship  which  has  the  wind  aft  shall 
keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  other  ship. 

Art.  15.  If  two  ships  under  steam  are 
meeting  end  on,  or  nearly  end  on,  so  as 
to  involve  risk  of  collision,  each  shall 


alter  her  course  to  starboard,  so  that 
each  may  pass  on  the  port  side  of  the 
other.  [This  Article  only  applies  to  cases 
where  ships  are  meeting  end  on,  or  nearly 
end  on,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  involve 
risk  of  collision,  and  does  not  apply  to 
two  ships  which  must,  if  both  keep  on 
their  respective  courses,  pass  clear  of  each 
other.  The  only  cases  to  which  it  does 
apply  are,  when  each  of  the  two  ships  is 
end  on,  or  nearly  end  on,  to  the  other  ;  in 
other  words,  to  cases  in  which,  by  day, 
each  ship  sees  the  masts  of  the  other  in  a 
line,  or  nearly  in  a  line,  with  her  own ;  and 
by  night,  to  cases  in  which  each  ship  is  in 
such  a  position  as  to  see  both  the  side 
lights  of  the  other.  It  does  not  apply  by 
day  to  cases  in  which  a  ship  sees  another 
ahead  crossing  her  own  course ;  or  by 
night,  to  cases  where  the  red  light  of  one 
ship  is  opposed  to  the  red  light  of  the 
other,  or  where  the  green  light  of  one 
ship  is  opposed  to  the  green  light  of  the 
other,  or  where  a  red  light  without  a  green 
light,  or  a  green  light  without  a  red  light, 
is  seen  ahead,  or  where  both  green  and 
red  lights  are  seen  anywhere  but  ahead.] 

Art.  16.  If  two  ships  under  steam  are 
crossing,  so  as  to  involve  risk  of  collision, 
the  ship  which  has  the  other  on  her  own 
starboard  side  shall  keep  out  of  the  way 
of  the  other. 

Art.  17.  If  two  ships,  one  of  which  is  a 
sailing  ship,  and  the  other  a  steam  ship, 
are  proceeding  in  such  directions  as  to 
involve  risk  of  collision,  the  steam  ship 
shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  sailing 
ship. 

Art  18.  Every  steam  ship  when  ap- 
proaching another  ship,  so  as  to  involve 
risk  of  collision,  shall  slacken  her  speed 
or  stop  and  reverse,  if  necessary. 

Art.  19.  In  taking  any  course  authorised 
or  required  by  these  regulations,  a  steam 
ship  under  way  may  indicate  that  course 
to  any  other  ship  which  she  has  in  sight 
by  the  following  signals  on  her  steam 
whistle,  viz.:  One  short  blast  to  mean  "I 
am  directing  my  course  to  starboard." 
Two  short  blasts  to  mean  "lam  directing 
my  course  to  port."  Three  short  blasts 
to  mean  "  I  am  going  full  speed  astern." 
The  use  of  these  signals  is  optional  ;  but 
if  .they  are  used,  the  course  of  the  ship 
must  be  in  accordance  with  the  signal 
made. 

Art.  20.  Notwithstanding  anything  con- 
tained in  any  preceding  Article,  every 
ship,  whether  a  sailing  ship  or  a  steam 


NAV-NAV  149 

ship,  overtaking  any  other,  shall  keep  out 
of  the  way  of  the  overtaken  ship. 

Art.  21.  In  narrow  channels  every 
steam  ship  shall,  when  it  is  safe  and 
practicable,  keep  to  that  side  of  the 
fairway  or  midchannel  which  lies  on  the 
starboard  side  of  such  ship. 

Art.  22.  Where  by  the  above  rules  one 
of  two  ships  is  to  keep  out  of  the  way, 
the  other  shall  keep  her  course. 

Art.  23.  In  obeying  and  construing 
these  rules  due  regard  shall  be  had  to  all 
dangers  of  navigation  ;  and  to  any  special 
circumstances  which  may  render  a  de- 
parture from  the  above  rules  necessary  in 
order  to  avoid  immediate  danger. 

No  Ship  under  any  Circumstances  to 
neglect  proper  Precautions. 
Art.  24.  Nothing  in  these  rules  shall 
exonerate  any  ship,  or  the  owner  or 
master,  or  crew  thereof,  from  the  conse- 
quences of  any  neglect  to  carry  lights  or 
signals,  or  of  any  neglect  to  keep  a  proper 
Look-out,  or  of  the  neglect  of  any  pre- 
caution which  may  be  required  by  the 
ordinary  practice  of  seamen,  or  by  the 
special  circumstances  of  the  case. 

Reservation  of  Rules  for  Harbours  and 
Inland  Navigation. 
Art.  25.  Nothing  in  these  rules  shall 
interfere  with  the  operation  of  a  special 
rule,  duly  made  by  local  authority,  rela- 
tive to  the  navigation  of  any  harbour, 
river,  or  inland  navigation. 

Special  Lights  for  Squadrons  and  Convoys. 

Art.  26.  Nothing  in  these  rules  shall 
interfere  with  the  operation  of  any  special 
rules  made  by  the  Government  of  any 
nation  with  respect  to  additional  station 
and  signal  lights  for  two  or  more  ships  of 
war  or  for  ships  sailing  under  convoy. 

Art.  \  7.  When  a  ship  is  in  distress  and 
requires  assistance  from  other  ships  or 
from  the  shore,  the  following  shall  be  the 
signals  to  be  used  or  displayed  by  her, 
either  together  or  separately,  that  is  to  say: 
In  the  daytime — ( 1 )  A  gun  fired  at  intervals 
of  about  a  minute  ;  (2)  the  International 
Code  signal  of  distress  indicated  by  N  C  ; 
(3)  the  distant  signal,  consisting  of  a 
square  flag,  having  either  above  or  below 
it  a  ball,  or  anything  resembling  a  ball. 


At  night— (1)  A  gun  hred  at  intervals  of 
about  a  minute  ;  (2)  flames  on  the  ship 
(as  from  a  burning  tar  barrel,  oil  barrel, 
&c.) ;  (3)  rockets  or  shells  throwing  stars 
of  any  colour  or  description,  fired  one  at 
a  time,  at  short  intervals. 

All  vessels  navigating  Gravcsend  Reach 
are  to  keep  to  the  northward  of  a  line 
defined  by  a  skeleton  beacon  erected  upon 
the  India  Arms  Wharf  end  on  with  the 
high  chimney  of  the  Cement  Works  at 
Northfleet  ;  and  all  vessels  intending  to 
anchor  in  the  reach  are  to  bring  up  to  the 
southward  of  that  line.  A  lantern  is 
placed  on  the  above  beacon  which  shows 
(at  night)  a  bright  light  to  the  northward 
of  the  same  line,  and  a  red  light  to  the 
southward  of  it,  over  the  anchorage 
ground.  All  vessels  so  anchoring  and 
remaining  beyond  a  period  of  twenty- 
four  hours  are  to  be  moored. 

All  barges,  boats,  lighters,  and  other 
like  craft  navigating  the  river  shall,  when 
under  way,  have  at  least  one  competent 
man  constantly  on  board  for  the  navi- 
gation and  management  thereof,  and  all 
such  craft  of  above  50  tons  burden  shall, 
when  under  way,  have  one  man,  in  ad- 
dition, on  board,  to  assist  in  the  naviga- 
tion and  management  of  the  same,  with 
the  following  exceptions  :  When  being 
towed  by  a  steam  vessel,  or  when  being 
moved  to  and  fro  between  any  vessels  or 
places  a  distance  not  exceeding  200  yards ; 
and  in  case  of  non-compliance  with  this 
present  bye-law,  the  harbour-master  may 
take  charge  of  and  remove  such  craft  to 
such  place  as  to  such  harbour-master 
may  seem  fit,  and  the  amount  of  the 
charges  and  expenses  of  taking  charge 
thereof,  and  of  such  removal,  shall  be  re- 
coverable from  the  owner  or  owners,  or 
master  thereof,  to  the  use  of  the  Conser- 
vators, as  provided  by  the  Thames  Con- 
servancy Act,  1857.  Any  person  com- 
mitting any  breach  of,  or  in  any  way 
infringing  any  of  these  bye-laws,  is  liable 
to  a  penalty  of  ^5. 

Upper  Thames.— On  theUpper  Thames 
no  steamer  is  allowed,  between  Teddington 
Lock  and  Cricklade,  to  run  at  such  a  speed 
as  to  endanger  any  other  boat  or  injure 
the  river  bank.  No  one  is  allowed  to 
ride  or  drive  on  the  towing  path,  to 
unload  anything  upon  it,  to  place  any 
vessel  on  the  shore  in  front  of  it,  or  to 
take  any  stones,  &c.,  from   the  banks. 


149 


No  vessel  must  remain  in  any  lock  longer 
than  time  enough  to  pass  through,  and  if 
she  pass  without  paying  toll,  the  amount 
due  can  be  demanded  at  any  other  lock 
before  admitting  her.  No  vessel— unless 
in  case  of  necessity,  through  strength  of 
current — is  to  be  towed  from  the  bank 
otherwise  than  from  a  mast  of  sufficient 
height  to  protect  the  banks,  gates,  &c., 
from  injury.  There  are  very  strict  regu- 
lations against  the  pollution  of  the  river 
by  sewage  matter.  Tolls  for  cargo  boats 
are  levied  under  the  following  regulations  : 

The  following  tolls,  rates,  or  duties 
shall  be  taken  by  the  Conservators  from 
the  owners,  coast-bearers,  or  chief  boat- 
men of  and  for  every  vessel  carrying  a 
cargo,  and  passing  through  any  lock  or 
locks  between  Cricklade  and  Staines,  or 
vice  versa,  for  the  use  of  such  lock  or 
locks  according  to  the  burthen  or  ton- 
nage of  such  vessel,  the  measurement  of 
such  burthen  or  tonnage  to  be  limited  as 
in  the  6th  clause  of  the  said  Act  28th 
George  III.  chap.  51,  that  is  to  say  : 

The  sum  of  2d.  per  ton  at  every  lock, 
subject  to  such  provisions  as  to  the  ag- 
gregate of  tolls  as  hereinafter  mentioned. 

If  the  vessel  in  the  downward  voyage 
shall  pass  through  all  the  locks  between 
the  undermentioned  places,  the  aggregate 
of  such  tolls  per  ton  shall  be  as  follows : 

Per  ton. 

For  all  locks  between —  s.  d. 

Oxford  and  Abingdon  inclusive  . .     06 

Oxford  and  Wallingford  inclusive  ..     10 

Oxford  and  Pangbourne        „  ..16 

Oxford  and  Reading               „  ..19 

Oxford  and  Henley                 „  ...20 

Oxford  and  Marlow                „  ..26 

Oxford  and  Maidenhead        „  ..29 

Oxford  and  Windsor              „  ..30 

Oxford  and  Staines                „  ..36 

If  the  vessel,  in  the  upward  voyage, 
shall  pass  through  all  the  locks  between 
the  undermentioned  places,  the  aggregate 
of  such  tolls,  per  ton,  shall  be  as  follows  : 

Per  ton. 
To  all  locks  between —  s.  d. 

Staines  and  Windsor  inclusive  . .     03 

Staines  and  Maidenhead  inclusive  ..     06 

Staines  and  Marlow  ,,  ..09 

Staines  and  Henley  „  ..13 

Staines  and  Reading  „  ..19 

Staines  and  Pangbourne  „  ..20 

Staines  and  Wallingford  „  ..26 

Staines  and  Abingdon  ,,  ..3     o 

Staines  and  Oxford  „  ..36 

Oxford  and  Cricklade  2d.  per  ton  for  each 
lock. 


NAV— NAV 

For  timber  in  rafts — 
The  same  rate  per  ton  as  is  charged  if 
conveyed  in  vessels,  there  being  50 
cubic  feet  in  one  ton. 
The  tolls  for  pleasure-boats  are  ; 

For  every  steam  pleasure-boat  and 
passenger-steamer        .         . .         ..16 

Class  1. — For  every  sculling-boat,  pair- 
oared  row-boat  and  skiff,  and  for 
every  randan,  canoe,  punt,  and 
dingey 03 

Class  2. — For  every  four-oared  row- 
boat  (other  than  boats  enumerated 
in  Class  1)  and  sailing-boat  . .  ..06 

Class  3. — For  every  row-boat  shallop 
over  four  oars  (other  than  boats 
enumerated  in  Classes  1  and  2)      ; .     1    o 

For  every  house-boat  under  50  feet  in 

length     . .         . .  . .         . .         ..16 

For  every  house-boat  over  50  feet  in 
length     ..         ..         ..         ..         ..26 

The  above  charges  to  be  for  passing  once 
through,  by,  or  over  a  lock,  and  returning 
on  the  same  day. 

In   lieu   of    the   above   tolls,    pleasure 
steamers  or  rowboats  may  be  registered 
on  the  payment  to  the  Conservators   of 
the  undermentioned  sums,  and  shall,  in 
consideration  of  such  payment,  pass  the 
several  locks  free  of  any  other  charge, 
from  the  1st  day  of  January  to  the  31st 
day  of  December  in  each  year. 

£   s.  d, 
For  every  steam  pleasure-boat   and 
steam  passenger-boat,  not  exceed- 
ing 35  feet  in  length. .         ..         ..500 

Ditto  above  35  feet  in  length,  and  not 

exceeding  45  . .  . .  . .  7  10    o 

Ditto  exceeding  45  feet  in  length     ..10    o    o 
For  every  row-boat  of  Class  1  ..200 

For    every    row-boat    or     yacht    of 
Class  2 . .         ..         ..         ..         ..     2  10    o 

For  every  row-boat  of  Class  3  ..300 

For  every  house-boat  not  exceeding 
30  feet  in  length        . .         . .         ..300 

Ditto  above  30  and  not  exceeding  50 

feet  in  length  . .  . .  . .  ..500 

Ditto  exceeding  50  feet  in  length     . .     7  10    o 

In  computing  the  tolls,  every  number 
less  than  the  entire  numbers  above  stated 
is  to  be  charged  as  the  entire  number. 

The  above  rates  on  Classes  1,  2,  and  3 
to  be  doubled  if  towed  by  horse  or  any 
other  animal. 

The  plate  with  the  registered  number 
thereon  is  to  be  fastened  on  to  the  boat 
for  which  it  is  issued,  and  is  not  trans- 
ferable from  one  boat  to  another. 

Any  person  committing  any  breach  of, 
or  in  any  way  infringing  -any  of  these 
bye-laws,  is  liable  to  a  penalty  of  £5. 


NAV— NOR  150 

The  tolls  for  the  Conservators'  ferry- 
boats above  Teddington-lock  are  : 

For  every  horse  not  engaged  in  towing, 
taken  acrossby  ferry-boat,  the  sum  of. .     3d, 

For  every  carriage,  waggon,  cart,  or  other 
vehicle,  in  addition  to  the  toll  on  the 
horse  3d. 

For  every  foot  passenger    . .         . .         . .     id. 

There  is  a  long  list  of  penalties  for 
infringements  of  these  bye-laws,  ranging 
from  £2  for  bargemen  stealing  goods  on 
board  to  ^100  for  infraction  of  the  laws 
relating  to  sewage  (and  see  Steam 
Launches.  ) 

Neptune  Rowing  Club,  Oxford.— 
The  object  of  this  club,  which  consists  of 
effective  members,  members,  and  honor- 
ary members,  is  to  encourage  amateur 
rowing.  Effective  members  pay  a  sub- 
scription of  £1,  members  one  of  10s., 
and  honorary  members  not  less  than  5*-. 
The  members  elect;  one  black  ball  in 
four  excludes.  Colours,  orange,  black 
and  red.  Headquarters,  "Three  Cups" 
Hotel,  Queen  Street,  Oxford. 

Newnham  Murren,  Oxfordshire,  on 
the  left  bank,  about  one  mile  from  Wal- 
lingford  Bridge,  from  London  89J  miles, 
from  Oxford  22  miles.  Population,  170. 
Soil,  gravel.  The  little  church  has  a 
curiously  carved  oak  pulpit,  and  a  small 
brass  tablet  representing  Letitia  Barnarde 
and  her  four  children,  dated  1593. 

Place  of  Worship.— St.  Mary's. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Wallingford,  which  is  the  nearest 
money  order  office,  &c. 

Nearest  Bridges,  up,  Wallingford  1 
mile  ;  down,  Goring  5  miles.  Locks,  up, 
Wallingford  J  mile ;  down,  Cleeve  4! 
miles.  Ferry,  Wallingford.  Railway 
Station,  Wallingford. 

Fares,  Wallingford  to  Paddington : 
1st,  9/5,  16/- ;  2nd,  7/-,  12/- ;  3rd,  4/3. 
No  Sunday  trains. 

New  Thames  Yacht  Club,  Club- 
houses, Caledonian  Hotel,  Adelphi, 
W.C.,  and  Gravesend. — The  object  of 
the  club  is  the  encouragement  of  yacht 
building  and  sailing  on  the  river  Thames ; 
and  the  funds  of  the  club  are  appropriated, 
after  payment  of  the  necessary  expenses, 
to  the  providing  of  prizes  in  money  or 
otherwise  to  be  sailed  for  by  yachts  on 
'the  river  Thames.  The  members  elect, 
and  one  black  ball  in  five  excludes.     The 


club  is  managed  by  commodore,  vice- 
commodore,  rear-commodore,  and  trea- 
surer, who  are  ex-officio  members  of 
every  committee,  with  a  sailing  committee 
of  fourteen,  and  a  house  committee  of 
six.  The  entrance  fee  is  ^5  5^.,  and  the 
subscription  ^3  3J.  The  club  burgee 
is  blue  with  gold  phoenix ;  ensign,  blue 
with  gold  phcenix  in  fly. 

Norbiton,  a  suburb  of  Kingston,  to 
the  north-east,  rapidly  extending  its  rows 
of  villas  and  cottages  towards  the  open 
country  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Wimble- 
don Common  and  Richmond  Park,  where 
Jerry  Abershaw  and  other  knights  of  the 
road  once  took  toll  from  travellers.  It 
is  a  railway  station  on  the  South  Western, 
and  may  also  be  reached  by  the  Metro- 
politan line.  The  walks  about  Norbiton 
are  numerous,  and  the  scenery  is  very 
pretty  ;  the  open  commons  being  agree- 
ably diversified  with  finely-timbered 
woods.  At  Norbiton  is  the  Royal  Cam- 
bridge Asylum  for  soldiers'  widows,  es- 
tablished in  1851,  under  the  patronage 
of  the  royal  family,  in  memory  of  the 
late  Duke  of  Cambridge.  Widows  of 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  of 
the  Army,  not  under  50  years  of  age,  are 
eligible.  Each  widow  has  a  furnished 
room  and  js.  weekly,  besides  a  monthly 
allowance  of  coals.  The  funded  income 
of  the  charity  is  a  little  over  j£6oo,  and 
the  estimated  expenditure  ^2,300,  the 
balance  being  raised  by  subscriptions. 
The  Children's  Convalescent  Institution 
is  at  Kingston  Hill,  and  contains  150 
beds.  The  institution  is  open  for  inspec- 
tion every  day  except  Sunday.  The  Chil- 
dren's Home  for  22  girls  is  at  4,  Park- 
road-villas,  Park-road.  Visitors  can 
inspect  the  Home  on  Tuesday,  Wednes- 
day, Thursday,  and  Friday  afternoons, 
between  3  and  $.—(And see  Kingston.) 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  John  the 
Baptist,  Kingston  Vale  ;  St.  Peter's  ;  and 
Baptist  Primitive  Methodist,  and  Wes- 
leyan  Chapels. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post  Office 
(money  order,  savings  bank,  telegraph). 
Mails  from  London,  7  and  9.30  a.m., 
2.35  and  7.30  p.m.  Sun.,  7  a.m.  Mails 
for  London,  8.20  and  11.50  a.m.,  3.30, 
4.55,  7.30,  and  9  p.m.  No  London  mail 
out  on  Sunday. 

Fares  to  Waterloo  :  2/-,  2/6  ;  2nd,  1/6, 
2/-;  3rd,  -/11,  1/8. 


Nore  Lignt,  about  go  miles  from 
London  Bridge.  The  Nore  light-ship  is  the 
first  sea  light  to  be  passed  on  leaving  the 
port  of  London.  It  is  the  first  in  order 
of  seniority  among  its  kind,  for  at  this 
station  the  first  light-ship  set  afloat  on 
the  coast  of  England  was  permanently 
laid  in  the  year  1730. 

The  original  hull  was  that  of  a  sloop, 
with  a  large  lantern  at  each  end  of  a  yard 
laid  across  the  mast.  An  improvement 
in  the  method  of  illumination  in  1825 
rendered  one  lantern  sufficient,  incor- 
porate with  the  mast,  and  showing  a 
"fixed"  light.  In  1855  for  purposes  of 
distinction,  the  light  was  made  "re- 
volving." After  seven  years'  service  in 
one' commission,  the  ships  are  brought 
into  port  for  a  thorough  overhaul.  The 
Nore  lightship  was  built  of  wood  at 
Limehouse  40  years  ago,  and  is  96  feet 
long  by  21  broad ;  her  tonnage,  156  ; 
hull,  mast-head,  and  globe  painted  red, 
and  the  name  "Nore"  in  large  white 
letters  on  each  broadside.  The  hollow 
globe  at  the  mast-head,  6  feet  in  diameter, 
made  of  bent  laths,  is  characteristic  of 
such  craft  by  day  ;  it  is  never  removed 
unless  when  the  ships  are  driven  from 
their  stations.  About  10  feet  below  it 
hangs  the  lantern,  an  octagonal  glass 
case,  framed  in  copper,  and  fitting  round 
the  mast  like  a  great  gem  ring,  housed 
on  deck  by  day,  and  hoisted  as  high  up  the 
mast  as  the  shrouds  will  permit  by  night. 

On  deck  forward  is  a  powerful  wind- 
lass-—a  necessary  provision  for  managing 
the  heavy  cable,  which  is  composed  of 
very  short  links  ;  the  iron  if  in.  thick, 
and  of  sufficient  length  to  veer  out  100 
fathoms  if  required.  On  a  netting  attached 
to  the  bumpkin  (an  apology  for  a  bow- 
sprit) is  a  sail  neatly  stowed  ready  for  use 
if  required ;  and  at  the  stern,  furled  close 
to  a  jigger  mast,  is  another  sail.  These 
are  used  in  ordinary  times  to  steady  the 
ship  when  it  is  blowing  hard,  or  in  case 
of  breaking  adrift  and  being  driven  to 
sea  (which  has  never  yet  happened)  they 
would  enable  her  to  run  to  an  anchorage. 

Around  the  mnst  and  fitting  on  to  the 
deck  is  a  circular  wooden  chamber  into 
which  the  lantern  is  lowered  in  the  day- 
time, affording  convenience  for  cleaning 
it  and  trimming  the  lamps. 

Passing  down  to  the  lower  deck  is  a 
companion  ladder,  serving  both  for  officers 
and  crew.   The.latter  are  lodged  forward, 


151  NOR- NOR 

and  occupy  all  the  'tween  deck  space 
from  the  mast  to  the  bows  of  the  ship. 
Their  hammocks,  chests,  and  lockers  are 
along  the  sides  of  the  berth,  and  a  good 
broad  table  down  the  middle,  with  a  bench 
seat  at  each  side  of  it.  Amidships,  near 
the  mast,  is  the  cooking  stove,  a  large 
grate  whose  warmth  must  be  particularly 
acceptable  in  hard  weather.  Close  against 
the  mast  is  a  clockwork  machine,  set  in 
motion  by  a  descending  weight,  whose 
office  is  to  turn  an  iron  spindle-rod  laid 
against  the  mast,  and  so  contrived  that 
when  the  lantern  is  hoisted  into  its  place 
it  sets  the  light  revolving  in  the  manner 
to  be  presently  described. 

Immediately  behind  the  mast,  after 
passing  the  companion  ladder,  a  smalL 
passage-way  leads  to  the  captain's  cabin 
and  the  'store-rooms.  On  the  right,  in 
large  lockers  breast-high,  the  bread  and 
provisions  are  kept  ;  on  the  left  is  the 
principal  store,  where  the  oil,  cotton  wicks, 
and  spare  lamps  are  deposited.  Here  are 
four  or  five  cylindrical  cisterns,  each  con- 
taining 100  gallons  of  colza  oil,  a  bench, 
and  a  set  of  bright  copper  measures,  and 
a  black-board  ruled  into  suitable  spaces 
for  a  record  in  chalk  of  the  quantities 
drawn  off.  Two  or  three  spare  lamps  and 
reflectors  hang  from  the  beams,  all  ready 
for  use;  and  a  trimming-tray,  with  scissors, 
holders  for  wicks,  and  glass  cylinders,  and 
other  appliances  used  by  the  lamp-trimmer 
when  performing  his  daily  task,  lies  here 
in  the  place  provided  for  it. 

From  the  passage  a  door  opens  into  the 
stern  cabin,  a  snug  little  den  for  the  use 
of  the  officer  in  command,  neatly  but 
plainly  furnished,  with  a  library  for  the 
use  of  the  crew,  the  books  of  which  cir- 
culate throughout  the  service. 

Below  this  deck  is  the  hold,  in  which 
water  tanks,  spare  cables,  and  some  few 
tons  of  ballast,  keep  the  vessel  steady. 

The  principal  function  for  which  a  light- 
vessel  is  placed  is,  as  the  name  implies, 
the  exhibition  of  a  warning  or  a  guiding 
light  at  night.  To  prevent  confusion  with 
lamps  or  fires  on  shore  or  on  board  other 
vessels,  a  distinguishing  character  is  given 
to  the  light,  which,  in  the  case  of  the 
"Nore,"  is  called  the  revolving  half- 
minute  character.  The  effect  to  be  pro- 
duced is  that  a  brilliant  flash  shall  pass 
before  the  eye  of  the  observer  every  30 
seconds,  which  is  accomplished  in  the: 
following  manner : 


NOR— NOR  152 

Argand  lamps,  fitted  each  within  a 
paraboloidal  reflector,  and  slung  upon 
gimbal  work  to  counteract  the  vessel's 
rolling,  are  arranged  in  three  groups  of 
three  lamps  each  on  a  frame  within  the 
lantern,  and  surrounding  the  mast.  The 
property  of  this  kind  of  reflector  is  that 
it  gathers  all,  or  nearly  all,  the  rays  into 
a  parallel  beam  of  light,  and  when  in 
position  this  beam  is  thrown  towards  the 
horizon.  The  three  in  a  group  are 
cornered  together  with  their  rims  in  one 
plane,  like  a  triple-barrelled  opera  glass, 
so  that  the  blended  beams  of  three  lamps 
reach  the  observer  at  the  same  time.  The 
framework  which  carries  the  three  groups 
runs  on  wheels  on  a  circular  rail,  and  its 
inner  ring  which  encircles  the  mast  is 
cogged  upon  one  edge.  When  the  lantern 
is  hoisted  these  cogs  come  into  connection 
with  the  cogged  head  of  the  iron  spindle 
laid  beside  the  mast,  which  is  kept  turn- 
ing by  machinery  below  the  deck,  as 
before  explained,  and  sets  the  frame  in 
motion.  If  there  were  only  one  group  of 
lamps  the  frame  must  revolve  very  fast 
to  bring  the  beam  round  in  half  a  minute, 
and  the  lamps  would  flare  ;  but  by  plac- 
ing three  groups  the  speed  is  reduced  to 
one-third.  To  put  this  description  into 
a  homely  shape  :  the  sea-gull  flying  over 
the  lantern  sees  three  bright  spokes  of  a 
wheel  going  slowly  round  and  round, 
while  if  he  drops  down  on  to  the  water 
he  will  get  a  spoke  in  his  eye  every  half- 
minute  from  sunset  to  sunrise. 

From  stem  to  stern,  deck,  lantern, 
lamps,  cabin,  and  utensils,  are  all  kept 
scrupulously  clean  and  bright.  The  crew 
who  are  charged  with  this  duty  number 
eleven  in  all,  but  only  seven  are  on  board 
at  one  time,  the  master  or  mate,  two 
lamplighters,  and  four  seamen.  Once  a 
month  the  relief  steamer  comes  down 
from  Blackwall,  brings  the  shoremen 
back,  and  takes  others  away.  The 
master  and  mate  take  month  about,  the 
rest  have  two  months  on  board  to  one  on 
shore.  Provisions  and  water  are  renewed 
monthly  by  this  vessel,  and  stores  are 
kept  up  to  service  requirements.  There 
is  plenty  of  work  in  keeping  a  look-out, 
keeping  all  clean,  especially  the  lantern, 
lantern-glass,  lamps,  and  reflectors,  and 
in  keeping  very  neat  and  careful  records 
of  the  state  of  wind  and  weather,  baro- 
meter, &c.,  and  of  the  daily  and  nightly 
expenditure  of  oil  and  stores.     The  men 


have,  neverth piece,  <x  good  deal  of  leisure, 
which  some  of  them  employ  in  mat- 
making,  some  in  shoe-making,  some  in  a 
kind  of  cabinet  work  or  in  toy-making. 
They  live  as  a  rule  to  a  good  age,  and  are 
entitled  to  a  pension  when  past  work. 

The  cost  of  this  vessel  with  apparatus 
complete  was  ^5000,  and  its  maintenance 
may  be  stated  at  ^1200  a  year. 

Nore  Sand  Buoy.— A  7-ft.  can-buoy, 
made  of  wood,  and  painted  with  black 
and  white  stripes.  It  is  situated  in  Sea 
Reach,  on  the  northern  edge  of  the  Nore 
Sand,  and  marks  a  depth  of  water,  at 
low-water  spring  tide,  of  16  feet.  It  is 
moored  with  10  fathom  of  chain.  The 
Nore  Sand  Buoy  belongs  to  the  Trinity 
House. 

Nore  Yacht  Club,  New  Falcon 
Hotel,  Gravesend. — Object  :  To  promote 
yacht  and  naval  architecture  ;  to  en- 
courage amateur  seamanship  and  yacht 
racing  in  classes  of  40  tons  and  under ; 
and  to  establish  yachting  accommodation 
on  metropolitan  waters.  Officers  :  com- 
modore, vice-commodore,  rear-commo- 
dore, and  honorary  treasurer  and  secre- 
tary, who,  with  twenty  members,  form 
the  committee.  Election  by  ballot  in 
committee  ;  nine  votes  must  be  recorded : 
one  black  ball  in  eight  excludes.  Burgee, 
light  blue,  dark  blue  cross  through  it, 
gold  anchor  in  centre,  red  ensign. 

Northern  Outfall,— The  Abbey  Mills 
Pumping  Station,  one  of  the  curiosities 
of  modern  civilisation,  lies  on  the  London, 
Tilbury,  and  Southend  Railway,  between 
Bromley-by-Bow  and  Plaistow.  For  per- 
mission to  view,  apply  to  the  Engineers' 
Department,  Metropolitan  Board  of 
Works,  Spring  Gardens,  S.W. 

Northfleet,  Kent,  on  the  right  bank, 
between  Northfleet  Hope  and  Gravesend 
Reach,  25  miles  from  London.  A  station 
on  the  North  Kent  Railway,  about  an 
hour  and  a  quarter  from  Charing  Cross. 
The  station  is  close  to  the  lower  part  of 
the  village.  Population,  6,416.  Soil, 
chalk.  Northfleet  is  a  straggling  village 
on  the  side  of  a  hill,  on  the  summit  of 
which  are  the  church  and  a  quaint,  old- 
fashioned,  open,  triangular  space — pro- 
bably once  the  village  green — which  is 
known  by  the  name  of  The  Hill.  The 
principal  trade  of  Northfleet  is  in  cement, 
and  some  shipbuilding  and  repairing 
are   carried   on    by   the    river.     A  pro- 


minent    object    both    from    the    railway 
and  from  the  river  is  the  college,  built 
and  endowed  in  1847  by  John  Huggens, 
Esq.,    of  Sittingbourne,   for   the   benefit 
of    ladies    and     gentlemen    in    reduced 
circumstances.     It  consists   of  50  supe- 
rior almshouses,    each    of   the    inmates 
receiving  £1    per    week.     A  handsome 
chapel  forms  part  of  the  building.     In 
addition  to  the  50  inmates,  there  are  40 
out-pensioners  who  also  receive  ^1  per 
week.    Perhaps  the  most  prominent  object 
in  Northfleet  is  the  Factory  Club,  a  hand- 
some building  erected  at  the  sole  cost  of 
Mr.  Bevan,  of  the  firm  of  Knight,  Bevan, 
and  Sturge,  for  the  benefit  of  the  working- 
men  of  the  village.     It   is  a  large   hall, 
with   galleries   at    either  end,    in   which 
1,000  persons  can  be  accommodated,  and 
a  number  of  rooms  in  the  basement,  with 
wings  at  the  back,  one  of  which  contains 
the  kitchen,  offices,  lavatories,  &c.,  and 
the  other  a  billiard-room.     The  building 
itself  is  mainly  erected  of  red  and  white 
bricks,  but  relieved  by  columns  in  cement 
of  apparently  mixed  Italian  and  Corinthian 
styles,    in   addition   to    which   there  are 
facings  and  cornices  of  a  similar  material. 
At   each   end  of  the  building  is  a  lofty 
slated  tower,  with  a  flag-staff,  and  mar- 
gined   with    handsome  ironwork.      The 
internal  finishings  of  the  large  hall  are 
executed  in  pitch  pine  ;  underneath  one 
of  the  galleries  is  a  bar,  fitted  up  for  the 
supply  of  refreshments  ;  and  the  whole 
of  the  fittings,  seats,  and  tables  are  also 
of  pitch  pine.     From  the  towers  a  splen- 
did view    may   be  obtained,   embracing 
Southend    and    about    twenty   miles    of 
beautiful  scenery.     The  entrance  fee  is 
is.    3</.   for   Messrs.  Knight's  men,  and 
2J.   gd.   for  those  not  belonging  to  that 
firm.    The  subscription  is  $d.  per  month. 
The  church  of  St.  Botolph,  approached 
from   the   Hill,  stands  in  a  churchyard 
full  of  weatherbeaten  old  tombstones  of 
all  shapes  and  sizes.     Many  crumbling 
carvings  and  half-obliterated  corbels  on  the 
porch  and  older  walls  of  the  church  attest 
the  antiquity  of  the  structure,  and  on  the 
right-hand  side  of  the  porch  the  curious 
may  still   discover  the  Rose  of  York  or 
Lancaster.     The  tower,  which  was  origin- 
ally built  to  serve  the  purpose  of  a  strong- 
hold against    the  incursions  of   pirates 
and  river  thieves,    has  been  partly  re- 
built.    The  external  flight  of  stairs  lead- 
ing to  the  tower  is  part  of  the  original 


153  NOR— NOB 

building.      According    to     Mr.    E.    W. 
Godwin,  F.S.A.,  the  church  in  Norman 
times    belonged   to   the    Archbishop    of 
Canterbury,    until   it    was   given   to   the 
Priory  of  St.  Andrew,  Rochester,  when  it 
was  in  some  measure  rebuilt.     The  origi- 
nal  Norman    church    has    entirely   dis- 
appeared, but  traces  of  the  re-building 
are  visible  in  the  three  westernmost  arches 
of  the  nave.     These  probably  belong  to 
the    close    of    the    12th    century.     The 
present  chancel  would  seem  to  have  been 
built  about  the  middle  of  the  14th  century. 
The  restoration   of  the   chancel,    under 
Mr.     Godwin's     superintendence,      was 
finished  in  1864.     The  chancel  possesses 
one  of  the  architectural  rarities  of  England* 
a   14th   century  rood   screen   beautifully 
carved  in  oak,  on   which   are  heads   of 
Christ  and  his  Apostles,  much  mutilated 
by  the  Puritans.      There  are  some  fine 
brasses,  notably  one  of  Peter  de  Lacy, 
rector  in  1375,  whose  body  lies  in   the 
centre    of    the    chancel,    and   others    of 
William    Lye    (1391),    and    of    William 
Rikhill  and  wife  (1433).     The  sedilia  in 
the  chancel  have  been  beautifully  restored 
and   decorated;    another   set   of  sedilia 
and  piscina  have  been  partially  restored, 
and  will  be  found  at  the  east  end  of  the 
south  aisle.     The  roof  is  of  oak  and  has 
been  partly  renovated  ;  that  in  the  chancel 
was  new  in    1864.      The   registers   date 
back  to   1539.     The  old   parish   church 
iron-bound  chest,  with  six  locks,  is  evi- 
dently of  great  antiquity.     In  the  north 
aisle   is  a   curious   canopied   monument 
displaying  the  bewigged  marble  efhgies, 
nearly  if  not  quite  life-size,  of  Richard 
Crich  and  Esther  his  wife,  "  erected  by- 
his  sole  executor."     Also  in  the  north 
aisle  is   the  monument   of  Dr.   Edward 
Brown.     The  doctor's  will  is  sculptured 
on  the  marble,  and  by  it  he  leaves  to  his 
"dear  and  loving  wife  sundry  fields  in 
Northfleet,  and  the  rent  of  the  chalk,  and 
the  profits  of  the  cherries."     In  the  south 
aisle  is  a  monument  tablet  to  Walter,  son. 
of  Robert,   Lord  Viscount  Molesworth, 
who  died  in  1773,  his  wife  (1763),  and  his 
daughters    (1766   and    1772).       On    the 
general  question  of  epitaphs  it  is  said  of 
this  Walter,   son  of  Robert,  in  the  in- 
scription on  the  tablet  to  his  memory  1 
"Never  fond    of    monumental    compli- 
ments he  forbade  any  use  of  them  in 
regard  to  the  carcases  below." 
Places   of    Worship. — All   Saints^ 


CONVEY  I   TO    THE   M)RE, 


otart/hrds  G&>s? Estate 


NOR— NUN  158 

Perry-street  and  St.  Botolph's  (parish 
church) ;  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  of 
Our  Immaculate  Mother  and  St.  Joseph  ; 
find  Congregational,  Primitive  Methodist, 
Wesleyan,  and  Wycliffe  Congregational 
Chapels. 

Police.— Station,  High-street. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
(money  order,  telegraph,  savings  bank, 
and  insurance),  The  Hill.  Branch  in 
High-street.  Mails  from  London,  7.15 
and  11.30  a.m.,  6.45  p.m.  Mails  to  Lon- 
don, 10.30  and  11.30  a.m.,  2.15  and  8 
p.m.     Sundays  6.30  p.m. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  Northfleet; 
Ferries,  Greenhithe  and  Gravesend. 

Fares  to  London  :  1st,  3/6,  4/6 ;  2nd, 
2/8,  3/6,  3rd,  1/10,  3/-. 

Northfleet  Hope  runs  from  Grays 
Thurrock  to  Northfleet,  nearly  north  and 
south,  about  a  mile  and  a  half.  There  is 
at  the  west  side  of  the  Hope  a  shoal 
with  as  little  as  three  feet  of  water  in 
places  at  low  tide.  At  Grays  Thurrock 
and  at  Northfleet  there  are  very  extensive 
cement  works,  and  at  the  former  place 
is  moored  the  Exmouth  training-ship. 
Bearings  N.  and  S. 

Northfleet  Light.— This,  the  first  of 
the  Trinity  House  lighthouses,  is  an  iron 
pillar-light  illuminated  by  gas.  It  was 
transferred  to  the  care  of  the  Trinity 
House  by  the  Thames  Conservancy  in 
1870. 

North  London  Rowing  Club,  Ham- 
mersmith. —  Election  is  by  ballot  in 
general  meeting  :  one  black  ball  in  five 
excludes.  Entrance  fee,  £\  is.;  sub- 
scription, £1.  10s.  Colours,  dark  blue 
and  light  blue  vertical.  Boat-house, 
Biffen's,  Hammersmith. 

North  Stoke,  Oxfordshire,  on  the  left 
bank,  2  miles  from  Wallingford  (a  station 
on  the  Great  Western  Railway  51  miles 
from  Paddington),  from  London  88  miles, 
from  Oxford  23^  miles.  Population  187. 
Soil,  chalk.  The  church  of  St.  Mary  has 
a  good  pointed  arch  between  the  nave 
and  chancel  and  another  good  arch  at 
the  west  end,  filled  up  and  spoiled  by  a 
gallery.  Unlike  most  of  its  neighbours, 
the  church  has  not  been  touched  by  the 
hand  of  the  restorer,  but  it  is  high  time 
that  it  should  be  taken  in  hand.  At 
present  it  has  an  almost  pitiably  bare  and 
barn-like  look.  It  is  understood  that  the 
delay  in  the  restoration  of  the  church  is  a 
matter  of  finance, 


Place  of  Worship.— St.  Mary's. 

Postal  Arrangements.  —  Letters 
through  Wallingford.  Mail  from  London, 
6.55  a.m.  Mail  to  London,  7.10  p.m. 
No  delivery  or  collection  on  Sunday. 
Nearest  money-order  office,  &c. ,  Walling- 
ford. 

NEAREST  Bridges,  up,  Wallingford  2J 
miles  down,  Streatley  3!  miles.  Locks, 
up,  Wallingford  2  miles  ;  down,  Cleeve 
3  miles.  Ferry,  Little  Stoke.  Railway 
Stations,  Wallingford  and  Moulsford, 
G.W.R. 

Fares  from  Wallingford  to  Padding- 
ton :  1st,  9/5, 16/-;  2nd,  7/-,  12/-;  3rd,  4/5. 
No  Sunday  trains.  From  Moulsford  to 
Paddington  :  1st,  8/5,  14/6 ;  2nd,  6/3, 
11/-  ;  3rd,  3/11J. 

North  Woolwich  Gardens. — On  the 

left  bank  of  the  river,  adjacent  to  the 
North  Woolwich  Station  of  the  Great 
Eastern  Railway,  about  half  an  hour 
from  Fenchurch-street.  Almost  the  only 
survivors  of  the  open-air  places  of  amuse- 
ment which  were  once  so  numerous,  are 
now  Rosherville  and  North  Woolwich. 
The  latter,  though  by  no  means  so 
picturesque  as  the  lofty  and  tree-crowned 
crags  of  Rosherville,  are  prettily  laid  out, 
and  in  the  summer-time  are  a  pleasant 
enough  place  of  resort.  A  variety  of 
entertainments  of  the  usual  class  are 
given  here  during  the  season  :  in  fine 
weather  the  gardens  are  generally 
thronged.  The  price  of  admission  is 
6d.,  and  the  fares  from  Fenchurch-st. 
are  :  1st,  1/1,  1/7  ;  2nd,  -/io,  1/3  ;  3rd, 
-/7,  -/11. 

Nuneham  Courteney  (Oxford- 
shire), a  seat  of  the  Harcourt  family,  is 
one  of  the  most  delightful  residences  on 
the  Thames.  The  house,  which  is  fortu- 
nately free  from  the  inconvenience  of  over 
magnificence,  is  large  and  roomy,  and 
gardens  and  park  are  second  to  none  on 
the  river's  banks.  The  property  was 
purchased  in  i7ioby  Simon,  first  Viscount 
Harcourt  and  Lord  Chancellor,  it  is  said 
for  ^17,000.  The  house  was  built  by 
him  from  designs  by  Leadbetter.  It  con- 
sists of  a  central  block,  united  to  its  two 
wings  by  curved  corridors,  and  from 
almost  all  its  windows  commands  beauti- 
ful views.  It  is  a  perfect  storehouse  of 
curiosities  and  relics,  with  a  fine  library 
and  many  excellent  pictures,  and  with 
literary    associations    of    special    value, 


159 


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Mason,  Pope,  Prior,  Horace  Walpole, 
and  many  others  having  been  frequent 
visitors  at  Nuneham.  The  library  con- 
tains a  most  interesting  and  valuable 
collection  of  autograph  letters  and  family 
documents ;  among  the  former  being  a 
very  curious  letter  from  Lord  Salisbury 
after  the  Gunpowder  Plot,  which  com- 
pletely upsets  the  theory  that  the  King 
behaved  with  courage  and  presence  of 
mind  on  hearing  of  the  threatened  danger, 
as  it  expressly  states  that  James  was  not 
told  of  the  plot  until  all  was  safely  over. 
There  is  a  strange  and  melancholy  in- 
terest about  a  collection  of  letters  of 
George  III.,  from  his  schoolboy  days  to 
the  time  when  his  brain  failed  him,  in 
which  the  progressive  steps  of  the  fatal 
malady  can  be  clearly  traced.  George  III. 
was  on  very  intimate  teams  with  General 
Harcourt,  and  among  the  pictures  now 
at  Nuneham  are  drawings  by  the  King, 
Queen  Charlotte,  and  the  Duke  of  York — 
not  very  successful,  it  may  be  added,  as 
works  of  art.  Among  the  most  remark- 
able pictures  in  the  extensive  collection 
may  be  mentioned  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  by 
himself,  set.  17  ;  Michael  Harcourt,  by 
Velasquez ;  a  portrait  of  Sir  Simon  Har- 
court, said  to  have  been  the  first  man 
killed  in  the  conflict  between  Charles  I. 
and  the  Parliament  (fortunately  for  the 
family,  Sir  Simon's  widow  married  General 
Waller,  and  so  saved  Stanton  Harcourt 
from  confiscation) ;  a  portrait  of  Lady 
Anne  Finch,  by  Van  Dyck ;  portraits  of 
Rousseau  (from  a  bust  taken  after  death) 
and  John  Evelyn ;  a  fine  Sir  Joshua  (in 
the  drawing-room)  of  the  Earl  and 
Countess  and  Hon.  W.  Harcourt.  In 
the  same  room  hangs  a  very  noteworthy 
Rubens,  "The  Two  Lights," and  another 
laudscape  by  the  same  master;  good 
specimens  of  Ruysdael,  Van  der  Neer, 
and  Van  der  Velde,  and  another 
beautiful  Reynolds,  a  portrait  of  a 
Duchess  of  Gloucester.  In  the  octa- 
gon drawing-room,  from  the  windows  of 
which  the  views  are  specially  delightful, 
are  a  portrait  of  Pope,  by  Kneller  ; 
another  of  Mary  Countess  Harcourt,  by 
Opie;  and  a  good  Velasquez.  The 
dining-room  contains  a  boy  with  [an 
asp,  by  Murillo  ;  a  landscape  by  Ruys- 
dael, with  figures  by  Wouvermans ; 
and  a  portrait  of  Georgians  Poyntz, 
Countess  Spencer,  by  Gainsborough. 
This  lady  was  the  mother  of  the  beautiful 


Duchess  of  Devonshire,  and  alludes  to 
her  daughter,  in  a  letter  now  at  Nune- 
ham, as  a  lanky  girl,  with  no  pretensions 
to  good  looks,  but  who  hopes  to  have 
something  of  a  figure.  The  family  por- 
traits in  this  room  are  very  interesting  ; 
one  of  Lady  Harcourt,  the  wife  of  Sir 
Robert  Harcourt,  is  specially  odd,  from 
its  extraordinary  costume.  Near  it  hangs 
a  portrait  of  Sir  Robert  himself,  one  of 
Raleigh's  men,  who  parted  with  hundreds 
of  broad  acres  to  fit  out  an  expedition  to 
Guiana,  with  no  result  but  the  subsequent 
publication  of  a  little  book.  There  is  a 
good  portrait  of  Lady  Anne  Harcourt,  by 
Jackson,  and  a  large  picture  of  Simon, 
Earl  of  Harcourt  (the  earldom  was 
granted  by  George  II.),  with  his  little 
dog,  by  Hunter.  To  this  a  curious  bit  of 
family  history  is  attached.  Lady  Nune- 
ham, the  earl's  daughter,  who  was  stay- 
ing in  the  house,  was  one  night  much 
disturbed  by  a  dream,  in  which  she  saw 
her  father  lying  dead  in  the  kitchen  at 
four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon — Lord  Har- 
court being  at  the  time  in  perfect  health. 
Lady  Nuneham  was  so  impressed  with 
the  vividness  with  which  the  dream  pre- 
sented itself  to  her,  that  she  was  unable 
to  persuade  herself  that  some  disaster 
was  not  impending,  and  confided  her 
fears  to  her  husband,  and  subsequently 
at  breakfast  to  the  rest  of  the  family. 
After  breakfast  the  earl  went  out  into  the 
park,  for  the  purpose  of  marking  trees, 
and  nothing  further  was  seen  or  heard 
of  him  until  a  labourer  was  attracted  by 
the  violent  barking  of  a  dog  to  a  well  in 
the  grounds.  There  he  found  the  body 
of  the  earl  head  downwards  in  the  mud 
at  the  bottom  of  the  well,  having,  it  was 
supposed,  overbalanced  himself  in  an 
attempt  to  rescue  his  little  dog,  who  had 
fallen  in.  A  stretcher  was  brought,  and 
the  body  taken  into  the  house.  The 
nearest  room  was  the  kitchen,  and  on  the 
dresser  the  corpse  was  laid — strange  to 
say,  at  exactly  four  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon !  The  coincidence  is,  to  say  the 
least  of  it,  very  remarkable,  and  the  story 
is  undoubtedly  well  authenticated. 

In  the  small  dining-room  is  a  portrait 
of  Aubrey  Vere,  twentieth  Earl  of  Oxford, 
by  Walker  ;  a  Salvator  Rosa,  "Ulysses 
and  Nausicaa ; "  and  two  portraits  by 
Reynolds  of  Simon  Lord  Harcourt  and 
his  son,  respecting  which  the  family 
account  shave  the  following  curious  entry ; 


NUN-NUN 


160 


"£24  10s.  paid  Mr.  Reynolds,  the 
painter."  The  library  contains  many 
portraits  valuable  in  themselves  and  for 
their  associations.  There  are  portraits 
of  Horace  Walpole,  Prior,  Mason,  and 
Pope,  all  presented  by  themselves  ;  a 
portrait  of  Rowe  ;  a  good  specimen  of 
Kneller ;  and  a  very  fine  portrait  of 
Milton  as  a  youth,  by  Van  der  Gucht, 
probably  the  earliest  portrait  of  the  poet 
in  existence.  The  curiosities  and  relics, 
whose  name  is  legion,  comprise  the  ser- 
vice of  Sevres  made  for  the  great  fete  at 
Ranelagh  Gardens  on  the  occasion  of 
the  king's  recovery  in  1789,  and  given  by 
Marquis  del  Campo  to  Earl  and  Countess 
Harcourt  ;  a  locket  which  once  contained 
a  portion  of  the  heart  of  Louis  Quatorze, 
brought  from  Paris,  in  1793,  by  Lord 
Harcourt  ;  Rousseau's  Tasso  and  pocket- 
book,  with  numerous  papers  and  memo- 
randa, given  by  his  widow  to  Lord 
Harcourt  ;  a  piece  of  glass  from  Stanton 
Harcourt,  on  which  Pope  scratched, 
"  Finished  here  the  Fifth  Book  of 
Homer  ;  "  Queen  Charlotte's  snuff-box, 
still  containing  a  little  high-dried  ;  her 
majesty's  box  of  rouge,  &c.  ;  a  tiny 
watch,  given  by  the  Queen  of  Bohemia, 
daughter  of  James  I.,  to  Frederick  Har- 
court ;  a  piece  of  Charles  II.'s  oak  ;  and 
a  box  said  to  be  made  from  the  tree 
against  which  Sir  Walter  Tyrrell's  arrow 
glanced.  Strict  belief  in  the  latter  article 
is  not  considered  absolutely  necessary  at 
Nuneham.  There  is  also  a  curious  piece 
of  14th  century  needlework,  and  some 
tapestry  worked  by  Mary  Queen  of 
Scots. 

The  gardens  on  the  right  of  the  house 
were  laid  out  by  Mason  in  rather  a  formal 
style,  and  abound  in  monuments  and 
tablets  with  somewhat  pompous  inscrip- 
tions, grottoes,  and  high  hedges.  The 
present  owner  has  made  great  improve- 
ments, which  have  had  the  effect  of 
opening  up  fine  views  which  were  for- 
merly shut  out.  Beyond  the  gardens  is 
the  old  church  (now  closed),  dedicated 
to  All  Saints,  which  was  built  in  1764 
by  the  second  Lord  Harcourt,  and  is 
modelled  on  the  design  of  an  Early 
Christian  church.  On  the  left  of  the 
house  run  for  some  distance  along  the 
river's  bank,  and  amidst  most  beautiful 
trees,  the  walks  constructed  by  Capability 
Brown,  where  artfully-devised  vistas,  cut 
through  the   foliage,   afford  lovely  and 


unexpected  peeps  of  Oxford,  Abingdon, 
and  Radley.  At  what  is  known  as 
Whitehead's  Oak,  there  is  a  particularly 
fine  view  of  Oxford,  although  it  must  be 
confessed,  from  a  landscape-painter's 
point  of  view,  Sandford  Mill,  with  its 
ugly  chimney,  is  decidedly  in  the  way. 
On  a  knoll  in  this  part  of  the  park  stands 
Carfax  Conduit,  which  was  built  by  Otho 
Nicholson  in  1590,  and  being  taken  down 
in  1787  to  enlarge  the  High-street,  Ox- 
ford, was  presented  by  the  University  to 
George  Simon  Earl  Harcourt. 

The  village,  which  formerly  stood  near 
the  house,  was  removed  to  some  distance 
down  the  road  by  Earl  Harcourt,  who  at 
one  time  had  an  odd  idea  of  improving 
the  villagers  by  the  institution  of  orders 
of  merit,  prizes  of  virtue,  &c.  &c.  It  is 
scarcely  necessary  to  add  that  the  attempt 
did  not  answer  the  sanguine  expectations 
of  its  promoter.  The  population  of  the 
village  is  304.  The  nearest  railway- 
station  is  Culham,  a  station  on  the 
Great  Western  Railway,  56  miles  from 
Paddington.  Divine  Service  is  celebrated 
in  the  new  church,  close  to  the  village 
(which  was  consecrated  on  May  18th, 
1880)  on  Sundays,  Holy  Days,  Wednes- 
days, and  Fridays.  The  house  is  not 
shown  to  casual  visitors,  but  the  park  is, 
owing  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  E.  W. 
Harcourt,  M. P.,  its  present  owner,  a 
famous  place  for  picnics  and  water- 
parties.  The  regulations  for  admission 
to  the  park  are  as  follows  :  The  season 
for  admission  commences  on  the  1st  of 
May  and  ends  on  the  1st  of  September. 
The  days  of  admission  are  Tuesdays  and 
Thursdays  only,  by  ticket.  Each  ticket 
admits  ten  persons  to  the  lock  and  Carfax. 
Tickets  for  private  parties,  giving  admis- 
sion to  [the  gardens  between  the  hours  of 
2  and  5,  are  granted  for  Tuesdays  only. 
Members  of  Oxford  University  and  their 
friends  are  admitted  on  Tuesdays  and 
Thursdays  without  tickets,  but  are  re- 
quired to  inscribe  their  names  in  a  book 
kept  for  that  purpose  at  the  lock.  Tickets 
can  be  had  on  application  by  letter  from 
F.  Mair,  Esq.,  Nuneham  Courteney,  Ox- 
fordshire. Dogs  are  not  admitted,  and 
it  is  particularly  requested  that  all  broken 
glass  and  other  ctebris  of  picnic  parties 
may  be  carefully  removed.  Accommoda- 
tion for  small  parties  can  be  had  at  the 
lock  cottages. 

Fares  to  Paddington,  see  Culham. 


Occidental  Rowing  Club,  Hammer- 
smith.— Election  by  ballot  of  members, 
not  less  than  fifteen  to  vote,  one  blackball 
in  five  to  exclude.  Entrance  fee,  10s.  6d. ; 
subscription,  ^i  ios.  Headquarters, 
Biffen's,  The  Mall,  Hammersmith. 
Colours,  blue,  black,  and  gold  diagonals. 

Ornithology. — When  the  eye  grows 
weary  of  wood  and  water-meadow,  of 
lofty  poplar  and  lowly  pollard,  it  is  plea- 
sant to  turn  one's  mind  to  the  varied 
incidents  of  bird-life  which  present  them- 
selves along  the  Thames,  and  which  pro- 
vide a  fund  of  entertainment  at  all  seasons 
for  lovers  of  nature. 

Go  where  you  will,  and  when  you  will, 
to  any  spot  upon  the  river  bank,  you 
will  hardly  fail  to  discover  some  represen- 
tative of  the  feathered  tribe,  whose  actions 
attract  notice,  whose  habits  are  worth 
observing. 

To  the  naturalist,  however,  who  would 
attempt  a  sketch  of  the  bird-life  of  the 
Thames,  two  difficulties  present  them- 
selves at  the  outset.  In  the  first  place, 
the  district  to  be  examined  has  no  natural 
boundaries  ;  and  in  the  second,  a  bird  has 
such  perfect  freedom  of  action,  that  its 
presence  or  absence  in  any  particular  spot 
may  be  a  matter  of  the  merest  chance  ; 
while  the  advent  of  an  ornithologist  to 
observe  and  record  that  of  the  bird  is  a 
still  greater  uncertainty. 

Nevertheless,  there  are  certain  birds 
which  are  characteristic  of  the  river.  Some 
are  found  only  in  summer,  others  only  in 
winter  ;  while  not  a  few  of  the  rarer  kinds, 
although  their  visits  to  particular  spots  at 
irregular  intervals  can  only  be  regarded 
as  accidental,  deserve  at  least  a  passing 
notice  whenever  and  wherever  their  occur- 
rence has  been  satisfactorily  ascertained. 
Upon  some  such  basis  as  this,  a  tolerably 
long  list  of  the  birds  of  the  Thames  Valley 
might  be  made  out. 

Foremost  amongst  the  species  which  at 
once  attract  attention  are  the  Swans. 
Although  scarcely  to  be  called  wild  birds, 
theycanyet  hardly  be  termed  domesticated. 
It  is  true  they  have  owners,  but  they  are 
never  fed  by  them,  nor  are  they  ever  driven 
home.  Their  home  is  the  river,  where  they 
have  to  forage  for  themselves,  and  where, 
from  their  appearance,  it  would  seem 
that  they  do  not  fare  badly.  Aquatic 
plants,  particularly  the  Anacharis  alsi- 
nastrum,  mollusca,  and  fish  ova,  form 
their   principal   food,   while    at   certain 


161  OCC-ORN 

favoured  spots  they  pick  up  many  a 
morsel  thrown  to  them  by  the  passers-by. 
Each  family  of  swans  on  the  river  has 
its  own  district,  and  if  the  limits  of  that 
district  are  encroached  upon  by  other 
swans,  a  pursuit  immediately  takes  place, 
and  the  intruders  are  driven  away.  Ex- 
cept in  this  instance,  they  appear  to  live 
in  a  state  of  the  most  perfect  harmony. 
The  male  is  very  attentive  to  the  female, 
assists  in  making  the  nest,  and  when  a 
sudden  rising  of  the  river  takes  place, 
joins  her  with  great  assiduity  in  raising 
the  nest  sufficiently  high  to  prevent  the 
eggs  from  being  chilled  by  the  action  of 
the  water,  though  sometimes  its  rise  is  so 
rapid  that  the  whole  nest  is  washed  away 
and  destroyed.  Swans  generally  breed 
in  their  third  year.  Six  or  seven  eggs  are 
laid,  and  incubation  lasts  six  weeks, 
during  which  time  the  male  is  in  constant 
attendance  upon  the  female,  occasionally 
taking  her  place  upon  the  eggs,  or  guard- 
ing her  wiih  jealous  care,  giving  chase 
and  battle  if  necessary  to  every  intruder. 
The  young  when  hatched,  which  is 
generally  about  the  end  of  May,  are  con- 
ducted to  the  water  by  their  parents,  and 
are  even  said  to  be  carried  there ;  it  is 
certain  that  the  cygnets  are  frequently 
carried  on  the  back  of  the  female  when 
she  is  sailing  about  on  the  water,  and  by 
raising  one  leg  she  assists  them  in  getting 
upon  her  back.  This  habit  has  been  not 
unnoticed  by  Shakespeare,  who  wrote  : 

So  doth  the  swan  her  downy  cygnets  save, 
Keeping  them  prisoner  underneath  her  wings... 
Henry  VI.  Part  I.  Act  v.  sc.  3. 

By  the  expression  "underneath  her 
wings,"  we  may  understand  under  shelter, 
of  her  wings,  which  she  arches  over  her 
back  whereon  the  young  are  seated. 

A  full-grown  male  bird  (technically 
termed  "cobb")  would  weigh  about 
40  lb.,  and  a  female  ("pen")  5  lb.  or 
6  lb.  less,  while  a  cygnet  will  run  to  28  lb* 
or  so,  and  it  is  about  this  weight,  when 
properly  fattened,  they  are  killed  for 
table.  Her  Majesty  usually  has  a  score 
or  so  fattening  every  year. — [See  Swan- 
Upping.) 

When  the  river  is  frozen,  the  swans 
sometimes  fare  badly.  A  waterman  at 
Kingston  informed  us  that  he  once  found 
fourteen  of  these  birds  in  a  backwater, 
with  their  feet  frozen  in  the  ice,  and  so 
firmly  held  that  they  must  have  perished 

F 


ORN-ORN 


162 


from  starvation  if  he  had  not  rescued 
them.  He  took  them  all  home  and  fed 
them  for  some  days,  for  which,  in  due 
course,  he  was  properly  rewarded. 

During  severe  winters,  Wild  Swans,  or 
Whoopers,  occasionally  visit  the  Thames, 
but  seldom  make  any  stay,  for  their  con- 
spicuous size  and  colour  at  once  attract 
attention,  and  all  the  guns  within  reach 
are  directed  towards  them.  A  wild  swan 
may  always  be  known  from  a  tame  one 
when  within  shot  by  the  colour  of  its  bill. 
In  the  domesticated  bird,  the  base  of 
the  bill  is  black,  with  a  large  horny  pro- 
tuberance on  the  forehead,  while  the  tip 
of  the  bill  is  yellow  ;  in  the  wild  bird 
these  colours  are  reversed. 

Wherever  a  thick  bed  of  osiers,  often 
fringed  with  the  foliage  of  the  purple 
loosestrife,  affords  concealment  and  a 
convenient  nesting-place,  we  are  sure  to 
find  a  few  Moorhens,  their  white  flank 
feathers  contrasting  prettily  with  their 
dark  bodies  and  green  legs,  as,  scuttling 
in  from  mid-stream  at  our  approach,  they 
seek  shelter  amongst  the  dense  under- 
growth. Dabchicks,  or  Little  Grebes, 
are  occasionally  to  be  met  with,  but  they 
are  so  uncommonly  wary,  and  dive  so 
quickly  at  the  approach  of  an  intruder, 
that  we  seldom  get  more  than  a 
momentary  glimpse  of  them. 

Nor  do  we  often  get  very  near  to  a 
Heron,  whose  long  neck  and  long  legs 
enable  him  to  see  over  the  tall  rank 
herbage  in  which  he  stands  ;  and  at  the 
first  sign  of  danger  he  is  off.  Early 
morning,  or  twilight,  is  the  time  at  which 
to  find  herons  by  the  riverside — that  is,  on 
the  Upper  Thames.  Lower  down,  about 
Barking  or  Rainham,  these  birds  may 
be  met  with  at  all  times  of  the  day  in  the 
marshes  adjoining  the  river,  as  well  as  in 
the  creeks  and  on  the  mud-flats  around 
Canvey  Island.  There  are  several  heron- 
ries in  proximity  to  the  Thames,  from 
which  these  birds  come  to  fish.  In 
Oxfordshire  there  is  a  small  colony  in 
Far  Wood,  Southleigh,  the  seat  of 
Colonel  Harcourt.  A  pair  or  two  used 
to  breed  about  Henley,  but  nowhere  in 
sufficient  numbers  to  be  worthy  the 
name  of  a  heronry.  In  Berkshire  there 
Msed  to  be  two  colonies  in  Windsor 
Great  Park,  but  we  are  not  sure  whether 
they  are  still  preserved.  At  Coley  Park, 
near  Reading,  the  seat  of  Mr.  J.  B. 
Monck,  a  pair  of  herons,  about  the  year 


1834,  built  their  nest  on  the  top  of  a  fine 
lime  in  the  park,  growing  on  a  small 
island  close  to  the  Holybrook,  and  not 
far  from  the  Kennet.  This  pair  having 
brought  off  their  young  in  safety,  de- 
parted with  them  the  following  autumn  ; 
but  in  January  of  the  succeeding  year 
they  all  returned,  and  during  the  next 
month  they  actively  commenced  founding 
the  colony,  which  has  gone  on  gradually 
increasing  to  the  present  time.  Mr. 
Monck  was  so  well  pleased  with  these 
new  visitors  locating  themselves  in  view 
of  the  house,  that  he  not  only  ordered 
his  servants  to  leave  them  unmolested, 
but  also  inserted  a  clause  to  the  same 
effect  in  the  lease  of  a  neighbouring 
tenant.  So  numerous  are  the  nests  on 
these  trees  from  successive  repairs  and 
additions  during  each  succeeding  year, 
that  many  of  them  touch  one  another; 
and  such  is  the  quantity  of  sticks  heaped 
together,  that  many  of  them  are  actually 
a  yard  in  height.  These  nests  remain 
throughout  the  winter,  and  at  a  distance 
look  like  a  gigantic  rookery.  Notwith- 
standing the  contiguity  of  the  two  branch 
railways  to  Newbury  and  Basingstoke 
from  Reading,  which  run  within  a  short 
distance  of  the  heronry,  the  birds  do  not 
seem  to  be  in  the  least  disturbed  by  the 
change  which  has  taken  place  in  the 
former  quietude  and  seclusion  of  this 
once  retired  spot.  About  the  year  1845 
a  few  emigrants  from  the  original  stock 
established  themselves  in  some  large 
beech-trees  in  a  wood  about  three  miles 
distant,  and  within  half  a  mile  of  the 
Thames. 

In  Buckinghamshire  Sir  W.  Clayton 
can  boast  of  a  heronry  at  Harleyford,  and 
a  few  years  ago  a  pair  of  herons  nested 
in  an  oak  at  Fawley  Court,  not  far  from 
Henley  ;  but  the  young  were  taken,  and 
they  deserted  the  spot. 

In  the  metropolitan  county  there  were 
formerly  two  heronries — one  at  Uxbridge, 
and  another  at  Osterly  Park,  the  seat  of 
Lord  Jersey.  The  last-named,  however, 
has  ceased  to  exist,  and,  we  believe,  also 
the  former. 

In  Surrey  there  are,  at  least,  two 
heronries  at  no  great,  distance  from  the 
Thames.  In  Ashley  Park,  Walton-on- 
Thames,  the  seat  of  Sir  Henry  Fletcher, 
the  nests  are  built  in  some  of  the  finest 
fir-trees  in  the  kingdom.  Mr.  Jesse  relates 
that   a  young   bird   from   this  heronry, 


tes 


having  fallen  out  of  the  nest,  was  taken 
away  in  the  evening  by  a  gentleman,  who 
carried  it  to  his  house  at  some  miles' 
distance,  and  turned  it  into  a  walled 
garden  that  night.  The  next  morning 
one  of  the  old  birds  was  seen  to  feed  it, 
and  continued  to  do  so  until  the  young 
one  made  its  escape.  The  parent  bird 
must  have  gone  over  a  considerable  extent 
of  ground  in  search  of  it.  There  is  a 
second  heronry  in  this  county  at  Cobham 
Park,  the  residence  of  Mr.  Harvey 
Coombe  ;  and  there  was  formerly  another 
at  Oatlands,  near  Weybridge. 

A  large  assemblage  of  herons  takes 
place  at  certain  times  of  the  year  in  Rich- 
mond Park,  where  as  many  as  50  or  60 
have  been  counted  at  one  time.  Some- 
times they  may  be  seen  on  the  tops  of 
trees,  and  at  others  on  the  ground  at  a 
distance  from  the  ponds,  appearing  per- 
fectly motionless  till  they  are  disturbed. 
This  assemblage  is  very  curious.  There 
seems  to  be  no  reason  why  they  should 
congregate  and  remain  for  so  long  a  time 
in  the  listless  manner  observed.  It  is 
seldom  that  one  sees  more  than  two  or 
three  herons  together  in  one  place,  except 
at  a  heronry,  and  then  only  when  they 
are  watching  for  their  prey. 

In  Kent,  at  Cobham  Hall,  near  Graves- 
end,  the  Earl  of  Darnley  has  an  old- 
established  heronry,  which  we  visited 
not  long  since.  Here  about  thirty  nests 
are  built,  chiefly  on  ash-trees,  and  the 
birds  always  depart  in  the  autumn,  to 
return  again  the  following  spring.  In  the 
same  county  there  are  heronries  at  Pens- 
hurst  Park,  and  Chilham  Park,  near 
Canterbury,  the  residence  of  Mr.  Charles 
Hardy.  At  the  last-named  place  as  many 
as  eighty  nests  have  been  counted  in  close 
proximity.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river,  in  Essex,  there  is  a  colony  of  these 
birds  at  Wanstead  Park,  the  seat  of  Lord 
Cowley.  Five-and-twenty  years  ago  the 
herons  here  tenanted  some  trees  at  a 
different  spot  in  the  park.  They  now 
occupy  some  tall  elms  and  wych-elms  upon 
an  island  in  the  largest  sheet  of  water. 
When  we  last  visited  the  spot  we  estimated 
that  there  were  about  thirty  pairs  nesting 
here.  Farther  inland,  near  Chelmsford, 
is  a  heronry  belonging  to  Sir  John  Tyrell. 
Although  13  or  14  miles  from  the  river  in 
a  direct  line,  it  is  probable  that  most  of 
the  herons  which  are  seen  about  Canvey 
Island,   at  the  mouth   of   the  Thames, 


... 


ill  n't 


ORN-OBN 

come  from  this  heronry,  as  well  as  from 
Wanstead  and  from  Cobham  Hall. 
Triese  birds  travel  great  distances  to  and 
from  their  feeding-grounds.  We  have 
met  with  them  at  times  more  than  20 
miles  away  from  home.  Several  instances 
have  come  to  our  knowledge  of  herons 
having  been  caught  with  trimmers  set  for 
pike,  and  the  head-keeper  at  Hampton 
Court  Park  once  found  one  which  was 
caught  by  the  beak  in  a  vermin-trap. 

Another  fisher  on  the  Thames,  al- 
though a  much  smaller  one,  is  the  King- 
fisher, one  of  the  handsomest  of  British 
birds,  quite  tropical,  indeed,  in  his  bright 
blue  and  orange  plumage.  These  birds 
frequent  the  backwaters  of  the  Thames, 
where  the  water  is  shallow  and  still,  and 
where  they  can  easily  see  their  tiny  prey. 
Occasionally,  however,  as  we  push  our 
boat  noiselessly  round  abend  of  the  river, 
we  may  see  one  sitting  on  an  overhanging 
bough  or  a  drooping  osier.  But  he  does 
not  stay  long.  A  flash  of  bright  blue, 
and  away  he  speeds  in  a  line  so  straight, 
and  at  a  pace  so  swift,  that  the  eye'  can 
scarcely  follow  him. 

On  some  parts  of  the  river,  during  the 
summer  months,  kingfishers  are  not  un- 
common, especially  after  the  nesting 
season,  when  the  young  are  on  their 
wing.  They  then  keep  together  in  little 
family  parties ;  but  later  on,  in  autumn, 
they  migrate,  and  numbers  go  down  to 
the  coast,  where  they  maybe  seen  fishing 
in  the  creeks  and  tidal  harbours,  as  well 
as  in  the  numerous  dykes  which  intersect 
the  marshes  at  the  mouth  of  the  river. 

We  once  picked  up  a  dead  kingfisher, 
which  on  examination  we  found  to  have 
been  choked  by  a  stickleback,  a  spine  of 
which  was  firmly  fixed  across  its  gullet. 
A  similar  accident  not  unfrequently  hap- 
pens to  the  dabchick  or  little  grebe.  We 
have  seen  many  of  these  birds  which  had 
died  in  their  efforts  to  swallow  a  good- 
sized  river  bull-head,  or  "miller's  thumb  " 
( Coitus  gobio). 

Where  the  ground  is  flat  and  soft  by 
the  margin,  Rooks  and  Peewits  love  to 
feed  ;  and  during  hard  weather,  especially, 
these  birds  may  sometimes  be  seen  con- 
gregating in  large  numbers  in  the  early 
morning,  before  the  traffic  on  the  river 
has  commenced  to  disturb  them.  Peewits 
are  much  attached  to  their  old  haunts. 
A  large  plantation  was  made  in  a  part  of 
Richmond  Park  where  these  birds  had  for 

F  2 


ORN— ORN 


16* 


many  years  been  in  the  habit  of  breeding. 
They  continued  to  do  so  until  the  young 
plants  had  attained  sufficient  height  and 
thickness,  to  exclude  them  from  the 
ground.  They  have  since  continued  to 
lay  their  eggs  near  the  same  spot.  The 
situation  is  a  low-lying  moist  one,  and 
probably  selected  in  consequence  of  the 
grass  being  stronger  there,  and  the  young 
in  consequence  more  easily  concealed. 
As  soon,  however,  as  the  young  birds  are 
able  to  accompany  them,  the  old  birds 
take  them  to  higher  grounds.  They  run 
as  soon  as  they  are  hatched,  but  cannot 
fly  till  they  are  nearly  full-grown. 

Although  we  have  never  observed  the 
Jackdaws  come  down  to  the  river's  brink 
to  feed  with  rooks,  they  may  often  be 
seen  with  these  birds  in  the  meadows 
adjoining.  They  build  in  the  holes  of 
pollards  and  old  trees  in  the  parks,  and 
with  very  little  attempt  either  at  conceal- 
ment or  security.  At  the  time  of  year 
when  the  fallow  deer  is  doffing  his  winter 
coat  to  assume  a  new  one,  the  jackdaw 
finds  it  convenient  to  appropriate  the 
rejected  materials,  as  the  best  he  can 
find,  in  sufficient  quantity  for  the  lining 
of  his  nest,  and  his  proceedings  on  the 
occasion  are  characterised — in  some  in- 
dividuals, at  least — by  a  singular  absence 
of  ceremony.  Not  content  with  the  scat- 
tered tufts,  which  with  a  little  industry  he 
might  collect  from  the  trunks  of  trees, 
the  fences,  or  any  other  object  against 
which  the  deer  has  been  rubbing  himself, 
he  actually  has  the  effrontery  to  tear  off 
fragments  of  the  worn-out  coat  from  the 
person  of  the  owner,  the  latter  meanwhile 
calmly  watching  the  process  of  denudation 
as  if  it  really  ministered  to  his  comfort. 

The  same  old  trees  that  are  tenanted 
by  jackdaws  often  give  shelter  to  owls  of 
two  species — the  White  or  Barn  Owl,  and 
the  Tawny  Owl.  When  pulling  up  the 
river  during  the  still  twilight  of  a  summer 
evening,  we  have  not  unfrequently  ob- 
served a  White  Owl  skimming  low,  with 
noiseless  flight,  over  the  mead,  now  and 
then  dropping  out  of  sight,  and  anon 
reappearing  as  if  unsuccessful  in  its 
stoop.  At  times  the  first  indication  we 
have  had  of  its  proximity  has  been  the 
utterance  of  its  unearthly  "screech," 
which  has  earned  for  it,  amongst  the 
superstitious,  the  title  ot  a  bird  of  ill- 
omen.  When  passing  the  overhanging 
woods  on  various  parts  of  the  river,  we 


have  heard  the  very  different  cry  of  the 
Brown  Owl.  This  is  a  loud  melancholy 
"  hoot,"  not  always  in  the  same  key,  and 
taken  up  and  answered  by  other  indi- 
viduals of  the  same  species  that  happen 
to  be  within  call.  The  effect  is  very  fine 
on  a  still  summer  evening,  when  the 
swallows  are  dipping  to  roost  amongst 
the  osier-beds,  when  most  other  birds  are 
at  rest,  and  the  great  bats  emerge  from 
their  hiding-places,  and  dash  wildly  up 
and  down  in  pursuit  of  the  late-flying 
gnats.  As  the  boat  drifts  gently  down 
with  the  stream,  a  sudden  splash,  and  a 
widening  circle,  reveals  the  spot  where  a 
moorhen  or  a  dabchick  has  disappeared. 
A  low  twittering  of  swallows  is  heard 
from  the  osiers,  as  flock  after  flock  settles 
down  for  the  night,  while  the  hurried, 
startling  song  of  the  reed-warbler  bursts 
forth  at  intervals  from  the  gloom.  Then 
the  deep  note  of  the  brown  owl  chimes  in 
as  a  bass,  and  strikes  the  attentive  listener 
with  a  feeling  akin  to  melancholy,  but  a 
feeling,  withal,  of  intense  enjoyment. 
Cowper  has  truly  said  : 

There  is  in  souls  a  sympathy  with  sounds, 
And  as  the  mind  is  pitch'd  the  ear  is  pleas'd. 

At  such  times,  during  the  summer  even- 
ings, another  and  a  stranger  bird  may 
be  seen  upon  the  wing.  This  is  the 
Nightjar,  a  summer  visitor.  At  a  little 
distance,  when  flying  away,  it  looks  not 
unlike  a  hawk  or  a  cuckoo,  its  long  wings 
and  tail,  and  slim  figure,  giving  it  this 
resemblance.  But  mark  the  character  of 
its  flight.  It  does  not  go  far  in  a  straight 
line,  like  either  of  the  birds  we  have 
named.  It  wheels  and  drops  suddenly 
with  half-closed  wings,  recovers  itself, 
flies  on,  wheels  and  drops  again  ;  at 
every  stoop,  we  may  be  sure,  catching 
some  incautious  moth  or  beetle.  Its 
evolutions  are  very  curious,  while  its 
monotonous  jarring  note,  generally 
uttered  while  the  bird  is  perched,  is  so 
remarkable  as  not  to  be  forgotten  when 
once  identified. 

A  "companion-in-arms  "  is  the  Spotted 
Flycatcher,  for  he  also  wages  war  against 
winged  insects.  A  small  gray  bird  he  is 
— the  young  are  spotted — generally  to  be 
seen  sitting  upon  a  park  fence  or  paling, 
a  low  bough,  or  even  a  post  along  the 
towing-path.  Motionless  he  sits  for  some, 
seconds  on  his  post  of  observation,  then 
suddenly  sallying  forth  into  the  air,  ha 


165 


makes  a  raid  upon  the  passing  prey,  and, 
returning  to  the  same  resting-place,  there 
is  one  gnat  less  in  his  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood. 

Not  unlike  this  little  bird  in  size  and 
general  appearance  when  seen  at  a  little 
distance  is  the  Garden  Warbler,  another 
summer  visitant.  Its  actions,  however, 
are  very  different.  It  hunts  about  the 
tree-tops  for  aphides,  and  may  often  be 
seen  upon  overhanging  boughs  by  the 
riverside.  Its  general  colour  is  gray 
above,  silvery- white  beneath.  It  has  a 
sweet  song,  and  a  loud  one  for  so  small  a 
throat. 

But  in  the  matter  of  song,  by  common 
consent,  no  bird  can  vie  with  the  Nightin- 
gale, whose  clear,  liquid  notes  and  inimit- 
able trills  have  furnished  a  theme  time 
out  of  mind  to  poets  and  naturalists. 
Wherever  a  wood  or  copse  comes  down 
to  the  river,  as  at  Nuneham,  Whitchurch, 
Shiplake,  Marlow,  Cliveden,  and  Datchet, 
the  song  of  the  nightingale  may  be  heard 
during  the  months  of  April  and  May,  not 
only  in  the  evening,  but  during  the  greater 
part  of  the  day,  as  the  birds  sit  in  some 
leafy  bower,  shaded  from  the  sun's  rays. 
The  male  birds  arrive  first,  generally  about 
the  7th  of  April,  and  on  the  arrival  of  the 
hens  they  pair  and  assist  in  building, 
during  which  time,  and  during  the  time 
the  hens  are  sitting,  they  are  in  full  song. 
When  the  young  are  hatched,  the  males 
leave  off  singing,  and  feed  them.  Their 
song  usually  ceases  before  the  end  of  the 
first  week  in  June,  but  we  have  occasionally 
heard  a  nightingale  sing  on  throughout 
June,  a  circumstance  which  we  accounted 
for  by  supposing  that  the  nest  had  been 
robbed,  and  that  the  cock  was  singing 
while  the  hen  hatched  a  second  brood. 

We  have  alluded  to  the  song  of  the  Reed- 
Warbler,  a  very  characteristic  bird  of  the 
Thames  in  summer-time.  It  may  be 
distinguished  from  its  congener  the 
Sedge- Warbler,  which  visits  us  at  the 
same  period  of  the  year,  and  is  very 
common  along  the  Thames,  by  its  being 
a  longer  and  slimmer  bird,  by  the  uni- 
form colour  of  its  head  and  back,  and 
by  its  note  and  different  flight.  In 
the  sedge-warbler  the  most  conspicuous 
characters  are  a  white  line  over  the  eye, 
a  darker  back,  and  dark  centres  to  the 
wing  feathers,  with  lighter  margins.  The 
note  of  the  reed-warbler,  as  distinguished 
from  that  of  the  sedge-warbler,  may  be 


ORN-ORN 

described  as  more  of  a  song  and  less  of  a 
chatter  ;  clearer,  less  harsh,  and  more 
sustained.  The  nests  and  eggs  of  the 
two  species  differ  considerably.  The 
nest  of  the  sedge-warbler  is  placed  on 
the  ground,  formed  of  dry  grass,  and 
lined  with  hair.  The  eggs  are  yellowish- 
brown.  The  nest  of  the  reed-warbler  is 
supported  on  reed  stems,  formed  of  the 
seed  branches  of  the  reeds  and  long  grass 
coiled  horizontally  round  with  a  little 
wool,  including  the  upright  reeds  in  the 
substance.  The  eggs  are  greenish-white, 
freckled  with  dark  green  and  brown.  It 
is  in  the  nest  of  the  latter  bird  that  the 
Cuckoo  often  deposits  its  egg,  and 
perhaps  no  bird  along  the  Thames  more 
frequently  acts  the  part  of  foster  parent 
to  the  young  cuckoo,  unless,  perhaps, 
the  titlark.  Mr.  Jesse  states  in  his  in- 
teresting ' '  Gleanings  "  that  young  cuckoos 
used  frequently  to  be  found  in  the  titlarks' 
nests  in  Richmond  Park,  both  birds 
abounding  there. 

We  have  repeatedly  seen  cuckoos  visit- 
ing the  reed-beds  on  the  Thames,  in 
search  apparently  of  a  "  procreant  cradle." 

About  the  time  that  the  cuckoo  sings 
all  day,  the  voice  of  the  Turtle  is  heard 
in  the  land,  and  a  pleasant  soft  murmur 
it  is.  This  bird  may  often  be  seen  cross- 
ing the  river,  generally  in  pairs,  on  its 
way  to  and  from  the  woods,  where  it 
builds  its  shallow  flimsy  nest,  and  lays  its 
two  pearl-white  eggs.  In  the  autumn  it 
frequents  the  stubbles  and  turnips  in 
little  parties,  and  manifests  unusual 
cleverness  in  keeping  out  of  gunshot. 
During  the  month  of  May  the  meadows 
by  the  riverside  resound  with  the  note  of 
the  Landrail,  or  Corncrake,  which  is 
heard  not  only  all  day,  but  often  far  into 
the  night.  The  nest,  with  its  prettily 
blotched  eggs,  is  not  unfrequently  cut 
out  by  the  mowers  in  the  grass  fields. 
The  Water-Rail  is  far  less  obtrusive,  and 
its  retired  habits  and  stealthy  gait  cause 
it  frequently  to  pass  unobserved. 

Wherever  the  bank  shelves,  and  a 
margin  of  soft  ooze  offers  a  tempting  spot 
whereon  to  rest  and  feed,  we  naturally 
look  for  the  Common  Sandpiper,  or 
"Summer  Snipe,"  as  it  is  frequently 
called.  So  closely  does  the  colour  of  its 
back  resemble  the  mud  on  which  it  walks, 
that  when  perfectly  still  it  is  almost  in- 
visible. Sometimes  it  will  suffer  a  toler- 
ably  near  approach,    and  then    with  a 


ORN-ORN  166 

shrill  "Weet,  weet,  weet,"  will  be  off, 
skimming  low  over  the  water,  with  a 
jerky,  pulsating  beat  of  wing,  which  dis- 
tinguishes it  from  all  others  of  its  kind. 
Another  species  of  sandpiper  visits  us 
twice  a  year — namely,  at  the  periods  of 
migration  in  spring  and  autumn.  This 
is  the  Green  Sandpiper  (  Totanus  ochro- 
pus).  It  generally  arrives  during  the 
third  or  fourth  week  of  April,  stays  a  few 
weeks,  and  then  passes  on  towards  the 
north-east  to  breed  in  Norway,  Sweden, 
and  Lapland.  Towards  the  middle  of 
July  it  appears  with  its  fully-fledged 
young,  and  remains  about  creeks,  ditches, 
and  quiet,  out-of-the-way  ponds,  until 
far  into  the  autumn,  occasionally  even 
being  met  with  here  in  winter.  It  par- 
ticularly affects  the  salt  marshes  at  the 
mouth  of  the  river,  frequenting  the  dykes 
and  mud-flats,  where  at  ebb  tide  it  seems 
to  get  plenty  of  food.  This  sandpiper 
may  be  known  from  the  last-named  by  its 
larger  size  and  darker  colour,  its  white 
rump,  and  different  flight  and  note.  In 
the  marshes  at  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
and  along  shore  at  ebb-tide,  may  be  seen 
many  other  kinds  of  wading  birds,  each 
of  which  has  its  characteristic  flight  and 
actions,  and  its  own  peculiar  note. 
Amongst  these  may  be  named  the  Dun- 
lin, or  Ox-bird,  sometimes  also  called 
Sand-lark,  and,  erroneously,  Stint — this 
last  name  belonging  properly  to  two  of 
our  least  sandpipers  ( Tringa  minuta  and 
Tringa  Temminckii).  Then  there  is  the 
Redshank,  whose  musical  yet  melancholy 
call  may  often  be  heard  from  the  marshes 
in  spring  ;  the  Greenshank,  a  rarer  visitant 
in  spring  and  autumn  ;  and  the  Curlew. 

A  flock  of  Knots  ( Tringa  canutus) 
may  sometimes  be  seen  in  company  with 
the  dunlins  on  the  mud-flats,  and  occa- 
sionally the  rarer  Curlew  Sandpiper 
( Tringa  subarquatd). 

But  of  all  the  river  birds  to  force  them- 
selves upon  your  notice  in  summer-time, 
there  are  none  like  the  Swallo-ws,  Mar- 
tins, and  Sand-Martins.  At  certain 
favoured  spots  they  positively  swarm, 
and  filling  the  air  with  life  and  motion, 
seem  to  vie  with  one  another  in  trying 
how  near  they  can  approach  without 
touching  you.  The  swallows  build  under 
the  arches  of  many  of  the  bridges  ;  the 
sand-martins  here  and  there  in  the  banks, 
where  these  are  high  enough,  and  the 
soil    favourable  for    mining  operations. 


The  latter  birds,  however,  seem  more 
partial  to  sand-pits  and  to  the  artificial 
banks  formed  by  railway-cuttings.  A 
sand-martin's  nest,  taken  from  a  bank  of 
the  Thames,  was  composed  of  a  layer  of 
grasses,  above  which  was  a  second  layer 
of  swan's  breast-feathers,  so  placed  as  to 
curl  over  the  eggs  ;  the  appearance  forci- 
bly reminding  one  of  the  calyx  of  a  tulip, 
or  a  white  water-lily.  Although  the  hole 
was  damp,  the  platform  of  grass  and 
feathers  formed  a  warm  and  dry  receptacle 
for  the  eggs,  which  were  of  a  pearly 
white,  and  six  in  number. 

In  August  and  September  sand-martins 
congregate  in  vast  numbers  on  many 
parts  of  the  Thames.  We  have  seen 
them  perching  in  hundreds  on  the  tele- 
graph wires  over  the  railway  bridge  at 
Taplow. 

In  the  second  volume  of  his  beautifully 
illustrated  work  on  the  birds  of  Great 
Britain,  Mr.  Gould  has  given  a  very 
pleasing  picture  of  a  flight  of  sand- 
martins  over  the  Thames,  in  referring  to 
which  he  says:  "Those who  have  not 
seen  these  vast  assemblages,  can  form  but 
a  faint  conception  of  the  sight ;  it  must 
be  seen,  and  the  myriads  of  their  twitter- 
ing voices  heard,  to  be  understood.  I 
have  frequently  observed  masses  of  these 
birds  collect  high  up  in  the  air,  and  having 
performed  certain  circular  flights  and 
other  evolutions,  descend  with  a  loud 
rushing  sound  to  the  willow-beds  like  a 
shower  of  stones— the  willows  upon 
which  they  settle  being  completely  covered 
and  bowed  down  by  the  united  weight  of 
these  little  birds,  which  sit  side  by  side  for 
the  sake  of  warmth,  and  the  occupation 
of  the  least  possible  space.  If  the  night 
be  cold,  and  the  morning  ushered  in  by 
frost,  these  little  creatures  suffer  severely, 
and  hundreds  may  be  found  benumbed 
by  the  sudden  lowering  of  the  tempera- 
ture ;  in  this  case  many  of  them  die, 
while  others  take  warning,  and  with  won- 
derful instinct  wing  their  way  southward 
to  the  more  congenial  climates  of  Spain 
and  Africa." 

Swifts,  although  not  so  numerous  as 
the  last-mentioned  birds,  breed  at  several 
places  along  the  river>  as  at  Maidenhead, 
where  Mr.  Gould  has  taken  the  young 
between  June  28th  and  July  12th.  They 
are  late  comers,  and  leave,  as  a  rule,  long 
before  the  swallows  and  martins  do.  The 
swift  was  one  of  the  birds  particularly 


167 


noticed  by  Gilbert  White  during  his  visits 
to  London.  In  his  twenty-first  letter  to 
Daines  Barrington,  he  writes  ;  "In  Lon- 
don, a  party  of  Swifts  frequents  the  tower, 
playing  and  feeding  over  the  river  just 
below  the  bridge  ;  others  haunt  some  of 
the  churches  of  the  Borough  next  the  fields, 
but  do  not  venture,  like  the  House-martin, 
into  the  close,  crowded  part  of  the  town." 
During  the  spring  and  autumn  migration, 
several  species  of  Terns,  or  • '  Sea  Swal- 
lows," as  they  are  popularly  termed,  come 
up  the  river  from  its  mouth,  and  often 
wander  a  considerable  distance  inland. 
We  have  identified  at  various  times,  and 
at  different  places,  the  Common  Tern, 
the  Arctic  Tern,  the  Lesser  Tern,  and  the 
Black  Tern  ;  and  in  June,  1869,  we  saw  a 
very  beautiful  specimen  of  the  Sooty  Tern 
{Sterna  fuliginosa),  which  had  just  been 
shot  on  the  Thames  at  Wallingford.  The 
first  flock  of  terns  generally  arrive  during 
the  first  week  in  May,  and  consist  almost 
entirely  of  old  birds.  In  August,  young 
as  well  as  old  birds  are  seen.  At  night 
we  have  seen  them  roosting  upon  boats 
and  upon  posts  projecting  above  the  water 
below  high-water  mark.  The  flight  of 
all  the  terns  is  exceedingly  graceful,  and 
there  can  hardly  be  a  prettier  sight,  or 
one  more  interesting  to  the  ornithologist, 
than  a  flock  of  these  birds  fishing  in  un- 
disturbed enjoyment. 

With  the  terns,  also,  come  Gulls  in 
twos  and  threes,  the  commonest  species 
on  the  Thames  above  London  being  the 
Black-headed  Gull  (oftener  seen  without 
than  with  its  dark  hood)  and  the  Kitti- 
wake.  Below  London  may  be  seen  the 
Common  Gull,  the  Herring  Gull,  in 
all  stages  of  plumage,  and  the 
Great  Black-backed  Gull,  which  used 
formerly  to  breed  in  the  marshes  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Thames  ;  but  all  these 
birds  ascend  the  river  for  some  distance 
during  hard  weather,  or  after  a  gale.  The 
common  gull  has  been  seen  and  shot  at 
Hampton,  and  a  great  black-backed  gull 
was  killed  as  high  up  as  Putney  during 
a  frost.  Sir  Humphrey  Davy  says  in  his 
"  Salmonia "  (p.  193):  "I  believe  that 
the  reason  of  this  migration  of  sea-gulls 
nnd  other  sea-birds  to  the  land,  is  their 
security  of  finding  food.  They  may  be 
observed  at  this  time  feeding  greedily  on 
the  earth-worms  and  larvae  driven  out  of 
the  ground  by  severe  floods,  and  the 
fish  on  which  they  prey  in  severe  weather 


ORN--ORN 

in  the  sea  leave  the  surface  when  storms 
prevail  and  go  deeper." 

Occasionally  the  rarer  Little  Gull 
(Larus  minutus)  pays  a  visit  to  the 
Thames,  but  the  specimens  which  have 
been  procured  have  generally  been  im- 
mature birds.  It  is  worthy  of  remark 
that  the  little  gull  was  first  noticed  as  a 
British  bird  by  Colonel  Montagu,  who 
described  a  specimen  which  had  been 
shot  on  the  Thames,  near  Chelsea. 
Within  the  last  twenty  years,  we  have 
noted  the  occurrence  of  eight  or  nine 
individuals  of  this  species  in  Blackwall 
Reach,  at  Rainham,  Grays,  and  Graves- 
end,  besides  two  others  that  were  shot 
at  Kingsbury  Reservoir  in  August,  1871. 
In  September,  1862,  we  received  an  im- 
mature example  of  the  still  rarer  Sabine's 
Gull,  which  was  shot  on  the  Thames  at 
Blackwall. 

So  far,  we  have  attempted  to  give  some 
idea  of  the  characteristic  birds  which  may 
be  met  with  on  the  river,  both  as  resi- 
dents and  summer  visitants.  In  winter, 
the  avifauna  changes.  It  is  true  that 
the  residents  may  then  still  be  met  with, 
although  with  some  of  these  even  (as  for 
instance  the  kingfisher)  a  partial  migra- 
tion takes  place.  The  Heron,  the  Moor- 
hen, the  Dabchick,  are  still  there,  and, 
of  course,  our  old  friends  the  Swans. 
But  we  miss  the  Swallows  and  the  Reed- 
Warblers,  the  Flycatchers  and  Nightjars. 
The  Cuckoo  is  gone,  and  the  song  of  the 
Nightingale,  Titlark,  Blackcap,  and  Gar- 
den Warbler  are  all  hushed.  The  Grey 
Wagtail  has  come  to  take  the  place  of  the 
pretty  yellow  one,  whose  canary-coloured 
breast  was  so  conspicuous  as  it  ran 
amongst  the  cattle  by  the  river  in  summer- 
time ;  and  the  former  more  sombre, 
though  no  less  elegant  little  bird  may 
be  seen  about  the  weirs  in  incessant 
motion,  with  ever  undulating  tail.  Field- 
fares and  Redwings  in  flocks  pass  over 
with  noisy  twitterings,  and  in  hard 
weather  alight  upon  the  oozy  margin  of 
the  river  at  low  water,  to  seek  a  suste- 
nance which  is  elsewhere  denied  them. 
The  Hooded  Crow,  too,  arrives  as  a 
winter  visitant,  and  at  that  season  is  some- 
times common  in  the  marshes  on  both 
sides  of  the  river  below  London.  In 
November,  1874,  a  hooded  crow  was 
observed  feeding  on  the  lawn  of  the  Inner 
Temple  Gardens.  Flocks  of  Linnets  and 
Lesser  Redpolls  may  be  seen  careering 


OFT4— ORN  168 

along  the  banks,  and  dropping  down 
amongst  the  weeds  in  search  of  food, 
which  consists  chiefly  of  seeds  and  minute 
beetles.  In  company  with  them,  at  times, 
are  found  Bramblings  and  Mealy  Red- 
polls ;  the  last-named,  however  (known 
to  the  London  birdcatchers  as  the  Stony 
Redpoll),  is  comparatively  a  rare  bird, 
and  seldom  more  than  four  or  five  are 
seen  together  at  the  same  time.  Wherever 
any  alders  fringe  the  river  bank,  the 
Siskin  in  winter  may  often  be  found  ;  and 
the  pretty  '  'Snow-flake, ' '  or  Snow-bunting, 
arriving  in  flocks,  contrives  to  pick  up  a 
living  in  the  riverside  marshes  until  the 
spring,  when  it  disappears.  In  company 
with  the  last-named,  the  rarer  Lapland- 
bunting  is  occasionally  met  with,  but  the 
examples  obtained  from  time  to  time  have 
almost  invariably  proved  to  be  immature 
birds.  Snipe,  Duck,  and  Teal,  although 
regular  winter  visitants,  and  often  to  be 
seen  upon  the  wing  at  that  season,  are 
never  found  in  any  number  along  the 
Thames,  in  consequence  of  its  being  too 
much  disturbed  by  constant  traffic.  They 
undoubtedly  visit  the  river  by  night,  but, 
as  a  rule,  betake  themselves  during  the 
day  to  some  quieter  retreat,  either  in  the 
marshes,  or  in  some  preserve  often  at 
considerable  distance  from  the  river,  where 
they  can  rest  undisturbed  until  twilight. 
Woodcocks  are  comparatively  scarce, 
that  is,  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the 
river,  although  a  score  of  places  might  be 
named  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London, 
even  in  the  metropolis  itself,  where  wood- 
cocks have  been  killed  or  caught.  A  few 
pairs  occasionally  remain  to  breed  in  the 
metropolitan  county.  Both  eggs  and 
young  have  been  found  in  the  Hampstead 
and  Highgate  Woods.  The  last  nest  we 
remember  to  have  heard  of  was  discovered 
in  a  wood  at  Englefield  Green,  near 
Staines. 

Amongst  the  wild  fowl  which  visit  the 
Thames  in  winter,  beside  Duck  and  Teal, 
may  be  mentioned  the  Widgeon,  the 
Golden-eye,  and  the  Pochard,  and 
occasionally  the  Tufted  Duck.  Geese  are 
seen  passing  over  in  hard  weather,  but 
seldom  alight.  On  Christmas  Day,  1860, 
however,  a  flock  of  about  fifty  White- 
fronted  Geese  alighted  in  a  large  field  at 
Friar's  Place,  Acton,  and  remained  all 
day,  when  some  took  their  departure, 
about  twenty  remaining  for  two  or  three 
days  longer.    On  the  28th  one  was  *hot, 


and  the  species  then  identified.  Meyer, 
in  his  "  Illustrations  of  British  Birds  and 
their  Eggs,"  mentions  a  white-fronted 
goose  which  he  shot  on  the  Thames 
near  London,  in  February,  1846.  In 
January,  1867,  a  small  flock  of  white- 
fronted  geese  visited  the  Thames  at 
Surly,  and  during  the  last  fifteen  years 
several  specimens  have  been  procured 
near  Eton,  Windsor,  and  Datchet.  The 
Grey-leg  Goose  has  been  killed  on  the 
river  at  Cookham,  and  a  Bernicle  Goose 
was  shot  some  years  since  at  Datchet. 
The  Red-throated  Diver  occasionally 
appears  on  the  river  in  winter.  We  once 
saw  one  which  had  been  shot  between 
Richmond  and  Twickenham,  nearly 
opposite  Eel-pie  Island.  Several  instances 
have  been  recorded  of  the  occurrence  of 
the  Great  Northern  Diver  on  the  Thames 
in  winter,  examples  having  been  procured 
at  King's  Weir,  near  Oxford,  at  Pang- 
bourne,  and  at  Maidenhead.  An  im- 
mature bird  of  this  species,  which  was 
found  in  a  garden  on  Headington  Hill, 
near  Oxford,  after  a  remarkably  stormy 
night  in  October,  was  kept  alive  at  the 
Anatomy  School  for  six  weeks,  and  is 
now  preserved  there. 

Considering  the  number  of  observers 
at  Oxford,  it  is  not  surprising  that  we 
should  be  made  acquainted,  not  only 
with  all  the  commoner  birds  to  be  found 
in  that  neighbourhood,  but  also  with 
many  of  the  rarer  ones.  Nor,  for  the 
same  reason,  can  it  be  wondered  at  that 
a  large  proportion  of  rare  species  have 
from  time  to  time  been  detected  in  that 
vicinity. 

Some  years  ago  a  Honey  Buzzard  was 
captured  near  Oxford  in  a  singular  manner. 
This  bird,  which  preys  on  wild  bees,  wasps, 
and  their  larvae,  had  forced  its  head  into 
a  hole  in  the  ground  after  a  wasp's  nest, 
and  getting  wedged  in  was  seized  by  a 
countryman  before  it  could  extricate  itself. 
Amongst  other  birds  of  prey,  Montagu's 
Harrier  and  the  Eagle  Owl  are  both 
recorded  to  have  been  met  with  in  the 
neighbourhood.  Amongst  the  smaller 
perching  birds,  perhaps  the  Pied  Fly- 
catcher is  one  of  the  rarest  which  has 
occurred  at  Oxford.  A  Rose-coloured 
Pastor,  however,  has  been  preserved, 
which  was  shot  near  Oxford  so  far  back 
as  the  spring  of  1837.  Ravens  at  one 
time  used  to  nest  at  no  great  distance 
from  the  city»  but  we  have  not  heard  of 


any  young  birds  being  found  in  that 
neighbourhood  since  the  year  1834,  when 
four  were  taken  from  one  nest.  Amongst 
the  rarer  shore  birds  may  be  noted  the 
Little  Stint  (Tringa  minuta),  and  Tem- 
minck's  Stint,  both  of  which  have  been 
observed  near  Oxford.  A  pair  of  the 
latter  were  shot  on  Port  Meadow  some 
years  back. 

The  Grey  Phalarope  does  not  usually 
make  its  appearance  until  late  in  the  year, 
when  it  has  assumed  its  winter  plumage. 
A  specimen,  however,  in  partial  summer 
dress  was  killed  near  Oxford,  and  brought 
to  one  of  the  local  bird-stuffers  for  pre- 
servation. Amongst  the  rarer  wild-fowl 
killed  in  this  locality  may  be  noticed 
Bewick's  Swan,  the  Ferruginous  Duck, 
Smew  (three  of  which,  all  males,  were  on 
one  occasion,  in  the  month  of  January, 
killed  at  one  shot),  and  the  Common  and 
Velvet  Scoters.  The  two  last-named  are 
usually  seen  only  in  severe  winters.  One 
Christmas  Eve  a  Scaup  Duck  was  caught 
in  the  basin  in  the  quadrangle  of  Christ 
Church,  where  it  had  settled  in  company 
with  two  others  ;  and  some  years  later,  in 
the  month  of  November,  a  Little  Auk 
was  picked  up  in  an  exhausted  state, 
after  a  storm,  in  Christ  Church  Meadow. 
The  Sandwich  Tern,  rarely  met  with  so 
far  inland,  has  once  been  shot  near 
Oxford  in  the  month  of  August. 

The  Grebes,  as  already  stated,  are 
generally  met  with  on  the  river  in  winter. 
A  specimen  of  the  Eared  Grebe,  however, 
procured  near  Sandford  in  the  month  of 
June,  proved  to  be  in  full  summer  plumage . 
At  this  point  of  the  river  a  Guillemot  was 
once  shot  in  October — an  out-of-the-way 
place  for  so  sea-loving  a  species.  Fifty 
years  ago  the  Kite  was  not  an  uncommon 
bird  in  Oxfordshire  and  Berkshire,  and 
might  be  seen  almost  any  day  by  persons 
taking  a  country  walk  ;  indeed,  it  used  to 
be  observed  sailing  over  the  streets  of 
Oxford.  The  last  we  remember  to  have 
heard  of  in  that  direction  was  shot  at 
Abingdon  in  1855. 

A  specimen  of  that  very  curious  bird, 
the  Hoopoe,  was  killed  at  Wallingford 
about  the  18th  June,  1867,  a  time  of  year 
which  indicates  that  the  bird  might  have 
remained  to  breed  in  the  neighbourhood 
if  unmolested.  At  this  same  spot,  in 
June,  1869,  was  shot  one  of  the  rarest  of 
British  sea-birds, — the  Sooty  Tern  (Sterna 
fuliginosa).     It  was  brought  to  us  for 


169  ORN-ORN 

inspection  the  following  morning  pre- 
paratory to  its  being  skinned  and  pre- 
served for  the  owner,  Mr.  Franklyn  of 
Wallingford.  In  appearance  it  was  in- 
termediate in  size  between  the  Common 
and  Sandwich  Terns  ;  the  bill,  legs,  and 
toes  black  ;  the  head,  nape,  and  all  the 
upper  surface  of  the  body,  sooty  black  ; 
the  chin,  breast,  and  under-parts  pure 
white;  the  tail  long  and  considerably 
forked. 

At  Pangbourne  the  Osprey  has  been 
several  times  observed,  and  specimens 
have  been  procured  at  Oxford,  Nuneham, 
Maidenhead,  Cookham,  Surly  Hall,  and 
Laleham.  In  September,  1866,  a  Grey 
Phalarope  was  shot  by  a  fisherman  be- 
tween Pangbourne  and  Whitchurch.  It 
was  in  a  plumage  intermediate  between 
that  of  summer  and  winter,  and  was  found 
on  examination  to  have  its  mouth  full  of 
small  flies  and  gnats.  Others  have  been 
procured  at  Maidenhead  and  Windsor. 

In  the  fine  collection  of  British  birds 
belonging  to  Mr.  Frederick  Bond,  of 
Staines,  is  a  specimen  of  the  White-bellied 
or  Alpine  Swift,  which  was  shot  many 
years  ago  at  Reading,  near  which  place 
a  short  time  previously  a  Glossy  Ibis  was 
procured.  The  latter  bird  was  one  of  a 
pair,  and  was  preserved  for  the  late  Dr. 
Lamb,  of  Newbury,  whose  collection  was 
subsequently  passed  to  Dr.  Tomkins,  of 
Abingdon.  In  this  same  collection  were 
two  Red-breasted  Mergansers,  killed  on 
the  river  near  Reading,  together  with  a 
Whimbrel  procured  close  by  at  Sonning, 
where  half-a-dozen  specimens  of  that 
beautiful  bird,  the  Avocet  (Recitrvirostra 
avocetta),  were  killed  at  one  shot  while 
feeding  at  a  small  pond  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. During  a  severe  frost  an  Eider 
Duck  once  came  up  the  river  as  far  as 
Sonning,  where  it  was  killed. 

The  White-tailed  Eagle  has  occurred 
at  Henley,  where  also  have  been  procured 
at  various  time,  an  immature  Gyr-falcon, 
a  Black-winged  Stilt,  one  of  the  rarest  of 
marsh  birds,  and  a  Fork-tailed  Petrel. 
At  Fawley  Court,  some  years  back, 
another  White-tailed  Eagle  was  taken,  as 
recorded  by  Yarrell  in  his  "  History  of 
British  Birds  ; "  and  an  Osprey,  seen  here 
for  several  days  in  the  autumn  of  1858, 
was  subsequently  shot  at  no  great  dis- 
tance. In  January,  1864,  a  fine  Bittern 
was  shot  here,  and  another  at  Medmen- 
ham.    After  a  storm  at  sea  many  diving 


ORN-ORN 


170 


birds,  such  as  Guillemots,  Razorbills, 
Puffins,  and  Cormorants,  are  found  cast 
ashore  dead,  or  in  a  dying  condition,  from 
exhaustion  and  inability  to  procure  food. 
Others,  driven  inland  by  the  gale,  wander 
sometimes  a  considerable  distance  from 
the  coast  in  search  of  a  quiet  resting-place 
and  food.  In  this  way  only  can  we 
account  for  the  occasional  appearance  of 
such  birds  on  the  river,  often  at  a  great 
distance  from  the  sea.  Some  years  ago 
(1857)  a  fine  cormorant,  shot  near  Marlow 
railway-bridge,  was  preserved  for  the 
collection  of  Lord  Boston,  at  Hedsor  ; 
and  others  have  been  seen  and  killed  at 
different  times  at  Pangbourne  and  Wrays- 
bury. 

In  James  I.'s  time  cormorants  on  the 
Thames  furnished  a  not  uncommon  sight, 
but  these  were  tame  birds  belonging  to 
the  king,  who  went  to  considerable  ex- 
pense in  procuring  them,  and  having 
them  trained  to  fish,  as  in  China.  His 
Majesty  took  great  delight  in  seeing  them 
at  work,  as  he  did  also  in  watching  his 
otters,  which  were  trained  for  a  similar 
purpose.  A  "  Master  of  the  Cormorant " 
was  appointed,  one  John  Wood,  who,  in 
April,  i6n,  was  paid  ^30  for  his  trouble 
in  "bringing  up  and  training  of  certain 
fowls  called  cormorants,  and  making  of 
them  fit  for  the  use  of  fishing."  In  May 
of  the  following  year  he  was  appointed 
f '  to  travel  into  some  of  the  furthest  parts 
of  this  realm  for  young  cormorants,  which 
afterwards  are  to  be  made  fit  for  His 
Majesty's  sport  and  recreation,"  and  for 
which  he  received  another  ^"30.  In  161 8 
the  king  had  become  so  fascinated  with 
the  sport,  that  he  decided  to  build  a  house 
and  make  some  ponds  for  his  cormorants, 
ospreys,  and  otters  at  Westminster ;  and 
for  this  purpose  he  leased  off  Lord 
Danvers  a  piece  of  meadow  ground,  about 
an  acre  and  a  quarter,  lying  in  the  Vine 
Garden,  near  Westminster  Abbey,  at  the 
yearly  rent  of  ^7.  A  brick  building  was 
erected  on  this  ground  at  a  cost  of  ^  100, 
and  nine  fish-ponds  were  dug,  costing 
altogether  another  ^40.  These  ponds 
were  stored  with  carp,  tench,  barbel, 
roach,  and  dac«  (100  of  each),  and  a 
sluice  of  elm  plartking  was  made  to  bring 
the  water  from  the  Thames.  The  total 
outlay  incurred  upon  this,  the  first 
Westminster  Aquarium,  was  £286,  for 
which  amount,  in  August,  1618,  the  king 
gave  an  order  upon  the  Treasury.     A 


copy  of  this  order,  with  the  bill  annexed, 
will  be  found  in  the  Appendix  to  the 
Issues  of  the  Exchequer  temp.  Jac.  I., 
preserved  in  the  Pell  Office,  and  com- 
monly called  the  Pell  Records.  We 
should  be  very  curious  to  know  what 
success  attended  the  efforts  of  Master 
Wood  to  train  the  osprey.  We  know, 
from  the  relation  of  eye-witnesses,  what 
the  cormorants  could  do  (and  still  do  in 
the  hands  of  a  few  amateurs  to  this  day), 
but  we  have  not  been  able  to  find  any 
proof  that  ospreys  may  be  trained  to  take 
rish  as  are  falcons  to  take  game  and 
wild-fowl. 

Although  we  can  no  longer  say  with 
Goldsmith, 

Along  the  glades  a  solitary  guest 

The  hollow  sounding  bittern  guards  its  nest, 

we  are  enabled  to  include  this  fine  species 
amongst  the  rarer  birds  of  the  Thames 
Valley,  in  consequence  of  its  having  been 
met  with  occasionally,  as  at  Fawley  Court, 
Medmenham,  Maidenhead,  Cookham, 
and  Windsor.  The  Little  Bittern,  also, 
has  occurred  at  Maidenhead,  Monkey- 
Island,  and  Surly  Hall.  In  severe  winters 
that  beautiful  little  black  and  white  duck, 
the  Smew,  has  been  met  with  at  Maiden- 
head, Monkey  Island,  Surly  Hall,  and 
Boveney.  Occasionally  this  bird  is  cap- 
tured in  the  nets  of  fishermen  in  the 
Thames.  Two  were  taken  alive  in  this 
way  in  Bow  Creek,  but  although  abun- 
dantly supplied  with  food,  refused  all 
sustenance,  and  died.  They  had  attained 
the  full  adult  plumage,  but  one  of  them 
was  without  the  elegant  pendent  crest. 

At  Cookham,  some  very  interesting 
birds  have  been  met  with  from  time  to  time, 
amongst  which  may  be  mentioned,  besides 
those  already  noticed,  the  Great  Grey 
Shrike,  Black  Redstart,  Cirl  Bunting, 
Ortolan,  Reeve,  Great  Snipe,  Sheldrake, 
and  Velvet  Scoter. 

That  singular  bird,  the  Night  Heron, 
has  once  been  found  upon  the  Upper 
Thames,  an  immature  example  having 
been  captured  many  years  ago  at 
Cliveden. 

One  of  the  rarest  birds  obtained  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Boveney  is  the  Spur- 
winged  Goose,  which  was  shot  during  the 
winter  of  1858-59,  by  an  Eton  waterman 
named  John  Haverly,  near  Boveney  Weir, 
and  fell  at  Clewer  Point.  It  was  preserved 
by  an  Eton  bird-stuffer,  and  ten  years 


171 


ORN-ORN 


later  was  still  in  the  possession  of  Haverly, 
who  set  great  value  upon  it.  In  the  winter 
of  1861  an  Eared  Grebe  (the  rarest  of  the 
British  grebes)  was  shot  while  swimming 
on  the  Thames,  close  to  Boveney  Lock. 

Mr.  Vidler,  of  Clewer,  has  a  stuffed 
specimen  of  the  Polish  Swan,  which  he 
shot  on  the  river  by  Clewer  Mill,  during 
the  winter  of  1854-55.  About  the  same 
time  and  place,  a  Storm  Petrel  was 
killed  after  several  days'  prevalence  of  high 
winds. 

Windsor  is  particularly  noticeable  in 
the  annals  of  Ornithology  for  the  number 
of  large  birds  of  prey  which  have  been  met 
with  in  the  neighbourhood,  a  circumstance 
110  doubt  to  be  accounted  for  by  the  at- 
tractions of  the  great  quantity  of  game 
preserved  in  the  royal  parks  and  warrens. 
A  White-tailed  Eagle,  shot  there  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1851,  and  exhibited  in  the  Great 
Exhibition  of  that  year,  was  afterwards 
presented  by  H.  R.H.  the  late  Prince  Con- 
sort to  the  collection  which  was  formed, 
principally  by  the  late  Provost  at  Eton 
College.  Another  of  these  fine  birds  was 
shot  in  the  Great  Park  in  December,  1856, 
and  two  others  (immature  birds)  near  the 
same  spot  in  the  autumn  of  1865.  One 
of  these  being  only  wounded  on  the  wing 
was  taken  alive,  and  lived  for  some  time 
in  confinement,  under  the  care  of  Mr. 
Cole,  at  the  Sandpit  Gate  in  the  Park. 

The  Osprey,  Peregrine,  Buzzard,  and 
Honey  Buzzard  have  all  been  shot  and 
trapped  at  various  times  in  Windsor 
Great  Park,  and  a  rarer  visitor  in  the 
shape  of  Tengmalm's  Owl  has  twice  been 
shot  by  gamekeepers  in  Windsor  Forest. 

A  Great  Grey  Shrike  was  killed  close 
to  the  river  at  Windsor  in  the  winter  of 
1865-66,  and  a  Hoopoe  was  seen  in  the 
Great  Park.  Two  or  three  of  the  last- 
named  birds  have  been  procured  near 
Eton. 

At  White  Waltham,  not  far  from  Wind- 
sor, the  rare  Purple  Heron,  a  native  of 
Southern  Europe  and  Africa,  was  obtained 
in  September,  1861.  During  the  summer 
of  i860,  a  pair  of  Pied  Flycatchers  nested 
at  Eton,  where,  some  years  later  (1865), 
two  of  those  tiny  little  birds,  the  Fire- 
crested  Wrens,  were  procured.  One 
evening,  during  a  strong  gale  of  wind,  a 
strange-looking  bird  was  seen  fluttering 
against  a  lamp  at  the  corner  of  Brocas-lane, 
Eton,  and  on  being  captured  proved  to 
be  a  Fork-tailed  Petrel.     We  may  notice 


Staines  Moor  as  a  good  place  formerly 
for  Snipe,  and  occasionally  Woodcock. 
At  Penton  Hook,  just  below,  the  Great 
Crested  Grebe  has  been  shot  in  winter  ; 
the  river  is  now  too  much  disturbed  to 
admit  of  its  remaining  here  in  summer  to 
breed  as  formerly. 

The  Burgh-way,  a  tract  of  rough 
meadow  land  at  Laleham  belonging  to 
the  Earl  of  Lucan,  in  severe  weather  is 
often  the  resort  of  Snipe  and  other  migra- 
tory marsh  birds.  Here,  in  the  autumn 
of  1858,  two  Spotted  Crakes  were  shot. 

The  Oyster-catcher  is  not  often  found 
far  from  the  coast,  but  Yarrell  states  that 
he  has  known  this  bird  killed  as  high  up 
the  Thames  as  Oatlands,  near  Shepperton, 
which  is  at  least  fifty  miles  from  the  mouth 
of  the  river.  At  Sunbury  one  of  the  rarest 
birds  observed  is  the  Little  Owl  ("The 
Birds  of  Middlesex,"  p.  21).  At  this 
spot  we  have  observed  the  Black  Tern  in 
autumn,  and  have  seen  two  Water-Rails 
which  were  shot  there  by  Mr.  J.  H. 
Belfrage,  in  November,  1870.  Mr.  Jesse 
has  recorded  the  occurrence  of  that 
singular  marsh  bird,  the  Ruff,  in  Bushey 
Park  ("Gleanings,"  2nd  series,  p.  281); 
and  close  by,  at  Hampton,  the  Redshank, 
the  Bittern,  and  the  Common  Gull  have 
at  different  times  been  obtained.  At 
Thames  Ditton,  in  September,  1863,  an 
Osprey  was  shot  by  the  lodge-keeper  at 
Ditton  Park  ;  and  lower  down,  at  Kings- 
ton, in  January,  1869,  a  female  Smew 
was  shot  and  brought  to  us  for  identifi- 
cation. Another  seen  at  the  same  time 
was  possibly  the  male. 

In  Richmond  Park  some  pa  irs  of  Stock 
Doves  build  in  the  holes  of  old  oak- 
pollards  every  year.  The  keepers  always 
take  the  young,  which  they  say  are  ex- 
cellent eating.  The  Jackdaw,  Cuckoo, 
and  Tawny  Owl  have  been  noticed  as 
haunting  in  their  proper  season  this  fine 
domain.  Mr.  Jesse,  in  his  entertaining 
"Gleanings,"  has  recorded  the  appear- 
ance of  the  Bittern  here. 

At  Chiswick  we  may  note  the  occur- 
rence of  the  Spotted  Crake  in  the  autumn 
of  1862,  and  a  Red-breasted  Merganser, 
which  was  killed  on  the  river  in  the 
winter  of  1855. 

During  the  summer  of  1879  a  pair  of 
Nightjars  nested  on  Barnes  Common. 
At  Hammersmith,  in  January,  1854,  two 
Red-breasted  Mergansers  were  shot,  one 
of  which  we  saw  preserved  some  time 


ORN—ORN 


172 


afterwards.  Another  was  killed  during 
severe  weather  just  above  Putney  Bridge. 
The  Lesser -spotted  Woodpecker  has 
been  found  nesting  at  Fulham.  In  May, 
1873,  a  pair  built  in  an  old  poplar  at 
Mulgrave  House,  the  residence  of  Vis- 
count Ranelagh.  A  Hoopoe,  too,  was 
observed  in  the  grounds  of  Mr.  Sullivan, 
at  Fulham. 

The  description  of  the  Ash-coloured 
Harrier,  given  by  Graves  in  the  third 
volume  of  his  "British  Ornithology," 
was  taken  from  a  pair  which  were  killed 
in  Battersea  fields,  about  the  middle  of 
May,  1812.  "The  person  who  shot 
them,"  he  says,  "was  not  able  to  find 
their  nest,  though  from  their  manner 
there  seemed  no  doubt  of  its  being  near 
the  spot." 

The  same  author  states  that  in  his  day 
the  Hen  Harrier  was  not  uncommon 
about  the  marshes  of  Kent  and  Essex 
bordering  on  London.  He  often  observed 
them  skimming  over  the  fields  on  the  side 
of  the  Kent-road,  called  Rolls  Meadows. 
In  1821  a  pair  of  Marsh  Harriers,  he 
says,  built  their  nest  in  an  osier  ground 
near  the  Grand  Surrey  Canal,  on  the 
Deptford-road.  It  was  placed  on  a 
small  hillock,  just  above  the  water's  edge, 
and  contained  five  dusky-white  eggs,  two 
of  which  were  splashed  with  rust-coloured 
spots  at  the  larger  end.  The  hen  bird  was 
shot  from  the  nest,  and  being  but  slightly 
wounded,  lived  in  confinement  for  some 
months.  In  the  "  Zoological  Journal"  for 
1825,  the  late  Mr.  Yarrell  recorded  the 
fact  that  in  November,  1824,  a  Grey  Pha- 
larope  was  shot  while  swimming  on  the 
Thames  near  Battersea,  where,  some 
years  later,  the  same  naturalist  noticed 
the  occurrence  of  an  immature  specimen 
of  Richardson's  Skua.  Graves  mentions 
a  Golden  Oriole,  which,  at  the  date  of  the 
publication  of  his  work,  "was  seen  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Little  Chelsea  for 
some  weeks,  but  eluded  all  attempts  at 
capture." 

Amongst  other  rare  birds  seen  and 
obtained  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Chelsea 
may  be  mentioned  the  Little  Crake,  men- 
tioned by  Yarrell ;  the  Eared  Grebe, 
which  was  found  nesting  in  a  pond  on 
Chelsea  Common  ("  British  Miscellany," 
p.  19) ;  and  the  Puffin,  a  specimen  of 
which  was  caught  by  a  fisherman  in 
Chelsea  Reach,  and  kept  alive  for  some 
days. 


In  Edwards's  "  Gleanings  in  Natural 
History"  (vol.  i.  p.  228),  mention  is  made 
of  a  '  Little  Owl  (Athene  noctua),  which 
came  down  the  chimney  of  a  house  in 
Lambeth  :  and  Yarrell  had  in  his  col- 
lection a  Ring  Ouzel,  which  was  caught 
in  a  trap  in  a  garden  at  South  Lambeth. 

Some  years  ago  we  remember  seeing 
m  the  shop  of  Messrs.  BufTon  and  Wilson, 
taxidermists,  in  the  Strand,  a  live  Water 
Rail,  which  a  boy  had  caught  some  days 
previously  in  a  half-starved  condition  on 
the  bank  of  the  Thames,  just  opposite 
Surrey-street.  This  was  before  the  Em- 
bankment was  built.  In  September, 
1866  (a  year  noted  for  an  extraordinary 
immigration  of  Grey  Phalaropes),  we  saw 
one  of  these  birds  which  had  been  shot 
on  the  Thames  near  Waterloo  Bridge, 
and  another  killed  off  Blackwall,  where 
we  have  already  noted  the  occurrence  of 
the  rare  Sabine's  Gull.  In  the  autumn  of 
1862,  an  immature  specimen  of  Richard- 
son's Skua  was  brought  to  us,  which  had 
been  shot  in  Greenwich  Reach.  In  Bow 
Creek,  the  Smew  and  the  Fork-tailed 
Petrel  have  been  procured  ;  and  at  Bark- 
ing, the  Great  Snipe,  and  a  curious  cream- 
coloured  variety  of  the  Common  Snipe. 
At  Rainham  we  have  noted  the  appear- 
ance and  capture  of  the  Waxwing,  the 
Wood  Sandpiper,  and  the  Little  Gull. 

Dartford  is  celebrated  in  the  annals 
of  ornithology  as  the  locality  where,  in 
April,  1773,  Dr.  Latham  first  discovered 
the  Dartford  Warbler,  till  then  unre- 
cognised as  a  British  bird.  Having  com- 
municated his  discovery  to  Pennant,  the 
bird  was  described  and  figured  by  the 
latter  naturalist  in  the  fourth  edition  of 
his  "British  Zoology,"  in  1776.  Since 
that  time  it  has  been  found  on  many  of 
the  commons  and  heaths  of  the  southern 
counties  in  England. 

At  Greenhithe  the  Common  Skua  has 
been  noted,  and  at  Grays  the  Little  Stint. 
The  Skua  has  also  been  seen  off  the 
Chapman  Light,  where,  in  November, 
1876,  a  fine  pair  of  Avocets  were  shot. 

In  concluding  this  sketch  of  bird  life  on 
the  Thames,  we  cannot  refrain  from 
noticing  a  beautiful  little  bird,  which, 
once  characteristic  of  the  river  and  its 
great  reed-beds,  is  now,  it  is  feared, 
extinct  there.  We  refer  to  the  Bearded 
Titmouse,  of  which  Mr.  Stevenson,  in  his 
"  Birds  of  Norfolk,"  has  given  so  graphic 
an  account  from  observation  of  its  habits 


in  that  county.  When  Graves  published 
the  second  edition  of  his  4  *  British  Ornitho- 
iQgy>"  m  1821,  he  wrote  :  ''The  Bearded 
Titmouse  is  found  in  considerable  abun- 
dance in  the  extensive  tracts  of  reed-land 
from  Woolwich  to  Erith  in  Kent,  and  is 
occasionally  seen  in  the  like  situation  in 
various  places  adjacent  to  London.  We 
have  found  it  on  the  side  of  the  Surrey 
Canal,  on  Sydenham  Common,  also  on 
the  roadside  leading  from  Bermondsey  to 
Deptford,  called  Blue  Anchor-lane,  and 
have  seen  it  in  numbers  about  Erith." 
There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  cuttiug 
down  of  the  reed -beds,  its  favourite 
haunts,  and  the  reclamation  and  cultiva- 
tion of  the  marshes,  has  gradually  led  to 
its  decrease,  and,  as  it  is  feared,  its  final 
extinction ;  no  specimens  of  this  bird 
having  been  observed  on  the  river  for 
many  years  past. 

Ovens  Buoy. — A  20-foot  conical  buoy, 
made  of  iron,  and  painted  black.  It  is 
situated  in  Gravesend  Reach,  three  miles 
below  Gravesend,  at  the  edge  of  the  Oven 
Spit  on  the  Essex  (left)  bank,  and  marks 
a  depth  of  water,  at  low-water  spring  tide, 
of  9  feet.  It  is  moored  with  15  fathoms 
of  chain.  This  buoy  has  only  been  re- 
transferred  to  the  Trinity  House  recently, 
having,  in  1865,  been  transferred  to  the 
Thames  Conservancy. 

Oxford  City.— From  London  in  J 
miles.  By  rail  from  Paddington,  63  miles, 
Population,  32,000.  Mr.  John  Richard 
Green,  in  his  ' '  Stray  Studies  from  England 
and  Italy,"  is  hard  upon  the  city  of  Oxford: 
"'To  most  Oxford  men — indeed,  to  the 
common  visitor  of  Oxford— the  town 
seems  a  mere  offshoot  of  the  University  ; 
its  appearance  is  altogether  modern  .... 
In  all  outer  seeming,  Oxford  appears  a 
mere  assemblage  of  indifferent  streets 
that  have  grown  out  of  the  needs  of  the 
University,  and  the  impression  is  height- 
ened by  its  commercial  unimportance 
....  as  a  municipality  it  seems  to  exist 
only  by  grace  or  usurpation  of  prior 
University  privileges  ....  the  peace  of 
the  town  is  still  but  partially  in  the  hands 
of  its  magistrates,  and  the  riotous  student 
is  amenable  only  to  University  jurisdic- 
tion." Mr.  Green  goes  on  to  show,  that 
so  far  from  the  above  being  the  fact, 
Oxford  had  been  a  prosperous  city  hun- 
dreds of  years  before  the  foundation  of 
the  University,  and  opines  that  its  con- 


173  ORtt    OXF 

nection  with  the  University  "has  proba- 
bly been  its  commercial  ruin  ....  The 
University  found  Oxford  a  busy,  pros- 
perous borough,  and  reduced  it  to  a 
cluster  of  lodging-houses."  It  is  certainly 
not  given  to  the  casual  visitor  to  see  any- 
thing of  the  commercial  ruin  of  which 
Mr.  Green  speaks.  The  town  has  a 
thriving  and  money-making  air  ;  even  out 
of  term  the  streets,  especially  about  Corn- 
market-street  and  Carfax,  are  thronged, 
and  although  the  business  done  maybe 
of  a  retail  sort,  there  is  no  doubt  plenty 
of  it.  Its  modern  appearance,  however, 
cannot  be  denied ;  and  although  its  his* 
tory  is  surpassed  in  importance  and 
romantic  associations  by  that  of  few  cities 
in  the  empire,  it  is  for  its  University  sur- 
roundings that  it  presents  the  most  attrac* 
tive  features  for  the  tourist  and  sightseer. 
Only  a  few  ruins  of  the  castle,  which  was 
built  by  Robert  D'Oilly  after  theConquest, 
and  of  the  massive  city  walls  remain. 
Oxford  City  is  only  old  in  its  annals. 

Oxford  is  governed  by  a  high  steward, 
mayor,  recorder — W.  H.  Cooke,  Esq., 
Q.C. — sheriff,  ten  aldermen,  and  thirty 
councillors.  It  is  a  Parliamentary  borough, 
constituency,  6,134,  and  has  returned 
members  to  Parliament  since  the  time  of 
Edward  I.,  but  is  at  present  unrepre- 
sented. It  is  the  capital  of  the  episcopal 
see  of  Oxford  ;  the  original  abbey  at 
Osney,  which  was  at  one  time  the  cathe- 
dral, has  long  been  destroyed,  and  the 
present  cathedral  is  Christ  Church.  Ox- 
ford is  an  infantry  brigade  depot,  is  the 
headquarters  of  the  Oxfordshire  Militia 
and  of  the  1st  (University)  and  2nd 
Administrative  Battalions  Oxfordshire 
Rifle  Volunteers. 

The  University  boat-races  attract  many 
visitors,  especially  in  the  spring,  and  the 
great  event  of  the  year,  which  should  be 
attended  by  all  who  wish  to  see  Oxford 
from  its  best  and  brightest — but  it  must 
be  owned  most  expensive — side,  is  the 
Encceniaor  Commemoration  of  Founders 
— Com  mem.  as  it  is  generally  abbreviated. 
The  festivities  of  this  function  are  spread 
over  almost  a  week,  and  include  public 
orations  and  recitations  of  prize  exercises 
in  the  Sheldonian,  which  is  annually 
filled  by  a  crowd  of  ladies  who,  one 
would  think,  must  find  the  proceedings 
dull ;  balls,  garden  parties,  processions 
of  boats,  picnics  to  Nuneham,  excursions 
to  Blenheim,  Godstow,  and  Woodstock, 


OXF-OXF 


174 


flower-shows,  interspersed  with  little  din 
ners  and  breakfasts,  the  engineering  of 
which  your  Oxford  Don  well  understands. 

As  the  capital  of  an  important  agricul- 
tural district,  Oxford  is  naturally  selected 
as  the  headquarters  of  many  county 
institutions.  Among  them  are  the  Oxford- 
shire Agricultural  Society,  established  in 
1811  to  encourage  the  rearing  and  breed- 
ing of  live  stock,  &c. ,  and  for  organising 
shows  in  various  parts  of  the  county  ;  the 
Oxfordshire  Horticultural  Society,  esta- 
blished i830,aflourishinginstitutionwhose 
objects  are  indicated  by  its  name ;  the  Cha- 
rity Organisation  Association,  established 
1844 ;  and  to  take  another  point  of  view, 
the  Labourers'  Uuion,  an  offshoot  of 
that  which  had  its  origin  at  Leamington. 
The  charities  are  numerous,  the  most 
interesting  and  ancient  being  Cutler 
Boulter's  Charity;  Stone's  Hospital, 
founded  1700  by  the  Rev.  W.  Stone, 
Principal  of  New  Inn  Hall;  and  Richard 
Wooten's  Charity  for  14  pensioners. 
The  Radcliffe  Infirmary,  founded  by  that 
Dr.  Radcliffe  whose  name  occurs  so  often 
in  the  annals  of  the  University,  opened 
in  1770,  has  a  weekly  average  of  112  beds 
occupied,  and  treats,  besides,  a  large 
number  of  out-patients.  A  Provident 
Dispensary  has  been  established  within 
the  last  two  or  three  years  with  satis- 
factory results.  The  Boys'  and  Girls' 
Blue  Coat  Schools  date  respectively  from 
1710  and  1756,  and  educate  about  no 
children.  Naturally  Oxford  is  the  home 
of  numerous  educational  establishments, 
of  which  the  Diocesan  Training  College 
for  schoolmistresses  deserves  notice. 

Very  important  and  significant  are  the 
Colleges  for  Ladies,  founded  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Association  for  Promoting 
the  Higher  Education  of  Women.  Fol- 
lowing the  example  of  Girton  and  Newn- 
ham  at  Cambridge,  the  Lady  Margaret 
Hall  and  Somerville  Hall  provide  for 
ladies  such  educational  opportunities  as 
would  qualify  them  for  taking  the  Uni- 
versity degree,  if  Alma  Mater  took  as 
much  interest  in  the  girls  as  she  does  in 
the  boys.  At  Lady  Margaret,  or  Lady's 
Hall,  the  expense  is  about  £7$  per 
annum,  in  addition  to  about  ^15  per 
annum  fees  for  instruction.  At  Somer- 
ville Hall,  the  expenses  are  rather  less.  The 
terms  correspond  generally  with  those  of 
the  University.  Full  particulars  in  regard 
to  these  novel  and  useful  institutions  may 


be  obtained,  as  to  Lady  Margaret  Hail, 
from  Miss  Wordsworth,  the  principal, 
the  Hon.  Mrs.  Talbot,  Keble  College,  or 
Mrs.  A.  H.  Johnson,  22,  Norham  Gar- 
dens, Oxford  ;  and  as  to  Somerville  Hall, 
from  the  secretaries,  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Har- 
court,  Cowley  Grange,  Oxford,  and  Mrs. 
T.  H.  Ward,  5,  Bradmore-road,  Oxford, 
or  the  Principal,  Miss  M.  Shaw  Lefevre. 
The  City  Public  Library  of  about  9,000 
volumes  is  at  present  located  in  incon- 
venient quarters  under  the  Town  Hall. 
The  Masonic  body  musters  strongly ; 
and  there  are  two  Masonic  Halls,  one  in 
Alfred-street,  High-street,  where  three 
lodges  meet,  and  the  other,  that  of  the 
Apollo  University  Lodge,  in  Frewen- 
court,  Cornmarket-street.  Two  political 
clubs,  the  Conservative  and  the  Reform 
(entrance  fee,  £1  is.,  subscription, ^"i  is.) 
keep  the  fire  of  party  politics  alive  and 
there  is  also  the  Clarendon  Club  with 
social  and  literary  objects  (entrance-fee, 
^2  2;.,  subscription,  £2,  2s.),  admission 
being  by  ballot,  excluding  black  balls 
being  calculated  in  proportion  to  number 
of  voters.  There  is  also  St.  Catherine's 
Club,  Broad-street,  founded  in  1874  for 
the  benefit  of  the  scholares  non  ascripti 
of  the  University,  and  conducted  by  the 
undergraduates  themselves.  The  ordinary 
subscription  is  i$s.  per  term.  A  dinner 
at  a  very  reasonable  price  is  served  every 
evening,  and  co-operative  stores,  etc., 
are  connected  with  the  club. 

There  is  an  extensive  corn  exchange, 
county  hall,  and  courts  where  the  assizes 
are  held,  and  the  county  gaol,  the  city 
prison  having  been  lately  dismantled. 
The  Town  Hall  in  St.  Al date-street  is  a 
spacious  chamber,  and  has  at  the  back 
of  the  dais  a  quaint  carving  of  the  city 
arms,  dating  from  1577.  In  the  council 
chamber  will  be  found  numerous  por- 
traits, the  most  important  being  one  of 
the  third  Duke  of  Marlborough  by  Gains- 
borough. Among  others  are  portraits  of 
Queen  Anne  ;  Alderman  Nixon,  1638,  and 
Joan  his  wife,  principally  noticeable  for 
her  curious  conical  hat ;  Richard  Hawkins, 
Alderman,  1638 ;  Sir  Thomas  White, 
Alderman  of  London,  "a  worthy  bene- 
factor who  gave  unto  the  Cite  of  Oxford 
and  xxiii  other  cities  and  townes  everie 
23rd  year  one  hvndred  and  fyve  poundes 
for  ever." 

St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  the  University 
church  in  the  High-street,  is,  with  curious- 


L 


twisted      pillars,     elaborately-decorated 
facade,  and  beautiful  spire,  one  of  the 
most  prominent   buildings  in  the    city. 
It  was  built  under  the  superintendence 
of  Adam  de  Brome,  almoner  to  Eleanor 
of  Castile,  whose  tomb  is  in  the  north 
chantry.     On  the  south  wall,  under  the 
tower,  is  a  brass,  apparently  to  Edmund 
Crofton,    1507,    and  over   the  door  are 
some  very  curious  carvings.     The  chancel 
and  nave  are  separated  by  an  organ-screen 
and  loft.  The  Lenten  University  Sermon 
and    Bampton    Lectures    are    delivered 
here.     In  the  south  part  of  the  nave  is  a 
brass    inscription    to  William   Tillyard, 
1587,  Peter  Pory,   1610,   and    Elizabeth 
their  wife,   1621.     The  stained  glass  on 
the  south  side  of  the  nave  is  exceedingly 
good.  By  the  reading-desk  in  the  chancel, 
covered  by  a  mat,  is  a  marble  slab  let 
into  the  pavement,  bearing  the  following 
inscription  :  "  In  a  vault  of  brick,  at  the 
upper  end  of  this  quire,  was  buried  Amy 
Robsart,  wife  of  Lord   Robert  Dudley, 
K.G.,  on  Sunday.  22nd  September,  A.D. 
1560."     St.   Aldate's  is   dedicated    to  a 
British  Saint,  who  lived  about  450,  and 
is    supposed    to    have    been    originally 
founded  by  the  Britons.     Speed  says  it 
was  founded  or  restored  about  1004.     It 
subsequently  belonged  to  the  Priory  of 
St.    Frideswide    and    to    the   Abbey  of 
Abingdon.     The  present  building  is  of 
various  dates   and   styles.      The  oldest 
remains — an  arcade  of  five  small  circular- 
headed  arches,   apparently   of   Norman 
work — were  removed  at  the  enlargement 
in  1862  from  the  chancel  to  the  east  end 
of  the  north  chancel  aisle.     A  recess  in 
the  north  wall  of  the  chancel,  with  a  flat 
pointed  arch  of  later  date,  probably  once 
used  as  an  Easter  sepulchre,  now  contains 
a  good  alabaster  altar  tomb  to  the  memory 
of  John  Noble,  Principal  of  Broadgates 
Hall  (the  original  of  Pembroke  College), 
who  died  1522.   The  north  aisle,  originally 
called  St.    Saviour's    Chapel,    was    built 
in  1455  by  Philip  Polton,  Archdeacon  of 
Gloucester.      The  south  aisle  was  built 
early  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  by  Sir 
John    de    Docklington,     several     times 
Mayor  of  Oxford,  and  in  its  original  state 
must    have    been    a    fine    specimen    of 
decorated  work.      The    old  tower  and 
spire  were  of  about  the  same  date,  but 
being  in  a  dangerous  state  were  taken 
down  and  rebuilt   1873-74.     During  the 
incumbency  of  the  present  rector  more 


175  OXF— OXF 

than  £6,000  have  been  expended  under 
the  superintendence  of  Mr.  J.  T.  Christo- 
pher, of  Bloomsbury-square,  London,  in 
the  enlargement  and  restoration  of  the 
church.     A  number  of  brasses  are  in  the 
church,  but,  as  is  unfortunately  the  case 
in  too  many  of  the  Oxford  churches,  the 
interior  is  so   dark  as  to  preclude  the 
possibility  of  deciphering  the  inscriptions. 
The  church  possesses  a  fine  old  carved 
font,   supported  at  the  foot  by  carved 
monsters.     Hearne  states  that  it  was  the 
custom  for  the  people  of  this  parish  to 
eat  sugar  sops  out  of  the  font  on  Holy 
Thursday.      The  present   sexton  has  a 
lively  recollection  of  hot  rolls  and  butter 
in  his  youth  at  Pembroke  on  the  same  date. 
St.    Mary   Magdalen,  between   Balliol 
and  Cornmarket-street,  is  a  very  ancient 
church,  the   original  edifice  dating  from 
before  the  Conquest,  but  has  been  rebuilt, 
repaired,  and  restored  from  time  to  time 
down  to  1875,  when  the  tower  arch  was 
opened    up.       It    has    a    perpendicular 
battlemented    tower,   partly   built    from 
materials  taken  from  Osney  Abbey,  on  the 
Cornmarket  side  of  which  will  be  observed 
in   a  niche   a  small    cunningly-wrought 
stone  effigy  of  St.  Mary.     The  north,  or 
martyr's  aisle,  was  added  by  Sir  Gilbert 
Scott  in  1841.     Here  is  the  old  oak  door, 
surmounted  by  carvings  of  Ridley,  Latimer, 
and  Cranmer,  which  formerly  stood  in 
the  old  city  gaol,  the   Bocardo,  at   the 
entrance  to  the  cell  in  which  the  martyrs 
were  confined.     On  the  wall  facing  the 
old  font  are  one  or  two  old  brasses  :  one 
to  Jane  Fitzherbert,  1574  ;  another  with 
a  kneeling  figure  to   General  Smithers, 
1580.     Against  the  west  wall  of  the  south 
aisle  is  a  slab  (1735)  to  the  memory  of 
Francis  Seely,  late  of  the  University  of 
Oxford,     Barber    and     Periwig    Maker, 
■J  who,   in  the  relation  of  a  husband,  a 
father,  or  a  friend,  was  equalled  by  few, 
excelled  by  none."    A  slab  in  the  vestry 
records  in  peculiar  language  the  virtues 
of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Baylie,   "niece  to  yt 
glorious    Martyr    and    Asserter    of   the 
Church  of  England,  Dr.  William  Lavd, 
Arch-Bpp.  of  Cant."     Under  the  west 
window  by  the  organ  is  a  finely-carved 
old  oak-chest,  called  The  Jewel  Chest, 
formerly  used  as  a  receptacle  for  the  old 
Catholic  communion  plate. 

St.  Michael,  in  Cornmarket-street,  was 
restored  by  Mr.  Street  in  1855,  and  has  a 
coloured  marble  altar-piece,  his  gift.     In 


177 


the  lady-chapel  on  the  north  is  an 
elaborately-painted  brass  with  kneeling 
figures  of  Alderman  Randolphus  Flexney 
and  Catarina  his  wife,  who  died  re- 
spectively in  1578  and  1567  ;  close  to 
which  will  be  found  an  extraordinary  stone 
carving  of  a  man  and  a  woman,  apparently 
having  high  jinks  with  a  skeleton.  Here 
also  is  a  brass,  "Joannis  Pendarves," 
1617,  and  a  stone  with  an  incised  portrait, 
dated  1603,  of  Walter  Dotyn.  St.  Peter's- 
in-the-East,  by  St.  Edmund  Hall,  the 
back  of  which  runs  along  the  churchyard, 
is  a  very  ancient  church,  dating  probably 
from  the  12th  century.  The  crypt,  some- 
times called  Grymbald's  with  its  rows  of 
squat  columns,  is  probably  the  oldest 
part  of  the  building.  A  door  is  here 
pointed  out,  in  connection  with  which  is 
a  Fair  Rosamond  legend.  The  south 
door,  which  is  a  unique  specimen  of 
Norman  work,  and  the  groined  roof  of 
the  chancel  with  its  appropriate  chain 
ornaments,  should  be  noted.  The  Pet- 
worth  marble  tomb  to  the  memory  of  Sir 
R.  Atkinson,  1574,  four  times  Mayor  of 
Oxford,  is  in  the  choir-room  ;  but  as  it  is 
covered  with  a  deal  bookcase  it  is  quite 
impossible  to  say  more  of  it.  On  the 
right  of  the  entrance  to  the  crypt  is  a 
small  but  fine  window.  The  Catholic 
church  of  St.  Aloysius,  St.  Giles's-road- 
west,  was  opened  in  1875,  an<^  *s  a  l°fty» 
though  rather  bare  and  cold  building, 
with  a  fine  reredos  and  altar,  the  gift  of 
the  Marquis  of  Bute. 

Banks.— Gillett  and  Co.,  54,  Corn- 
market-street  ;  London  and  County,  121, 
High-street;  Oxford  University  and  City, 
119,  St.  Aldate-street;  Parsons,  Thomson, 
and  Co.,  High-street. 

Fairs. — May  3  ;  Monday  and  Tuesday 
after  St.  Giles  ;  Thursday  before  Septeni- 
Der  29. 

Fire. — Volunteer:  Engine-house,  New 
Inn  Hall-street. 

Hotels. — "  Clarendon,"  Cornmarket- 
street ;  "Mitre,"  High-street:  "Ran- 
dolph," corner  of  Beaumont  -  street ; 
"  Roebuck,"  Cornmarket-street. 

Infirmary. — RadclifTe. 

Markets. — Every  second  Wednes- 
day (cattle)  ;  Saturday  (corn). 

Places  of  Worship. --Christ  Church 
Cathedral,  AH  Saints,  Cowley  St.  John, 
Holy    Trinity     St.    Ebbe's,     Magdalen 


OXF— OXF 

College  Chapel,  New  College  Chapel, 
St.  Aldate's,  St.  Barnabas,  St.  Clement's, 
St.  Cross  or  Holywell,  St.  Ebbe's,  ;St. 
Frideswides,  St.  George  the  Martyr,  St. 
Giles's,  St.  John  the  Baptist,  St.  John 
the  Baptist  (Summertown),  St.  Mary 
Magdalene,  St.  Martin's  (Carfax),  St. 
Mary  the  Virgin,  St.  Michael's,  St.  Paul's, 
St.  Peter's-in-the-East,  St.  Peter-le-Bailey, 
St.  Philip  and  St.  James,  and  St.  Thomas 
the  Martyr.  The  Roman  Catholic  Church 
of  St.  Aloysius,  and  numerous  chapels 
belonging  to  the  Baptist,  Congregational, 
Independent, Methodist,  Primitive  Metho- 
dist, and  Wesleyan  bodies. 

Police. — Station,  High-street;  County 
Police  Station,  New-road. 

Postal  Arrangements.— Post 
Office  (money  order,  savings  bank,  tele- 
graph, and  insurance),  St.  Aldate-street. 
Mails  from  London,  delivered  at  6.30  and 
9.30  a.m.  and  12.30  and  6.45  p.m. ;  Sun- 
day, 6.30  a.m.  Mails  for  London,  8.25 
and  n.  15  a.m.,  3.20,  6.45,  and  12  p.m.; 
Sunday,  12  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  Folly;  down,  Abing- 
don 7§  miles.  Lock,  down,  Iffley  about 
a  mile.     Railway  Station,  Oxford. 

Fares  to  Paddington  or  Euston-square, 
1st,  11/-,  18/6;  2nd,  8/4,  14/-;  3rd,  5/3J. 

Cab  Fares,  Distance. —  s.  d. 

Not  exceeding  a  mile  and  a  quarter, 

one  person 1  o 

For  every  additional  person 06 

For  each  succeeding  half-mile         ...  o  6 

For  every  additional  person 06 

For  every  fifteen  minutes'  detention    o  6 

Persons  hiring  by  distance  may  return 
to  the  place  of  hiring,  or  any  portion  of 
the  distance,  on  payment  of  one-half  the 
proper  fare. 

Time. —  s.d. 

One  or  two  persons,  one  hour        ...  2  6 

For  every  additional  person o  6 

For  every  additional  fifteen  minutes  o  6 
For  every  additional  person 03 

If  a  carriage  be  hired  by  time,  and  the 
driver  cannot  return  to  the  nearest  cab- 
stand within  the  hour,  half-hour,  or  such 
other  time  for  which  he  shall  receive  pay- 
ment, he  shall  in  such  case  be  entitled  to 
charge  one-half  the  proper  fare  for  so 
much  time  as  may  be  necessary  to  enable 
him  to  return  to  the  nearest  cab-stand. 


OXF-OXF  !78 

Children  being  Passengers.— In- 
fants carried  in  the  arms  or  on  the  lap, 
or  one  child  not  so  carried,  but  under 
seven  years  of  age,  and  accompanied  by 
an  adult,  shall  not  be  charged  for  as  pas- 
sengers ;  but  every  two  children  under 
seven  years  of  age,  not  so  carried,  shall 
be  charged  for  as  one  adult  passenger. 

Night  Fares. — An  additional  half 
fare,  both  by  distance  and  time,  shall  be 
paid  for  every  fare  or  so  much  of  every 
fare  as  may  be  performed  by  any  carriage 
after  twelve  o'clock  at  night  and  before 
six  o'clock  in  the  morning. 

Luggage. — Luggage  allowed  not  to 
exceed  112  lbs.  in  weight  ;  gd.  to  be  paid 
for  every  112  lbs.  weight  carried  in  excess 
of  the  weight  allowed. 

Computation  of  Distance.-— The 
distance  travelled  shall  be  computed  from 
the  stand  or  place  where  the  carriage  may 
be  engaged  or  hired,  and  shall  extend  to 
any  distance  not  exceeding  five  miles 
within  the  district  to  be  computed  from 
the  General  Post  Office  aforesaid. 

Distances  (as  given  in  the  "Oxford 
Chronicle  Railway  Guide"). 

From    the     Great    Western    Railway 
Station  (down  platform)  to  the  following 
places  is  one  mile  and  a  quarter : 
To  the  south  end  of  Magdalen  Bridge, 
To  the  Banbury-road,   opposite    Shrub- 
lands  (north  of  Bevington-road). 
To  Plantation-road,  Woodstock-road. 
To     Kingston-road,     midway    between 

Tackley-place  and  Farndon-road. 
To    Abingdon-road,    near    Whitehouse- 
lane. 

From  Oxford  Post  Office  (St.  Aldate- 
street)  to  the  following  places  is  one  mile 
and  a  quarter : 

To  Iffley-road,  midway  between  Henley- 
street  and  Stanley-street. 

To  Cowley-road,  about  20  yards. short  of 
Divinity-walk  (Local  Board  boundary). 

To  Woodstock-road,  at  the  Small-Pox 
Hospital,  about  230  yards  north  of 
Rackham-lane. 

To  Abingdon-road,  at  Cold  Harbour. 

To  Botley-road,  60  yards  short  of  Seven 
Arches  Bridge. 


Oxford  Royal  Regatta,  1884 

Monday,  August  4. 

grand    challenge    cup   for   eight 
oars— from  Iffley. 

First  Heat. 

Long  Vacation  Club ...     1 

Neptune  R.C o 

Long  Vacation  Club. — F.  P.  Bulley, 
H.  Balfour,  C.  de  Coetlongen,  H.  S. 
Salter,  J.  G.  Legg,  R.  S.  De  Havilland, 
P.  A.  Underhill,  W.  S.  Unwin  (stroke), 
P.  Watson  (cox). 

Neptune. — H.  L.  Charlwood,  A.  Mel- 
ville, C.  Tymms,  W.  Haithwaite,  G.  R. 
Beesley,  E.  Bates,  A.  E.  Hunt,  F.  F. 
Hunt  (stroke),  G.  Castle  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 

LilyR.C 1 

Falcon  R.C o 

Lily. — F.  Burborough,  H.  Broughton, 
T.  A.  Cook,  A.  Veale,  A.  Ackland,  W. 
Charlton,  J.  Robinson,  R.  S.  Dingle 
(stroke),  W.  Taylor  (cox). 

Falcon.— C.  W.  Eyles,  W.  Annis,  F. 
Shepherd,  A.  J.  Taylor,  W.  J.  Howell, 
W.  J.  Clinton,  F.  Taylor,  E.  H.  Bellamy 
(stroke),  H.  W.  Franklin  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Vacation 1 

Lily         o 


PRINCE     OF    WALES  S     CHALLENGE    CUP 

for  pair   oars— without  coxswains, 
from  Iffley. 

First  Heat. 

Long  Vacation  Club r.o. 

Long    Vacation    Club, — F.    P.   Bulley, 
H.  Balfour  (stroke). 

Second  Heat. 

Falcon     1 

Neptune  ...         ., o 

Won  on  a  foul. 
Falcon. — A.  Taylor,  F.  Taylor  (stroke). 
Neptune. — A.  E.  Hunt,  E.  Bates  (stroke). 

Third  Heat. 

Vacation...         1 

Wave       o 

Wave.—F.  E.  Gibbons,  C.W.  Gibbons 
(stroke). 

Final  Heat. 

Vacation 1 

Falcon  R.C o 

(loll 


CHALLENGE  CUP  FOR  FOUR-OARED  GIGS 

(from  the   Long    Bridges),   for   those 

who  have  never  won  a  prize. 
First  Heat. 
Bellerophon  R.C.         ...        ...        ...     i 

Lily  R.C.  o 

Bellerophon, — F.  Plummer,  P.  Horser, 
R.  Adams,  G.  Elstone  (stroke),  J.  Houn- 
slow  (cox). 

Lily.—H.  Bishop,  W.  Court,  W.  Monk, 
J.  W.  Heavens  (stroke),  J.  Beachey  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

Bellerophon       i 

Neptune o 

Neptune. — W.  J.  Basson,  C.  Symonds, 
J.  C.  Hewett,  E.  Simmons  (stroke),  W. 
Kendrick  (cox). 

TOWN  JUNIOR  CHALLENGE  CUP  FOR 

four  oars— -from  Iffley. 
First  Heat. 

yj$  .   i 

Vacation o 

Lily.—].  Robinson,  W.  Heavens,  A. 

Ackland,    R.    S.     Dingle    (stroke),    W. 

Taylor  (cox). 

Vacation.— W.   S.  Hatch,  W.   Salter, 

L.  F.  Packer,  W.  Kirkby  (stroke),  C.  A. 

Sturges  Jones  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 


179  OXF—OXF 

JUNIOR  SCULLING  RACE— from  Iffley. 

First  Heat. 

H.  S.  Salter       ...        ...        ...        ...r.o. 

Second  Heat. 
E.  Bates  x 

a.  e.  Hunt    .'.'.'    ;;;    z    ;;■  0 

T-  1     TT 

Final  Heat. 

,     ...         ...r.o. 


Lily 

Falcon     . 
Falcon.— A. 


... 


i.  J.  Taylor,  W.   I.   Clifton, 

F.  Taylor,  E.  H.  Bellamy  (stroke),  H.  J. 
Eyles  (cox). 

SILVER  CHALLENGE  SCULLS— from 

Iffley. 

E    Bates  r 

•    "aico   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...        Jl 

G.  W.  Gibbons o 

SILVER  CHALLENGE  PRIZE   FOR  WHIFFS 

— from  the  Long  Bridges. 
First  Heat. 

R.  Adams  i 

R.  G.  Westmacott       o 

C.  W.  Eyles       o 

Second  Heat. 

A.E.Hunt i 

C.  Symonds       o 

P.  Horser  o 

T'malHeat. 


Hunt 


•••         ...     i 


Adams     .., o 

■ 


E.  Bates  .. 


SILVER     CHALLENGE     OARS     FOR    PAIR- 

OARED  GIGS— from  the  Long  Bridges. 
First  Heat. 

Neptune i 

Vacation o 

Neptune.— G.  R.  Beesley,  F.  F.  Hunt 
(stroke),  G.  Castle  (cox). 

Vacation.— R.  G.  Westmacott,  W. 
Kirkby  (stroke),  P.  D.  Kirkby  (cox). 

Second  Heat. 

Magdalen  ...         r.o. 

Magdalen.— F.  P.  Bulley,  L.  S.  Par- 
tridge (stroke),  C.  A.  Sturges  Jones  (cox). 

Final  Heat. 

5iePtune 1 

Magdalen o 

Oxford  University.— The  following 
is  a  brief  account  of  the  sights  of  Oxford 
from  the  University  point  of  view,  and 
with  its  assistance,  and  that  of  the  ac- 
companying map,  it  is  hoped  that  visitors 
will  be  able  to  see  all  there  is  to  be  seen 
with  the  least  expenditure  of  time  and 
labour.  Where  chapels,  &c,  are  not 
open  for  public  inspection  at  stated  hours, 
application  should  be  made  at  the  porter's 
lodge  of  the  college.  A  small  fee  is  ex- 
pected, which  will  generally  frank  the 
visitor  to  the  hall,  chapel,  and  library. 
There  are  plenty  of  guides  always  hang- 
ing about  the  streets,  especially  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  Sheldonian  Theatre, 
whose  charge  is  is.  per  hour,  but  except 
to  point  out  the  localities  of  buildings, 
they  are  of  little  use. 

All  Souls'  College,  High-street, 
was  founded  in  1437  by  Archbishop 
Chichele,  its  beginning  having  been  as  a 
chantry  where  prayers  might  be  said  for 
the  souls  of  soldiers  slain  in  the  French 
wars.  Above  the  entrance  are  statues  of 
Henry  VI.  and  the  founder,  and  a  group 
of  figures  in  relief,  variously  said  to  repre- 
sent the  delivery  of  souls  from  purgatory, 
and  the  resurrection  of  the  dead.  The 
first  quadrangle  is  in  much  the  same  con- 


OXF—OXF 


I8C 


dition  as  it  was  in  the  founder's  time. 
The  second    quadrangle  was    built    by 
Hawksmoor,  and  is  noticeable   for    its 
twin  towers,  'and  a  rather  incongruous 
sun-dial,  said  to  be  designed  by  Wren. 
The  chapel,  which  faces  the  visitor  on 
entering  the  first  quadrangle   from  the 
High-street,  is  open  free  daily  from  12 
to  1  and  2  to  4,  except  on  Good  Friday 
and  All  Souls'  Day.     It   is  approached 
by  a  gateway  with  fine  vaulted  roof  with 
fan  tracery,  and  is  deservedly  one  of  the 
sights  of  Oxford.    The  principal  feature 
is  the  reredos,  which  consists  of  a  number 
of  statues  and  statuettes  (for  the  most 
part  representing  personages  who  fought 
at  the  battle  of  Agincourt),  some  135  in 
all,  in  elaborate  canopied  niches,  and  a 
group  of  the  Crucifixion.     The  principal 
figures  comprise  a  number  of  very  dis- 
similar   personages,    such    as,    besides 
a  large  collection   of  saints,  the  Duke 
of  York  ;   John  Talbot  of  Shrewsbury, 
planting  his    flag   under    the   walls   of 
Rouen;  Humphrey,  Duke  of  Gloucester; 
Catherine  of  France ;  Thomas,  Duke  of 
Clarence ;  John  o'  Gaunt ;  Margaret  of 
Anjou ;    Henry  V  ;  Cardinal   Beaufort ; 
and  Earl  Bathurst,  the  donor  of  reredos, 
and  senior  fellow  of  All  Souls'.     The 
reredos  is  the  work  of  Mr.  E.  E.  Geflowski. 
The  floor  of  the  chancel  is  of  great  beauty. 
In  the  ante-chapel  are  the  tomb  and  bust 
of  Thomas  Hoveden,   1614,  and  a  few 
brasses,   one  dated  1490,  another  1461. 
Eastward  of  the  chapel  is  the  hall,  con- 
taining several  busts,  among  others  one 
of  Bishop  Heber  by  Chantrey,  and  one 
of  the  founder  by  Roubiliac,  as  well  as 
several  portraits.     Among  the  curiosities 
in  the  college  is  a  very  ancient  salt-cellar 
of    silver-gilt,   supported    by  an   armed 
figure,  presented  to  the  college  by  the 
founder  or  one  of  his  descendants.     The 
north  side  of  the  second  quadrangle  is 
occupied  by  the  library,  built  with  money 
left  by  Colonel  Codrington  in  the  early 
part    of   the  last   century.      In  it   is   a 
planetarium,  a  statue  of  Colonel  Cod- 
rington, and  a  fine  collection  of  books, 
more  especially  of  a  legal  character.     Sir 
Christopher  Wren's  original  designs  for 
the  building  of  St.  Paul's  are  also  here. 
One  of  the  curious  old  customs,  which 
are  one  by  one  disappearing  from  the 
Oxford  of  to-day,  was  annually  celebrated 
at  All  Souls'.      It  was  a  tradition  that 
when  the  foundations  of  the  college  were 


being  prepared,  a  very  large  mallard 
flew  from  one  of  the  drains,  and  that 
this  circumstance  gave  rise  to  the  adoption 
of  a  mallard  as  the  college  crest.  On  the 
gaudy  day  or  annual  festival,  a  song  and 
chorus  in  honour  of  the  mallard  was 
sung  by  the  fellows  ;  a  verse  of  this  song, 
quoted  by  Shrimpton's  local  guide,  is  not 
calculated  to  inspire  one  with  much  idea 
of  the  versification  of  its  author,  or  with 
much  regret  at  the  custom  of  singing  it 
having  fallen  into  desuetude.  The  first 
verse  runs  thus : 

Griffin,  bustard,  turkey,  capon, 
Let  other  hungry  mortals  gape  on : 
And  on  the  bones  their  stomach  fall  hard. 
But  let  All  Souls'  men  have  their  mallard. 

Chorus. 
Oh,  by  the  blood  of  King  Edward  ! 
Oh,  by  the  blood  of  King  Edward  ! 
It  was  a  swapping,  swapping  mallard. 

Ashmolean  Museum,  at  the  back  of 
the  Sheldonian  Theatre,  and  hard  by 
Exeter  College  in  Broad-street,  was 
founded  by  Elias  Ashmole  in  1679,  from 
which  period  the  present  edifice  dates. 
The  collections  here,  although  not  large, 
are  of  their  kind  good,  and  consist  of 
Chinese  and  Japanese  curiosities,  flint 
implements,  ancient  pottery,  arms, 
daggers,  Polynesian  weapons,  Esquimaux 
and  North  American  Indian  objects,  and 
a  variety  of  relics  interesting  no  less  from 
their  rarity  than  for  their  historical 
associations.  Among  the  most  notable 
objects  may  be  mentioned — starting  from 
the  right  on  entering — some  Burmese 
and  Malabar  MSS.,  written  on  talipot 
leaves  ;  a  fine  old  carved  powder-flask ; 
Charles  I.'s  spurs  ;  a  mosaic  portrait  in 
shells  of  Pope  Leo.  XII. ;  the  sword  sent 
by  Leo.  X.  to  Henry  VIII.  with  the  title 
of  Defender  of  the  Faith,  with  a  crystal 
handle  highly  wrought  ;  King  Alfred's 
jewel,  enamelled  in  gold,  and  bearing 
the  inscription  in  Saxon,  "Alfred  ordered 
me  to  be  made  ; "  Queen  Elizabeth's 
watch  and  riding- boots  ;  Charles  II. 's 
bellows  ;  a  glove  which  belonged  to  Mary 
Queen  of  Scots  ;  Henry  VI I l.'s  havvking- 
glove  ;  and  Oliver  Cromwell's  watch. 
The  "Oxford  Collection"  comprises 
a  variety  of  implements,  and  of  pieces  of 
pottery  discovered  in  the  town  during 
the  process  of  excavations.  Descending 
the  staircase  to  the  left  there  will  be 
found  a  number  of  clubs,  arrows,  patu 


patus,  and  other  implements  of  war  from 
Tongataboo,  Fiji,  New  Zealand,  and 
various  parts  of  Polynesia,  and  on  the 
basement  are  the  celebrated  Arundel 
Marbles.  In  the  museum  is  a  portrait  of 
Ashmole,  in  a  frame  carved  by  Grinling 
Gibbons.  The  collection  can  be  seen 
daily. 

Balliol  College  is  in  Broad -street 
and  Magdalen-street.  The  date  of  the 
foundation  of  Balliol  by  Sir  John  Balliol, 
of  Barnard  Castle,  Durham,  the  father 
of  John  Balliol,  King  of  Scotland,  is 
somewhat  obscure.  The  year  was  perhaps 
1268.  The  college  has  been  practically 
entirely  rebuilt,  a  small  portion  only  of 
the  older  buildings  now  remaining,  no 
part  of  the  college  being  older  than  1431. 
The  south  front,  with  the  massive  tower, 
was  built  about  1870  by  Waterhouse, 
and  ten  years  earlier  the  chapel  was  built 
from  designs  by  Butterfield,  who  here  em- 
ployed the  red  and  white  Gothic,  which  he 
afterwards  developed  more  fully  at  Keble. 
The  library  and  hall,  which  have  been  en- 
larged, are  of  older  date  than  most  of  the 
remainder  of  the  college  ;  on  the  west  of 
the  Broad-street  entrance  is  a  very  beau- 
tiful oriel  window.  In  the  hall  are  some 
portraits,  and  the  library  has  a  good  col- 
lection of  illuminated  MSS.  Opposite 
the  door  of  the  master's  lodging  in  Broad- 
street  are  four  small  stones  set  crosswise, 
and  it  is  supposed  that  it  was  here  that 
Cranmer,  Ridley,  and  Latimer  suffered 
martyrdom.  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to 
add  that  other  authorities  are  quite  certain 
that  the  stones  do  not  exactly  mark  the 
actual  scene  of  the  auto-da-fi. 

Bodleian  Library.  —  This  famous 
library,  now  one  of^the  most  important 
in  existence,  was  founded  in  1598  by  Sir 
Thomas  Bodley,  at  one  time  British 
Minister  to  the  Hague  and  elsewhere,  who 
died  in  161 2.  The  library  existing  before 
Bodley's  time  was  founded  by  Humphrey 
Duke  of  Gloucester,  son  of  Henry  IV. 
But  few  remains  of  this  existed  when  the 
Bodleian  was  founded.  The  library  now 
numbers  over  400,000  volumes,  and  as  it 
can  claim  a  copy  of  every  work  printed 
in  this  country,  and  is  constantly  increased 
by  purchase,  it  is  rapidly  outgrowing  the 
space  originally  assigned  to  it,  and  is 
overflowing  into  the  neighbouring  build- 
ings. That  portion  of  the  library  which 
is  accessible  to  the  public  is  situated  over 


181  OXF-OXF 

the  schools,  which  are  between  the  Racf- 
cliffe  and  the  Sheldonian  Theatre.  The 
entrance  is  in  the  south-west  corner  of  the 
quad.  It  is  open  from  9  a.m.  to  5  p.m. 
in  April,  May,  June,  July,  and  August ; 
from  9  a.m.  to  4  p.m.  in  February,  March, 
September,  and  October  ;  from  9  a.m.  to 
3  p.m.  in  January,  November,  and  Decem- 
ber. The  statutes  require  that  intending 
readers  must  bring  a  recommendation 
from  a  Master  of  Arts.  The  librarians, 
however,  must  necessarily  have  taken  the 
M.A.  [degree,  and  are  always  glad  to 
grant  admissions  to  bona  fide  students 
who  can  satisfactorily  show  that  they  are 
so.  If  the  sight-seeing  visitor  be  not  ac- 
companied by  a  member  of  the  Uni- 
versity in  academic  dress  an  admission? 
fee  of  3d.  is  charged.  Some  of  the  curio- 
sities of  the  Bodleian  are  always  exhibited 
under  glass  cases,  and  are  changed  from 
time  to  time.  It  is  not,  therefore, 
certain  that  any  of  those  here  mentioned 
will  be  on  view  at  any  given  time.  Among 
them  are  the  first  book  printed  in  the 
English  language  by  Caxton  at  Brugest 
circa  1472  ;  a  Block  Book,  the  Apocalypse, 
to  which  the  date  1440  is  probably  erro- 
neously assigned  ;  the  declaration  made 
by  the  Duke  of  Monmouth  on  the 
morning  of  his  execution,  with  his  signa- 
ture and  those  of  six  bishops  ;  a  MS. 
book  in  the  handwriting  of  Queen  Eliza- 
beth, a  New  Year's  gift  to  her  brother 
Edward ;  gloves  worn  by  the  Maiden 
Queen  when  she  visited  the  University  in 
1566 ;  Wycliff's  Bible,  1380  ;  Gutenberg's 
first  Bible;  Edward  VI. 's  exercise-book ; 
a  psalter,  with  beautiful  miniatures, 
1340  ;  some  fine  ivory  carvings  of  the 
9th  century  ;  and  a  list  of  illuminated 
missals,  MSS.,  Korans,  autographs,. 
&c,  &c.,  to  enumerate  which  would  be 
too  long.  The  Picture  Gallery, 
which  also  serves  the  purpose  of  a  minor 
museum,  is  approached  by  the  stairs  on 
the  left  of  the  entrance  to  the  library, 
and  contains  books,  portraits,  medals, 
models,  seals,  casts,  ivories,  busts,  and 
curiosities  of  every  kind.  Some  of  the 
most  notable  of  the  latter  are  Sir  Thomas 
Bodley's  chest,  with  most  intricate 
arrangement  of  locks  ;  Queen  Elizabeth's 
fruit  trenchers  ;  a  chair  made  from  \hv. 
timbers  of  Sir  Francis  Drake's  ship  ;  the 
chair  of  Fortesque,  Chancellor  of  the 
University  in  the  time  of  Queen  Eliza- 
beth ;  and  Guy  Fawkes's  lantern,   as  to 


OXF-OXF 


182 


the  authenticity  of  which  perhaps  it  is 
not  unreasonable  to  express  a  doubt. 
On  one  of  the  walls  is  the  following 
humorous  admonition :  ' '  Touch  what 
you  like  with  your  eyes,  but  do  not  see 
with  your  fingers." 

Botanic  Gardens,  opposite  Magda- 
len College,  formerly  the  Jews'  cemetery, 
and,  when  first  opened,  called  the  Physic 
Gardens.  Founded  by  Earl  Danby,  early 
in  the  17th  century,  for  the  improvement 
of  the  faculty  of  medicine.  The  gardens 
are  entered  by  a  characteristic  gateway, 
designed  by  Inigo  Jones,  ornamented 
with  statues  of  Charles  I.  and  II.  They 
are  of  considerable  extent,  and  are  a 
pleasant  lounge,  though  perhaps  more 
generally  interesting  to  the  botanist  than 
to  the  mere  pleasure-seeker.  There  is 
a  remarkably  pleasant  walk  along  the 
Cherwell.  The  buildings  on  the  right  of 
the  entrance  contain  the  herbarium, 
lecture-room,  &c.  The  collection  of 
dried  plants  is  remarkably  complete.  On 
the  left  of  the  gateway  are  the  Professors' 
dwellings,  in  which  there  is  an  excellent 
library,  particularly  rich  in  books  of  the 
16th  and  17th  centuries.  The  green- 
houses are  not  impressive,  but  contain  a 
fine  collection  of  aquatic  and  succulent 
plants.     Entrance  is  free. 

Brasenose  College,  to  the  west- 
ward of  the  square  in  which  stands  the 
Radcliffe  Library,  was  founded  by  Bishop 
Smith,  of  Lincoln,  and  Sir  Richard 
Sutton  of  Prestbury,  1512.  Over  the 
entrance  gateway  are  statues  of  the 
Virgin  and  Child  and  two  saints,  and 
just  above  the  door  is  the  immense 
brazen  nose  from  which  the  college  is 
sometimes  erroneously  supposed  to  take 
its  name.  The  real  derivation  is  said  to 
have  been  a  corruption  of  Brasenhas  or 
Brewery  of  King  Alfred,  but  it  may  fairly 
be  supposed  that  there  is  not  much  more 
reason  in  this  derivation  than  in  the  other. 
The  first  quadrangle  contains  the  hall 
with  a  few  portraits.  In  the  middle  of  it 
is  a  group  of  sculpture,  respecting  which 
the  authorities  are  at  variance;  some 
asserting  that  it  was  intended  for  Cain 
killing  Abel,  while  the  other  side  avers 
that  the  group  represents  Samson  slay- 
ing a  Philistine.  One  thing  is  very 
certain,  that  the  sculpture  itself  is  entirely 
devoid  of  merit.  The  passage  to  the 
left  leads  into  the  second  quad,  where  is 
the  chapel,  chiefly  remarkable  for  its  roof. 


There  is  also  a  good  lectern.  Two 
clergymen  of  curiously  different  tempera- 
ments and  literary  style  were  trained  at 
Brasenose,  Bishop  Heber  and  the  Rev. 
R.  H.  Barham  of  the  "  Ingoldsby 
Legends." 

Christ  Church,  the  largest  of  all  the 
Oxford  colleges,  but  known  as  "The 
House,"  was  founded  by  Cardinal  Wolsey 
in  1525,  and  was  originally  intended  to 
be  called  Cardinal's  College.  On  the  fall 
of  Wolsey  the  college  was  seized,  and 
the  foundation  suspended  by  King 
Henry  VIII.,  who  re-established  it  in 
1532.  In  1546  the  see  of  Oxford  was 
removed  from  Osney,  and  the  church  of 
St.  Frideswide,  in  connection  with  the 
college,  became  the  cathedral,  and  to  the 
whole  was  given  the  name  Christ  Church. 
The  principal  entrance  is  in  Aldate-street, 
under  the  gateway  of  the  tower  in  which 
hangs  the  bell  known  as  Great  Tom. 
The  tower  was  part  of  Wolsey's  design, 
but  was  left  unfinished  by  him,  and  was 
completed  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren  in 
1682.  "Tom"  originally  came  from 
Osney  Abbey, .  and  has  been  more  than 
once  re-cast.  He  is  one  of  the  largest 
bells  in  England,  and  weighs  17,000  lbs. 
Every  night  at  closing  time,  ten  minutes 
past  nine,  Tom  tolls  101  times,  that 
having  been  the  original  number  of  the 
students.  The  great  quadrangle  is  gene- 
rally known  as  Tom  Quad,  and  is  of 
imposing  dimensions,  although  the  effect 
is  a  little  bare.  Should  the  contemplated 
cloisters  (part  of  the  original  design)  ever 
be  built,  the  effect  of  the  quad  will  be 
greatly  enhanced.  In  the  north-east 
corner  are  the  dean's  apartments,  and  in 
the  south-east  a  gateway,  under  a  statue 
of  Wolsey,  in  the  tower  leads  to  a  stair- 
case with  a  beautiful  fan  roof  springing 
from  a  single  pillar — a  noticeable  archi- 
tectural triumph,  even  in  a  city  so  rich  in 
such  matters  as  Oxford.  This  staircase 
leads  to  the  hall,  the  finest  refectory  in 
Oxford,  and  perhaps  in  the  world.  It 
has  a  grandly-carved  oak  roof,  with 
pendants,  &c.,  and  at  the  upper  end  two 
splendid  bay  windows,  somewhat  similar 
in  character  to  those  at  Hampton  Court 
Palace.  The  walls  are  adorned  with  a 
number  of  interesting  portraits  by  Hol- 
bein, Zucchero,  Lely,  Lawrence,  Janssen, 
Hoppner,  Van  Dyck,  Kneller,  Hogarth, 
Reynolds,  Gainsborough,  and  other 
masters.    All    the    pictures    bear   labels 


with  the  names  of  the  originals  and  of 
the  painters.  The  hall  was  used  on  the 
occasions  of  several  royal  visits  for 
theatrical  performances,  and  in  it  King 
Charles  I.  held  a  parliament.  At  the 
bottom  of  the  hall  stairs  is  the  great 
kitchen,  which  is  said  to  be  the  oldest 
part  of  the  building. 

Nearly  opposite  the  principal  entrance 
to  Tom  Quad  is  the  entrance  to  the 
cathedral,  which  is  also  the  chapel  of  the 
college.  It  was  founded  on  the  remains  ot 
the  church  of  the  convent  of  St.  Frides- 
wide,  a  more  or  less  mythical  heroine  of 
the  middle  of  the  eighth  century.  It  was 
consecrated  in  1180.  The  tower  con- 
tained ten  bells  from  Osney  Abbey,  which, 
in  consequence  of  some  doubts  as  to  the 
safety  of  the  cathedral  spire,  now  hang 
in  the  tower  over  the  hall.  It  is  said  by 
Warton  that  Dr.  Johnson  was  moved  to 
very  Johnsonian  wrath  on  viewing  some 
of  the  Osney  remains  which  had  been 
moved*  to  Christ  Church.  The  verger 
will  be  found  in  the  cathedral  from  1 1  to 
1  and  from  2.30  to  4.30,  except  on  Sunday, 
and  at  other  times  at  Meadow  Gate.  No 
fees  are  permitted.  The  cathedral  con- 
sists of  choir,  nave,  aisles,  and  transepts, 
and  is  generally  Norman  in  character. 
The  roof  of  the  choir,  with  its  elaborate 
fan  tracery  and  groining,  which  is  par- 
ticularly noticeable ;  the  oak  pulpit  ;  the 
carved  wood  and  iron -work  in  the  choir, 
and  its  inlaid  pavements  ;  together  with 
its  new  bishop's  throne  of  carved  walnut 
with  a  medallion  portrait  of  the  late 
Bishop  Wilberforce,  are  all  well  worth 
careful  inspection.  There  are  a  few 
brasses  in  the  church,  one  in  the  north- 
west dated  1602,  one  in  the  south  east 
with  the  date  1587.  North  of  the  choir 
are  two  aisles,  the  first  the  Lady  or  Latin 
Chapel,  and  the  second  the  Dean's  or 
St.  Frideswide's  Chapel.  The  Latin 
chapel  was  built  1346  by  Lady  Montacute, 
the  donor  to  the  college  of  Christ  Church 
Meadows.  Her  tomb  is  between  the  two 
chapels  to  the  eastward.  On  it  reposes  a 
full-length  figure  of  the  lady,  the  costume, 
especially  the  head-dress,  being  very  in- 
teresting. In  niches  around  the  tomb 
are  figures  of  her  children.  Next  to  Lady 
Montacute,  and  to  the  westward,  is  the 
tomb  of  Prior  Guymand,  said  to  be  of  the 
middle  of  the  12th  century,  with  effigy  of 
the  prior  under  a  highly  ornamented 
canopy.     Farther  still  to  the  westward  is 


OXF-OXF 

the  tomb  of  Sir  George  Nowers,  who  died 
in  1425.  The  figure  of  Sir  George  is 
clothed  in  armour.  At  the  foot  of  this 
tomb  is  the  tablet  to  the  memory  of 
Burton,  the  author  of  the  "Anatomy  of 
Melancholy."  The  inscription,  written 
by  himself,  says : 

Paucis  notus,  paucioribus  ignotus 

Hie  jacet 

^  Democritus  junior 

Cvi  vitam  dedit  et  mortem 

Melancholia 

Obiit  VIII   ID  JAN  A.C  MDCXXXIX. 

To  the  extreme  east,  beyond  the  tomb 
of  Lady  Montacute,  is  what  is  called  the 
shrine  of  St.  Frideswide.  It  dates  from 
1480,  and  is  a  richly  ornamented  wooden 
structure,  raised  upon  a  tomb.  It  is 
supposed  to  have  been  in  fact  the 
chamber  of  the  keeper  of  the  shrine, 
which  was  at  one  time  in  high  repute 
with  the  gift-bearing  faithful.  In  St. 
Frideswide's  Chapel  will  be  found  some 
good  carved  oakwork,  and  some  old 
stained  glass  windows.  In  the  south 
aisle  is  a  curious  mural  monument  in 
memory  of  Sir  W.  Brouncker  and  wife, 
1645-1649.  They  are  represented  sitting 
with  their  elbows  leaning  on  a  table,  on 
which  stands  a  skull,  the  prolonged  con- 
templation of  which,  no  doubt,  has  pro- 
duced the  dejected  appearance  for  which 
the  faces  of  the  figures  are  remarkable. 
In  the  south  transept  is  a  window  made 
up  of  fragments  of  old  stained  glass.  In 
the  centre  of  it  is  a  representation  of  the 
murder  of  A'Becket,  the  hole  which  will 
be  observed  in  the  glass  is  where  the  head 
of  the  martyr  was  punched  out  by  an 
unappreciative  Crom wellite.  In  the  north- 
west is  a  remarkable  window,  signed 
Abraham  Linge,  dated  163-,  the  last 
figure  undecipherable.  There  is  a  vast 
number  of  slabs  and  mural  tablets, 
amongst  which  may  be  mentioned  those 
of  Dean  Aldrich  and  Bishop  Tanner. 

In  the  north  corner  of  Tom  Quad  is 
a  gateway  and  passage  leading  to  Peck- 
water  Quad,  so-called  from  its  having 
been  built  on  the  site  of  the  inn  kept  by 
certain  Peck  weather,  once  Mayor  of 
Oxford.  It  was  rebuilt  from  designs  by 
Dean  Aldrich,  except  as  regards  the 
library  side  in  1795.  The  library  is  on 
the  south  side.  The  entrance  hall  con- 
tains a  fine  statue  of  Dean  Cyril  Jackson, 
by  Chantrev,  and  several  busts  of  Christ 


OXF— OXF 


184 


Church  worthies  and  others.  The  lower 
storey  is  iisedj  as  a  picture  gallery,  and 
contains  a  collection  of  unequal  merit. 
The  pictures,  all  of  which  are  labelled 
with  subject  and  name  of  painter,  con- 
tain examples  of  Tintoretto,  Holbein, 
Titian,  Paolo  Veronese,  Botticelli,  Par- 
megiano,  Van  Eyck,  Velasquez,  Carlo 
Maratti,  Spagnoietto,  and  others.  There 
is  a  sketch  for  a  fan-mount  by  Guido,  and 
a  singular  picture  of  a  butcher's  shop 
by  A.  Caracci,  the  butcher  and  his 
assistants  being  caricatures  of  the  artist 
and  of  some  members  of  his  family 
against  whom  he  had  a  grudge.  The 
visitor,  descending  the  stairs  to  the 
library,  is  faced  by  a  marble  bust  of  Pro- 
serpina, by  Hiram  Power,  and  in  a  niche 
on  the  right  is  a  full-length  statue  of 
John  Locke,  by  Rysbrach.  From  the 
window  on  the  landing  is  a  splendid  view 
of  the  cathedral.  The  library  is  a  fine 
room,  with  curious  plaster  decorations  on 
the  walls  and  ceiling  ;  the  woodwork  is  of 
Norwegian  oak.  The  library  contains 
many  treasures,  including  a  letter  from 
Charles  II.,  signed  Sunderland,  expelling 
John  Locke  from  his  studentship  at 
Christ  Church  for  misdemeanour ;  and 
an  illuminated  lectionary  for  the  use  of 
Wolsey,  said  to  be  the  last  in  this  style 
executed  in  England.  On  the  right, 
leaving  the  library,  is  Canterbury  Quad,  in 
which  noble  undergraduates  are  usually 
quartered,  and  where  a  large  gateway  in 
the  classic  style  leads  to  Oriel,  Corpus, 
and  Merton.  The  new  buildings  of  Christ 
Church  are  in  the  south,  facing  the 
meadows  and  the  river. 

Clarendon  Building,  at  the  back  of 
the  schools,  was  originally  built  for  the 
printing-office  of  the  University  in  1713, 
from  the  profits  of  the  sale  of  Lord 
Clarendon's  "History  of  the  Rebellion." 
It  is  at  present  used  for  various  offices  by 
the  governing  body  of  the  University. 
The  present  printing-office  stands  to  the 
northward  of  Worcester  College. 

Corpus  Christi  College  is  at  the 
back  of  Christ  Church,  at  the  corner  of 
King-street.  It  was  founded  in  1516  by 
Richard  Fox,  Bishop  of  Winchester. 
The  quadrangle,  which  is  approached 
through  a  gateway  with  good  vaulted 
roof,  contains  a  curious  cylindrical  sun- 
dial with  perpetual  calendar,  bearing  on 
the  summit  the  arms  of  the  University,  of 


Henry  VII.,  as  well  as  of  the  founder, 
and  his  friend,  Bishop  Oldham.  The 
pelican  over  the  college  gateway,  and  its 
companion  owl,  also  commemorate  the 
founder  and  his  friend.  A  description  of 
the  sun-dial  is  in  the  library,  which  con- 
tains also  Fox's  set  of  the  Aldine  Classics, 
and  many  other  ancient  books  and  MSS. 
Here  also  is  the  University  chest  or  cista, 
an  iron  chest  only  accessible  by  several 
keys,  kept  by  the  Vice-Chancellor,  the 
Dean  of  Christ  Church,  the  President  of 
Corpus,  and  other  heads  of  houses.  The 
founder  is  commemorated  by  some  fine 
plate  and  a  crozier  preserved  in  the 
college.  The  hall  is  a  fine  room  adorned 
with  portraits,  and  in  the  chapel  is  an 
altar-piece  by  Rubens. 

Divinity  School,  in  the  same  quad- 
rangle as  the  entrance  to  the  Bodleian,  is 
particularly  noticeable  for  the  extreme 
beauty  of  its  stone  roof,  with  elaborate 
groining,  tracery,  and  pendants.  The 
arms  of  Duke  Humphrey  of  Gloucester 
are  in  the  centre  of  the  roof,  and  those  of 
other  benefactors  are  interspersed  with 
scriptural  monograms.  The  ancient  dis- 
putation pulpits  are  still  preserved,  and 
stand  in  either  side  of  the  school.  The 
Divinity  School  has  historical  interest. 
It  was  here  in  1555  that  Bishops  Ridley 
and  Latimer  were  tried  a  fortnight  before 
their  martyrdom  ;  and  when  Parliament 
sat  at  Oxford  in  1625  to  avoid  the  Plague, 
the  Divinity  School  was  assigned  to  the 
use  of  the  House  of  Commons.  It  after- 
wards fell  upon  evil  days,  and  was  for 
some  time  used  as  a  storehouse  for  corn, 
but  even  this  was  not  so  bad  as  the  fate 
that  had  befallen  it  at  the  time  of  Ed- 
ward VI.,  when  it  was  used  as  a  pig- 
market.  In  the  Convocation  House, 
which  leads  from  the  school,  is  a  good 
roof,  and  pictures  of  Lords  Eldon  and 
Stowell,  by  Owen.  The  oak  panelling  in 
the  building  is  attributed  to  Wren. 

Exeter  College,  Turl-street,  founded 
in  13 14  by  Walter  de  Stapleton,  Bishop 
of  Exeter  and  Lord  High  Treasurer,  is 
entered  by  a  fine  tower  gateway  with 
heavy  bosses,  and  has  been  almost  entirely 
rebuilt  at  one  period  or  another.  The  first 
quadrangle  contains  both  the  hall  and  the 
chapel.  The  hall  possesses  a  fine  open 
timber  roof,  and  portraits  of  the  founder, 
Charles  I.,  Archbishops  Seckerand  Selden, 
and  one  of  Dr.   Prideaux,  who  from  a 


scullion  in  the  college  rose  to  be  rector  of 
it,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  and — greater 
dignity  of  all,  perhaps,  in  University 
esteem — Regius  Professor  of  Divinity. 
The  elaborate  oak  screen  appears  to  have 
been  painted  and  varnished,  and  spoiled, 
by  some  spick-and-span  paint-lovingGoth. 
The  chapel,  rebuilt  about  twenty  years 
ago  from  designs  by  Sir  Gilbert  Scott, 
has  an  apse,  with  fine  Salviati  mosaics, 
and  some  good  modern  stained  glass  win- 
dows. On  the  floor  of  the  nave  are  three 
brasses,  dated  1624,  1627,  and  1636,  to  the 
memory  of  three  children  of  the  Dr.  Pri- 
deaux  above-mentioned.  The  chapel,  with 
its  high  pitched  roof  and  small  but  graceful 
spire,  is  considered  to  be  a  masterpiece  of 
Gothic  architecture.  The  library  fronts 
towards  the  Fellows'  Garden,  and  is  a 
modern  Gothic  building  also  by  Scott. 
Here  will  be  found  Henry  VII. 's  fine 
illuminated  Mass-book,  and  a  number  of 
other  rare  and  interesting  works.  At  the 
bottom  of  the  garden  is  a  large  chestnut 
tree,  overshadowing  Brasenose-lane  and 
Heber's  rooms  in  that  college,  whence  it 
is  called  Heber's  tree  ;  and  another 
curiosity  is  Dr.  Kennicot's  fig-tree,  con- 
cerning which  some  curious  stories  may 
be  gleaned  by  the  inquisitive  visitor. 

Hertford  College,  facing  the 
Bodleian  and  New  College-lane,  has  only 
recently  acquired  its  present  name.  The 
college  was  first  founded  as  Hart  Hall  at 
the  end  of  the  13th  century.  In  1740, 
Hart  Hall  was  transformed  into  Hertford 
College,  by  Dr.  Newton,  of  Christ  Church. 
The  college  did  not  flourish,  and  some 
few  years  after  the  death  of  Dr.  Newton 
it  was  found  impossible  to  induce  any 
qualified  person  to  become  principal.  In 
1822  Magdalen  Hall  was  transferred  to 
the  buildings  of  Hertford  College  after 
the  old  Magdalen  Hall  had  been  destroyed 
by  fire,  and  in  1874  tne  foundation  was 
incorporated  under  the  name  of  Hertford 
College.  From  the  sightseer's  point  of 
view,  the  college  calls  for  no  comment. 

Jesus  College,  Turl-street,  opposite 
Exeter,  was  founded  in  1571  by  Dr.  Price, 
treasurer  of  St.  David's,  though  Queen 
Elizabeth,  who  contributed  to  the  expense, 
is  more  generally  recognised  in  that 
capacity.  Jesus  was  originally  intended 
for  Welshmen,  a  rule  that  has  been  de- 
parted from,  but  is  commemorated  in 


185  OXF— OXP 

some  quaint  lines  in  an  old  pamphlet, 
two  of  which  run  : 

Hugo  Preesh  built  this  Collesh  for  Jesus  Creesh, 

and  the  Welsh  geesh, 
Who  love  a  peesch  of  toasted  cheesh— here  it 

ish. 

In  the  first  quadrangle  are  the  chapel, 
hall,  and  library.  The  chapel,  which  was 
restored  in  1864,  is  on  the  right.  Over 
the  entrance  door,  carved  in  stone,  is 
the  motto  "Ascendat  oratio,  descendat 
gratia."  Beyond  a  good  east  window 
the  chapel  has  little  to  detain  the  visitor* 
In  the  hall  is  a  fine  Jacobean  screen  and 
a  good  bay  window.  On  the  walls  are 
some  portraits  :  Charles  I.  by  Vandyck  ; 
Charles  II.;  Sir  Leoline  Jenkins,  a  slab 
to  whose  memory  is  on  the  floor  of  the 
chancel  in  the  chapel ;  Nash,  the  architect, 
by  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  ;  and  Queen 
Elizabeth,  a  bust  of  whom  will  be  found 
over  the  mantelpiece.  The  library  con- 
tains some  curious  Welsh  MSS.,  and  in 
the  bursary  is  an  enormous  punch-bowl, 
holding  ten  gallons,  while  the  ladle  carries- 
half  a  pint. 

Keble  College,  nearly  opposite  the 
new  University  Museum  in  the  parks 
and  in  Keble-road,  which  runs  out  of 
St.  Giles's.  This,  the  youngest,  and  in 
many  respects  the  most  remarkable,  of 
the  Oxford  colleges,  was  erected  in 
1868-70,  in  memory  of  the  Rev.  John 
Keble,  the  author  of  "The  Christian 
Year."  A  sum  of  ^50,000  was  subscribed 
for  the  site  and  collegiate  buildings,  and 
the  execution  of  the  work  was  entrusted 
to  Mr.  Butterfield.  The  general  intention 
of  the  foundation  is  to  provide  university 
education  for  young  men  whose  means 
do  not  enable  them  to  prosecute  their 
studies  at  the  older  and  more  expensive 
colleges,  and  is  supposed  to  be  especially 
adapted  to  the  requirements  of  divinity 
students,  although  it  is  not  confined  t« 
them.  At  the  same  time  it  is  stated  in  a 
somewhat  deprecatory  manner,  that  "it 
is  not  to  be  in  any  invidious  sense  a  poor 
man's  college,  though  it  will  be  possible 
to  live  there  on  a  smaller  income  than 
elsewhere."  The  present  buildings  are 
only  a  portion  of  the  scheme  intended  to 
be  carried  out,  and  as  Keble  has  already 
become  very  popular,  it  is  probable  that  s 
the  proposed  extensions  will  not  be  long 
delayed.  The  style  of  architecture 
adopted  is  that  decorated  Gothic  of  the 


OXF-OXF 


186 


13th  century  which  involves  lavish  use 
of  many  coloured  bricks  and  stone  dress- 
ings, which  has  been  by .  19th  century 
Goths  playfully  but  irreverently  described 
as  the  striped  and  mottled  or  "Zebra" 
order.  Opinions  vary  greatly  as  to  the 
general  effects  attained,  but  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  a  certain  restless  and 
uneasy  feeling  is  produced  upon  the 
spectator  by  the  want  of  repose  and  tone 
inseparable  from  this  peculiar  style  of 
-colouring.  And  if  this  feeling  is  produced 
by  the  exterior  of  the  buildings,  it  is  inten- 
sified a  thousandfold  in  the  interior  of  the 
chapel.  In  this  magnificent  building, 
which  was  erected  at  the  cost  of  W.  Gibbs, 
Esq.,  of  Tynesfield,  and  is  crowded  with 
mosaic  and  other  decorations  of  the  most 
elaborate  kind,  there  is  actually — it  is  not 
too  much  to  say  —  no  single  point  to 
which  the  eye  can  turn  for  relief  or  calm. 
The  design  and  execution  of  the  mosaics 
are  both,  no  doubt,  admirable,  and  under 
other  circumstances  their  effect  would 
probably  be  very  pleasing ;  but  it  is  im- 
possible in  Keble  Chapel  to  get  away 
from  a  certain  feverish  sense  of  unrest, 
and  a  consciousness  that  the  place  is 
overloaded  with  ornament,  and  decora- 
tion and  colour.  The  mosaics,  according 
to  the  explanation  on  a  tablet  in  the 
vestibule,  are  intended  to  illustrate  "after 
the  manner  of  the  '  Christian  Year,'  "  the 
successive  dealings  of  God  with  His 
Church,  patriarchal,  Jewish,  and  Chris- 
tian. The  chapel  is  open  from  10  to 
noon,  and  from  2  to  4  in  winter,  and  from 
2  to  5.30  in  summer.  It  is  always  closed 
between  noon  and  2  o'clock.  The  chapel 
attendant  is  strictly  forbidden  to  receive 
gratuities.  The  hall  is  a  handsomely 
proportioned  building,  in  strict  conso- 
nance with  the  rest  of  the  college,  and  in 
the  library  hangs  Holman  Hunt's  famous 
picture,  "The  Light  of  the  World," 
which  curiously  symbolises  many  of  the 
ways  of  thought  and  peculiarities  of  doc- 
trine of  the  more  enthusiastic  admirers  of 
Keble  and  of  Keble  College, 

Lincoln  College,  Turl-street,  next 
to  Exeter  and  opposite  to  Jesus,  founded 
in  1427  by  Richard  Flemyng,  Bishop  of 
Lincoln.  The  south  quadrangle  was 
added  by  Bishop  Rotherham  in  1479. 
The  entrance  from  Turl-street  is  by  a 
tower  gateway  with  groined  roof,  and  to 
the  east  of  the  first  quadrangle  is  the 
hall,  the  exterior  of  which  remains  nearly 


in  its  pristine  state ;  the  interior  was 
remodelled  in  1701.  It  is  a  plain  room 
with  varnished  screen  and  panelling,  and 
contains  a  few  pictures.  The  chapel  was 
built  in  1629  by  Archbishop  Williams. 
It  is  wainscoted  with  cedar,  and  the 
heavy  roof  and  screen  are  of  the  same 
wood.  The  seats  are  surmounted  by  a 
number  of  carved  figures  which  are  said  to 
be  the  work  of  Grinling  Gibbons .  -  There 
is  some  remarkable  stained  glass  in  the 
windows,  of  which  that  in  the  east  is  par- 
ticularly fine.  The  glass  was  brought  from 
Italy  by  Archbishop  Williams,  and  is  said 
to  be  at  least  500  years  old.  It  appears 
from  the  date  (1631)  on  the  glass  itself  to 
have  been  placed  in  the  chapel  at  that 
date,  In  the  inner  quadrangle  is  a 
luxuriant  vine,  said  to  be  cultivated  in 
consequence  of  the  heart  of  Bishop 
Rotherham  having  been  so  touched  by  a 
sermon  preached  by  Dr.  Tristoppe,  the 
rector,  from  the  text,  "Behold  and  visit 
this  vine,"  that  he  was  moved  to  build 
the  second  quadrang're.  One  of  the 
principal  names  associated  with  Lincoln 
is  that  of  John  Wesley,  who  was  a  fellow 
of  Lincoln  in  1726. 

Magdalen  College,  at  the  end  of 
High-street,  was  founded  in  1457  by 
William  of  Waynflete,  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester, on  the  site  of  an  ancient  hospital 
of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  which  afforded 
rest  and  refreshment  to  the  pilgrims  to 
the  shrine  of  St.  Frideswide.  The  pil- 
grims' wicket  is  still  recognisable  by 
persons  who  possess  faith  and  a  lively 
imagination.  The  foundation-stone  of 
the  new  college  was  laid  in  1474.  If  any 
one  thing  can  be  said  to  be  the  best  in 
such  a  wonderful  collection  of  combined 
architectural  and  natural  beauties  as  is 
presented  by  Oxford,  Magdalen  College 
has  certainly  the  right  to  the  first  place. 
Its  situation  is  perfect,  its  buildings  are 
most  beautiful  and  interesting,  and  among 
all  the  spires  of  Oxford  there  is  not  one 
so  graceful  as  the  tower  of  Magdalen. 
The  college  is  entered  by  a  small  door 
at  the  right  of  .a  gateway,  designed  by 
Pugin  as  late  as  1844,  and  the  condition 
to  which  the  stone  has  been  reduced  in  35 
years  is  conclusive  proof,  if  proof  were 
needed,  of  the  unfitness  for  its  purpose  of 
the  material  generally  selected  for  the 
buildings  in  the  University.  Opposite  the 
entrance  is  the  west  window  of  the  chapel., 
and  in  the  south-west  corner  is  a  ston? 


pulpit,   from    which,   on    St,    John    the 
Baptist's  Day,   a  sermon  was  preached, 
the  court  being  decorated  with  boughs 
and  rushes  to  represent  the  wilderness. 
On  the  opposite  side  of  the  court,  in  the 
gate-house,  is  the  grand  oriel  window  of 
what  is  known  as  the  Founder's  Chamber. 
On  the  left  of  the  court  are  the  president's 
apartments.     From  the  small  court  near 
the  stone  pulpit  is  a  very  good  view  of  the 
tower.   The  principal  quadrangle  is  of  the 
time  of  the  founder,  and  is  one  of  the  few 
cloistered  quads  in  Oxford.     Above  the 
cloisters    are    a    number    of   grotesque 
figures  of  sandstone,  which  were  erected 
in  honour  of  a  visit  of  James  I.,  and  are 
in  the  maddest  style  of  emblematical  art. 
Some  idea  of  the  peculiar  notions  of  the 
sculptor  may  be  gleaned  from  the  fact 
that  the  figure  of  a  hippopotamus,  carry- 
ing his  young  upon  his  shoulders,  is  sup- 
posed to  be  the  ' '  emblem  of  a  good  tutor 
or  fellow  of  a  college,  who  is  set  to  watch 
over  the  youth  of  a  society,  and  by  whose 
prudence  they  are  to  be  led  through  the 
dangers  of  their  first  entrance  into  the 
world."     The  strange  wild  fowl,  by  which 
the  artist  has  endeavoured  to  represent 
sins  and  vices,  defy  description.     To  the 
north  of  the  great  quadrangle  is  the  new 
building  erected  in  1733,  and  remarkable 
for  the  ingenuity  of  the  architect  in  design- 
ing a  building   which   should  be  in  all 
respects  out  of  keeping  with  the  ancient 
and  beautiful   portions   of   the    college. 
There  is  some  compensation  in  the  gar- 
dens,   and    the    water-walk    along    the 
Cherwell,   just    beyond    the  gardens,    is 
most  beautiful.     The  walk  to  the  left  is 
named   after  Addison.     The  hall   is  re- 
markable for  its  oak  wainscot,  and  con- 
tains   portraits    of    many    distinguished 
men,  alumni  or  benefactors  of  Magdalen, 
among    others    the    founder  ;     Cardinal 
Wolsey,  who  built   the  tower  ;   Cardinal 
Pole  ;  Dean  Colet  ;  Prince  Rupert  ;  Dr. 
Sacheverell  ;  Dr.  Hammond  ;  and  Addi- 
son.    The  chapel  has  an  entrance  in  the 
first  court,  and  in  the  archway  leading  to 
the    first    quadrangle.     It  is  open  daily 
from  11  to  12.30.     The  ante-chapel  con- 
tains-some  brasses,  one  of  W.  Grey,  1605  ; 
above  this  is  a  tomb  with  bust  of  W. 
Langton,  1626  ;  and  on  the  opposite  side 
is  a  similar  monument,  with  the  date  1589. 
It  is,  however,  owing  to  the  dark  colour- 
ing of  the  great  west  window,  difficult  to 
discern  objects  in  the  ante-chapel  with 


I8Y  OXF-OXF 

any  degree  of  accuracy.  The  chapel 
itself  is  remarkable  for  its  elaborate  carved 
stalls  and  sconces.  The  altar  and  the 
stone  screen  of  the  organ  should  be  ob- 
served. Before  the  altar  is  a  modern 
brass  to  the  memory  of  Dr.  Routh,  the 
late  president,  who  died  in  his  100th  year. 
On  the  north  of  the  altar  is  a  small  oratory, 
with  groined  roof,  in  which  is  the  tomb 
of  the  founder's  father,  Richard  Patten, 
removed  from  Waynflete.  It  is  an  altar 
tomb  with  recumbent  figure,  at  the  head 
of  which  sits  the  diminutive  effigy  sup- 
posed to  be  that  of  the  founder  himself. 
At  5  o'clock  on  May  morning  the  choristers 
of  the  college  ascend  the  tower  and  sing 
a  Latin  hymn. 

Attached  to  the  college  is  Magdalen 
School,  also  founded  by  William  of 
Waynflete.  Boys,  not  being  choristers 
of  the  college,  are  admitted  between  the 
ages  of  nine  and  fifteen  after  passing  a 
preliminary  examination.  The  total 
ordinary  fixed  payment  for  day  boys  is 
£21  4?.  6d.  per  annum,  or  £7  is.  6d.  per 
term.  Extra  subjects  are  not  obligatory. 
There  are  sixteen  choristers  of  Magdalen 
College  educated  at  the  school,  with 
free  board,  lodging,  and  instruction  in 
ordinary  subjects.  Their  school  sub- 
scriptions and  weekly  allowance  are  fixed 
at  ^3  3 J.  a  year.  The  charge  for  boarders, 
with  the  head  and  other  masters,  is  fixed 
at  ^94  ioi*.  per  annum,  exclusive  of 
tuition  fee,  but  including  weekly  allow- 
ance and  general  subscriptions,  such  as 
cricket,  boating,  &c.  There  is  a  Head 
Master's  Exhibition  of  ^30  per  annum 
for  three  years,  tenable  at  either  University 
if  the  holder  obtain  an  open  scholarship 
or  exhibition.  Ten  exhibitions  of  ^22  iil 
a  year  each  are  given  in  the  school. 

Martyrs'  Memorial,  St.  Giles's, 
opposite  Balliol  College  and  Beaumont- 
street,  was  designed  by  Sir  Gilbert  Scott 
on  the  lines  of  the  Eleanor  crosses,  and 
erected  at  a  cost  of  ^5,000.  It  is  73 
feet  in  height.  The  statues  of  Bishops 
Latimer,  Ridley,  and  Cranmer  are  by 
Weekes. 

Merton  College,  King-street,  was 
founded  by  Walter  de  Merton,  Lord 
Chancellor  and  Bishop  of  Rochester, 
1264,  and  was  originally  established  at 
Maiden  and  Merton,  in  Surrey.  It  was 
subsequently  removed  to  Oxford  as  an  en- 
dowment for  scholars  "  qui  non  religiosi 


OXF-OXF  188 

viverent"  The  principal  quadrangle  is 
entered  through  a  gateway,  over  which 
are  figures  of  the  founder  and  Henry  III., 
and  a  singular  piece  of  sculpture  repre- 
senting the  founder  in  full  canonicals 
presenting  a  book  to  the  Lamb  in  the 
wilderness.  Apes,  unicorns,  and  other 
unusual  animals  figure  in  the  composition, 
in  which  also  is  St.  John  the  Baptist.  One 
of  the  entrances  to  the  library  quadrangle 
is  under  the  treasury,  with  its  high-pitched 
lire-proof  ashlar  roof.  The  library  will 
well  repay  a  visit,  and  its  oak  screen, 
ancient  settles  and  tables,  and  tiled  floor, 
give  a  good  idea  of  the  old-fashioned 
homes  of  learning  ;  and  the  illusion  is  all 
the  more  perfect,  as  specimens  of  the  old 
style  of  attaching  books  to  their  shelves 
by  chains  are  still  exhibited.  The  library 
is  rich  in  curious  books  and  MSS.,  inclu- 
ding a  magnificent  copy  of  Caxton's 
Chaucer,  with  richly  illuminated  borders. 
The  principal  features  of  the  chapel, 
which  is  the  parish  church  of  St.  John 
the  Baptist,  are  its  massive  tower  and 
great  east  window,  with  Catherine  wheel 
and  rich  tracery.  The  gurgoyles  and 
corbels  are  remarkably  quaint.  The  ante- 
chapel  and  tower  date  from  the  beginning 
of  the  15th  century.  The  tower  has  been 
recently  restored,  and  the  floor  of  the 
bellringers'  chamber  has  been  removed 
to  an  open  gallery  constructed  for  them, 
so  that  the  whole  of  the  arches  and 
fine  oak  roof  are  fully  exposed  to  view 
from  below.  In  the  ante-chapel  is  the 
mural  monument  of  Sir  Henry  Savile, 
a  former  warden  and  provost  of  Eton 
(died  1621),  which  is  ornamented  with 
odd  devices  emblematic  of  his  fame  as  a 
traveller,  and  views  of  Merton  and  Eton. 
On  the  other  side  of  the  organ  is  the 
monument  of  Sir  Thomas  Bodley,  the 
founder  of  the  Bodleian  Library,  who  died 
1612  ;  and  on  the  opposite  wall  is  the 
monument  to  Bishop  Patteson,  by  T. 
Woolner,  R.A.  The  ante-chapel  contains 
the  remains  of  ancient  brasses,  one  1310, 
and  in  the  south  is  a  fine  piscina.  In  the 
chapel  itself  are  two  superb  brasses  ;  one 
on  the  south  of  the  choir  of  Henry  Sever, 
warden  in  1471,  in  cope  and  full  canoni- 
cals ;  that  in  the  north  bearing  the  effigies 
of  John  Bloxham,  warden,  1387,  and  John 
"Whytton,  his  friend,  1420,  side  by  side 
under  a  Gothic  canopy.  The  fine  brass 
lectern  is  inscribed  "Orate pro  anima  ma- 
gistri  Johannis  Martok,"  and  is  of  the 


15th  century.  The  altar-piece  is  attributed 
to  Tintoretto.  The  very  fine  sedilia  formed 
part  of  the  original  building.  The  glass 
in  the  great  east  window  is  modern,  but 
there  is  some  very  old  stained  glass  in  the 
side  and  west  windows. 

Music  School. — In  the  same  quad- 
rangle as  the  Divinity  School  is  tha 
scene  of  examination  for  musical  degrees. 
Here  will  be  found  portraits  of  Dr.  Croft, 
Henry  Lawes,  Lord  Crewe,  Dr.  Child, 
Thomas  Blegrave,  Dr.  Boyce,  Dr. 
Burney,  Handel,  and  John  Bull.  Round 
the  latter  is  painted  the  following  legend 

The  Bull  by  force  § 

In  field  doth  Raigne, 
But  Bull  by  skill 

Good  will  doth  Gayne. 

New  College,  New  College-lane, 
founded,  and  for  the  most  part  built,  by 
William  of  Wykeham,  the  first  stone 
having  been  laid  1380.  The  entrance  to 
the  college  is  not  very  promising  ;  but  the 
quadrangle,  which  is  approached  through 
a  gateway  surmounted  by  statues  of  the 
Virgin,  the  founder,  and  an  angel,  is 
most  striking.  On  the  left  is  the  chapel, 
the  restoration  of  which  was  completed 
in  October,  1879.  One  of  the  principal 
features  is  Sir  Gilbert  Scott's  fine  roof, 
the  carved  angels  being  especially  re- 
markable. The  west  window  is  from  the 
design  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  The 
ante-chapel,  witn  its  two  beautiful  pillars, 
is  separated  from  the  chapel  by  the  carved 
oak  organ-loft  and  splendid  organ.  The 
stalls  and  reredos  are  new.  Among  the 
objects  of  interest  in  the  chapel  are  the 
sedilia  on  the  south  side,  and  the  founder's 
crozier  in  a  niche  in  the  north  wall.  The 
cloisters  and  gardens  of  New  are  singu- 
larly fine,  and  the  ironwork  between  the 
garden  and  the  second  quad  is  well  worth 
attention. 

Oriel  College,  opposite  Corpus  and 
the  Canterbury  Quadrangle  entrance  to 
Christ  Church,  was  founded  by  Adam  de 
Brome  and  Edward  II.  in  1326.  The 
origin  of  the  name  Oriel  is  very  doubtful. 
It  is  said  that  the  building  which  origi- 
nally stood  here  was  a  monastery  of  Le 
Oriole,  but  it  does  not  seem  that  the 
authority  for  this  statement  is  to  be 
relied  on.  The  buildings  of  Oriel  are 
not  so  remarkable  as  those  of  many 
other  colleges,  but  are  very  picturesque, 
and  present  an    appearance    of  greater 


189 


OXF-OXF 


age  than  they  can  in  fact  lay  claim 
to.  Entering  from  Oriel-street,  the 
chapel  and  hall  are  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  quadrangle.  In  the  centre 
of  the  block  of  buildings  stand  three 
statues,  of  Edward  II.,  Edward  III., 
and  the  Virgin  Mary.  The  chapel 
is  plain,  and  there  is  little  of  in- 
terest in  the  hall  except  its  excellent  roof 
and  a  few  portraits.  The  college  pos- 
sesses, among  other  rare  plate,  a  cup  of 
Edward  II.,  and  one  of  Bishop  Carpen- 
ter, 1476.  The  common  room  contains 
a  picture  by  Vasari,  but  is  most  interest- 
ing from  its  associations  connected  with 
the  days  of  the  early  activity  of  such  men 
as  John  Henry  Newman,  Keble,  Arnold, 
Wilberforce,  and  Pusey.  The  library  has 
been  rebuilt,  and  is  of  comparatively 
modern  date  (1788).  Indeed,  none  of 
the  buildings  are  older  than  1620. 

Pembroke  College,  founded  in  1624 
by  Thomas  Tesdale  and  named  after  the 
then  Chancellor  of  the  University,  in  St. 
Aldate-street,  is  entered  by  a  very  fine 
gateway,  with  a  handsome  oriel.  It 
consists  of  two  quadrangles.  The  hall, 
which  was  built  in  1848,  has  a  good  roof. 
The  founder's  arms  decorate  the  windows, 
and  on  the  walls  are  a  few  portraits, 
including  Charles  I.  and  the  inevitable 
Queen  Anne,  and  one  of  Dr.  Johnson, 
who  was  a  servitor  of  the  college,  by  Sir 
Joshua.  Pembroke  appears  not  to  des- 
pise conviviality,  for  in  the  hall  is  the 
strange  apparition  of  a  piano,  and  it  is 
whispered  that  the  social  glee  is  occasion- 
ally here  indulged  in.  The  chapel  is  a 
plain,  unpretentious  building  of  no  in- 
terest, architectural  or  otherwise.  In  the 
library  is  a  bust  of  Johnson  by  Bacon, 
and  a  few  of  his  college  exercises  are 
here  treasured.  The  college  possesses  a 
small  collection  of  plate,  including  some 
17th  century  cups  and  a  handsome 
chalice. 

Queen's  College,  High-street,  was 
founded  in  143 1  by  Robert  de  Eglesfield, 
Chaplain  to  Queen  Philippa.  The  present 
buildings  are  comparatively  modern,  being 
the  work  of  Wren  and  Hawksmoor,  and 
dating  from  1714.  The  first  quadrangle 
is  entered  under  a  cupola  containing 
the  statue  of  Caroline,  the  consort  of 
George  II.  The  buildings  are  plain, 
and  of  no  particular  interest.  The 
chapel    is    chiefly    remarkable     for    its 


windows  and  marble  pillars.  The 
hall,  like  all  Christopher  Wren's  rooms, 
is  of  fine  proportions,  and  has  a  lofty 
arched  roof.  On  the  walls  are  portraits 
and  armorial  bearings  of  the  founder 
and  benefactors  to  the  college,  including 
several  kings  and  queens.  The  pro- 
cession of  the  Boar's  Head  is  an  annual 
custom  at  Queen's  on  Christmas  Day, 
and  is  carried  out  with  much  pomp  and 
antique  ceremony.  There  is  another 
odd  custom  on  New  Year's  Day,  when 
the  Bursar  presents  to  each  guest  a 
needle  and  thread  with  the  words  :  ' '  Take 
this  and  be  thrifty."  With  that  love  of 
far-fetched  derivation,  which  appears  to 
be  indigenous  to  Oxford,  this  custom  is 
said  to  be  a  punning  allusion  to  the 
name  of  the  founder.  But  the  most 
abandoned  writer  of  burlesques,  the 
most  case-hardened  perpetrator  of  japes, 
would  scarcely  be  bold  enough  to  derive 
Eglesfield  from  aiguille  and  fil.  In  the 
library,  which  is  close  to  the  hall,  and 
was  first  started  in  1691,  Queen's  College 
has  an  excellent  collection  of  standard 
works  in  almost  all  departments  of 
literature.  Among  the  curiosities  of 
Queen's  are  the  ancient  drinking  horn, 
presented  by  Queen  Philippa  ;  the  cocoa- 
nut  cup  of  Provost  Bost  (1503) ;  and  the 
brasses  of  Robert  de  Eglesfield  and  Dr. 
Langton  (1518). 

Radcltffe  Library  is  the  circular 
building  at  the  back  of  St.  Mary's  Church 
and  in  the  centre  of  the  square  in  which 
are  the  schools  of  Brasenose  and  All 
Souls'  Colleges.  The  fine  building,  now 
known  as  the  Camera  Bodleiana,  was 
formerly  the  home  of  the  Radcliffe 
Library,  and  was  founded  by  Dr.  Rad- 
cliffe, a  great  benefactor  of  the  University, 
who  left  a  sum  of  ^40,000  for  the  erection 
of  the  building,  and  certain  annuities  for 
the  purchase  of  books  and  the  payment 
of  a  librarian.  The  domed  hall  is  now 
used  as  a  supplementary  reading-room 
of  the  Bodleian,  and  is  appropriated  to 
periodicals  and  books  of  the  last  four 
years.  It  is  open  from  10  a.m.  to  10  p.m. 
for  those  who  have  the  entrie. 

St.  Edmund  Hall,  New  College-lane, 
opposite  Queen's,  consists  of  one  small 
quadrangle,  and  is  not  particularly  attract 
tive  to  sightseers,  except  for  its  magnifi  • 
cent  wistaria,  which  covers  the  outside  of 
the  walls,  and  is  the  finest  in  England. 


OXF-OXF 

St.  John's  College,  St.  Giles's-street, 
was  grafted  in  1555  on  to  the  previous 
foundation  of  Archbishop  Chichele,  by 
Sir  Thomas  White,  Lord  Mayor  of  Lon- 
don, as  the  outcome,  or  so  it  is  said, 
of  a  dream,  in  which  he  was  warned  to 
build  a  college  for  the  education  of  youth 
in  religion  and  learning.  The  college  is 
fronted  by  a  row  of  elms  and  terrace- 
walk.  The  front  and  a  portion  of  the 
first  quadrangle  are  parts  of  Archbishop 
Chichele's  original  structure,  St.  Bernard's ; 
but  the  hall  in  the  latter  is  a  plain 
modernised  structure,  which  it  is  proposed 
to  replace  by  a  new  building.  It  con- 
tains an  elaborate  mantelpiece  and  a 
number  of  portraits,  including  that  of  the 
founder ;  Archbishop  Laud,  a  benefactor 
to  the  college ;  Archbishop  Juxon ;  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh;  George  III.,  in  his 
coronation  robes  ;  Sir  William  Paddy, 
surgeon  to  James  I.;  and  many  others  of 
inferior  interest.  The  chapel,  built  in 
1630,  and  restored  by  Blore,  in  1843, 
contains  some  monuments  of  importance. 
The  founder  and  Archbishop  Laud  are 
buried  beneath  the  altar.  Under  the 
east  window  of  the  ante-chapel,  the  roof 
of  which  is  worthy  of  notice,  is  an  altar 
tomb,  with  recumbent  figure,  to  Dr. 
Baylie,  president  of  the  college  in  the 
time  of  Charles  I.  There  is  a  monu- 
mental urn,  said  to  contain  the  heart  of 
Dr.  Rawlinson,  with  the  inscription, 
"  Ubi  thesaurus  ibi  cor,"  and  a  monu- 
ment, with  the  laconic  epitaph  %tPr<zivit" 
and  in  the  wall,  left  of  the  entrance,  are 
some  old  brasses,  dated  1571,  1577,  and 
1578  ;  many  old  mural  monuments  ;  and 
a  stone  figure,  kneeling,  of  Richard  Late- 
wan,  1603.  Through  a  fine  vaulted 
passage,  with  richly-traced  roof,  we  reach 
the  inner  quadrangle,  partly  designed  by 
Inigo  Jones,  and  built  at  the  expense  of 
Archbishop  Laud.  The  gate  towers  are 
ornamented  with  bronze  statues  by  Fanelli 
of  Charles  I.  and  Henrietta  Maria.  The 
southern  and  eastern  sides  of  this  court 
are  taken  up  by  the  library,  which  con- 
tains much  to  occupy  the  visitor,  and 
deserves  a  lengthened  inspection.  Here 
Laud  entertained  his  royal  master,  and 
a  play,  written  and  acted  by  members  of 
St.  John's,  was  presented  for  His  Majesty's 
entertainment.  In  the  library  will  be 
found  the  red  skull-cap  in  which  Laud 
was  executed,  his  MS.  diary,  and  a 
crozier,  found,  built  in  the  wall,  in  re- 


pairing the  President's  lodgings,  which 
is  presumed  to  have  belonged  to  that 
prelate.  There  is  a  splendid  copy  of 
Caxton's  Chaucer,  some  fine  old  Bibles 
and  Psalters,  a  fine  13th  century  MS. 
Bestiarium,  and,  peculiarly  interesting  to 
ladies,  some  magnificent  15th  century 
embroidered  vestments,  banners,  and  an 
altar-cloth,  unique  specimens  of  ancient 
needlework.  The  eastern  wing  of  the 
library,  Laud's  wing,  affords  fine  views  of 
the  extensive  gardens  (five  acres),  which 
are  perhaps  the  most  beautiful  in  Oxford. 
From  the  gardens,  Laud's  wing  of  the 
library  presents  a  most  picturesque  appear- 
ance, with  its  gables  and  oriels,  King 
Charles  I.'s  window  being  a  prominent 
feature. 

Sheldonian  Theatre,  between  the 
schools  and  Broad-street,  was  built  by 
Gilbert  Sheldon,  Archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, and  opened  in  1669.  The  architect 
was  Sir  Christopher  Wren.  This  hand- 
some hall  is  used  for  the  Encienia,  or 
annual  commemoration  of  founders,  when 
prize  competitions  are  recited  and  hono- 
rary degrees  conferred  amidst  the  freely 
expressed  comments  of  the  undergraduates 
who  occupy  the  upper  gallery.  The 
ceiling  is  the  work  of  one  Streater,  ser- 
geant-painter to  Charles  L,  whose  artistic 
views  and  execution  are  very  much  on  a 
par  with  those  of  Verrio.  From  the  top 
of  the  building  an  excellent  view  of 
Oxford  is  obtained.  A  small  fee  is  ex- 
pected by  the  custodian,  who  will  take 
visitors  to  the  upper  regions. 

Trinity  College,  standing  a  little 
back  from  Broad-street,  next  to  Balliol, 
was  originally  founded  by  the  Priors  of 
Durham  at  the  end  of  the  13th  century. 
Sir  Thomas  Pope  founded  a  new  college 
on  the  ruins  of  the  old  college  of  Durham 
in  1554.  The  entrance  is  under  the  tower, 
which  adjoins  the  chapel.  These  build- 
ings were  erected  by  Dr.  Bathurst  in  the 
last  years  of  the  17th  century,  and  are  in 
the  classical  styles.  The  chapel  contains 
a  fine  alabaster  tomb  with  recumbent 
figures  of  the  founder  and  his  wife.  It  is 
particularly  noteworthy  for  the  extremely 
beautiful  carved  screen  and  altar-piece  in 
cedar  and  lime,  unusually  fine  specimens 
of  the  work  of  Grinling  Gibbons.  The 
plain  panels  are  of  oak.  The  library 
contains  many  rare  works,  and  some 
ancient  stained  glass.     Among  the  curi- 


osities  of  Trinity  is  a  large  chalice  brought 
from  St.  Alban's  Abbey.  The  library 
possesses  a  few  portraits.  The  library 
and  hall  are!not  shown  to  casual  visitors, 
an  introduction  from  a  Fellow  being 
necessary.  The  gardens  are  extensive, 
and  celebrated  for  a  beautiful  lime-tree 
avenue. 

University  College,  the  oldest  in 
Oxford,  on  the  south  side  of  the  High- 
street,  nearly  opposite  All  Souls',  was 
not  founded  by  King  Alfred,  as  has  been 
frequently  asserted.  The  real  founder 
appears  to  have  been  William  of  Durham, 
and  the  period  the  early  part  of  the  13th 
century.  The  first  statutes  date  from 
1280.  The  present  buildings  extend 
along  the  street  a  distance  of  260  feet, 
with  two  courts  and  two  towered  gate- 
ways. The  first  stone  was  laid  in  1634. 
Over  the  gateway  leading  into  the  west 
quad  is,  on  the  outside,  a  statue  of 
Queen  Anne,  and  on  the  inside  one  of 
James  II.;  the  statues  over  the  eastern 
gateway  are  those  of  Queen  Mary  and 
Dr.  Radcliffe.  The  hall  contains  an  ex- 
tensive fire-place,  designed  from  a  tomb 
in  Ely  Cathedral,  in  the  centre  of  which 
is  a  medallion  marble  bust  of  King  Alfred. 
The  walls  are  hung  with  portraits  of 
Archbishop  Potter ;  Bishop  Bancroft ; 
Dr.  Radcliffe ;  Sir  Roger  Newdigate ; 
Lord  Eldon;  and  Lord  Stowell,  by 
Hoppner ;  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,  and 
others.  The  hall  has  been  several  times 
altered  and  restored,  and  was  lengthened 
in  i860,  and  has  been  provided  with  new 
oak  doors.  The  library  dates  from  about 
the  same  period  as  the  last  alteration  to 
the  hall,  and  was  designed  by  Sir  Gilbert 
Scott.  It  contains  two  colossal  statues, 
exhibited  in  the  Exhibition  of  1862,  of 
Lords  Eldon  and  Stowell.  These  were 
intended  for  Westminster  Abbey,  but  were 
rejected  on  account  of  their  size.  The 
chapel  was  remodelled  in  1862  by  Sir 
Gilbert  Scott,  when  the  roof  and  east 
window  were  added.  There  is  some  fine 
stained  glass  by  Van  Linge;  A  carved 
altar-piece  by  Grinling  Gibbons,  that 
formerly  stood  in  the  chapel,  is  now  to  be 
found  in  the  bursary.  In  the  ante-chapel, 
on  the  north  wall,  is  a  monument  by 
Flaxman  to  Nathan  Wether  ell,  formerly 
master,  who  died  in  1807.  Here  is  also 
another  monument  by  Flaxman  repre- 
senting Sir  W.  Jones,  once  a  fellow, 
engaged  in  the  study  of  the  Indian  Vedas, 


I9i  OXF-OXF 

wnich  two  Brahmins  expound  to  him. 
There  is  also  a  stained-glass  window  given 
by  Dr.  Radcliffe. 

University  Galleries,  in  Taylor's 
Buildings,  corner  of  St.  Giles's  and  Beau- 
mont-street. The  University  Galleries 
were  erected  partly  from  a  legacy  be- 
queathed by  Dr.  Francis  Randolph.  They 
comprise  galleries  for  ancient  and  modern 
sculpture,  including  the  original  models 
for  the  works  of  Sir  Francis  Chantrey, 
which  are  on  the  ground  floor  ;  rooms 
for  collections  of  drawings  by  Michael 
Angelo  and  Raffaelle  ;  and  a  large  gallery 
for  paintings.  The  entrance  is  from  Beau- 
mont-street. The  galleries  are  open  daily 
from  12  to  4,  except  at  intervals,  of  which 
due  notice  is  given.  Application  for  per- 
mission to  copy  must  be  made  to  the 
keeper  of  the  galleries.  The  Ruskin 
School  of  Drawing  is  open  during  term. 
Visitors  can  see  it  on  Monday  and  Thurs- 
day from  2  to  4,  and  on  Wednesday  and 
Saturday  from  12  to  4,  and  during  class 
hours  on  personal  application  to  Mr. 
Macdonald.  In  the  ante-room  is  a  por- 
trait of  Lady  Betty  Paulet,  wife  of  Sir 
Thomas  Pope,  founder  of  Trinity  College, 
attributed  to  Mytens  ;  some  sketches  by 
Professor  Ruskin  ;  and  a  view  of  Sheer- 
ness  by  J.  M.  W.  Turner.  In  the  room 
to  the  right  are  ten  drawings  by  Turner, 
executed  for  the  Oxford  University 
Almanack  ;  a  number  of  sketches  pre- 
sented by  Professor  Ruskin  ;  and  the 
Eldon  Art  Library.  In  the  gallery  which 
contains  the  Raffaelle  and  Michael  Angelo 
drawings,  which  are  of  the  greatest  art 
value,  is  a  copy,  supposed  to  be  by  Giulio 
Romano,  of  the  School  of  Athens  fresco, 
by  Raffaelle,  in  the  Vatican.  The  picture 
gallery  contains  a  number  of  works  of 
varying  merit.  Among  them  will  be  found 
some  curious  specimens  of  the  earlier 
masters  of  the  Florentine  school  ;  scenes 
from  the  life  of  Caesar  Aretino  ;  an  up- 
right landscape  with  cattle,  Gainsborough; 
horses  with  figures  hunting,  G.  Morland  ; 
landscape,  R.  Wilson ;  a  small  landscape, 
John  Constable  ;  two  fine  Sir  Joshuas, 
one  a  portrait  of  Mrs.  Meyrick,  the  other 
Tames  Paine,  architect,  and  his  son  ; 
Hogarth's  sketch  for  the  Enraged  Musi- 
cian ;  the  Flute  Player,  Caraveggio  ;  a 
Sea-shore,  Willarts  ;  the  Village  Surgeon, 
Teniers  ;  Pilgrimage  of  Roman  Virgins, 
Fillipo  Lippi.  There  are  also  examples  of, 
or  attributed  to,  Van  Dyck,  Fra  Angelico, 


OXF-PAN 


192 


Opie,  Snyders,  Zoffany,  Canaletto,  Andrea 
del  Sarto,  and  Paolo  Veronese.  Among 
the  pictures  attributed  to  Canaletto  are 
views  of  Chelsea,  Greenwich,  Lambeth, 
and  the  Temple  Gardens. 

Wadham  College,  Park-road,  oppo- 
site the  gardens  of  Trinity  College,  was 
founded  in  1613  by  Nicholas  Wadham, 
on  the  site  of  a  monastery  of  the  Austin 
or  Attgustine  Friars.  Wadham  did  not 
live  to  see  the  completion  of  his  work, 
which  was  eventually  carried  out  by  his 
widow  Dorothy.  The  buildings  are 
Gothic.  The  entrance  gate  is  under  a 
square  tower  with  a  handsome  window, 
and  in  the  quadrangle  on  the  eastern 
side  are  the  chapel  and  hall.  The  hall 
has  a  fine  though  rather  heavy  open 
timber  roof,  and  a  good  oak  screen  of 
curious  design.  The  portraits  of  Nicholas 
and  Dorothy  Wadham  hang  with  others 
on  the  walls,  amongst  them  being  a  por- 
trait of  Dr.  Wright,  the  first  warden. 
Tradition  has  it  that  it  was  the  foun- 
dress's intention  to  marry  Dr.  Wright, 
and  to  take  up  her  quarters  with  him  in 
the  warden's  lodge.  Whether  or  no  Dr. 
Wright  was  a  consenting  party  to  this 
arrangement,  and  obtained  the  office  of 
warden  under  condition  that  he  took  the 
lady  as  one  of  the  fixtures,  does  not  very 
clearly  appear.  After  his  appointment 
he  certainly  preferred  to  remain  single. 
Whether  it  was  a  case  of  breach  of 
promise,  or  only  of  misplaced  confidence, 
the  spretce  injuria  formes  asserted  itself, 
and  it  was  made  a  condition  that  the 
warden  should  be  henceforth  a  bachelor. 
It  was  not  until  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century  that  this  restriction  was 
abolished,  although  it  is  on  record  that 
Oliver  Cromwell,  who  had  a  way  of  his 
own  of  dealing  with  pious  founders  and 
statutes  which  were  not  to  his  liking, 
granted  a  special  dispensation  to  Dr. 
Wilkins,  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
Royal  Society,  the  warden  in  his  time, 
whose  portrait  will  be  found  in  the  hall. 
The  chapel  is  a  remarkably  fine  building, 
and  is  particularly  noticeable  for  its  old 
stained  glass,  the  work  of  Bernard  van 
Ling  in  the  year  1622,  as  is  shown  by 
the  date  on  the  great  east  window.  The 
glass  for  this  and  other  windows  in  the 
chapel,  was  made  in  the  precincts  of  the 
college,  and  the  ovens,  &c,  used  in  its 
&  manufacture  were  destroyed  but  a  few 
years  ago.      In  the  ante-chapel  is  the 


good  marble  tomb  of  Sir  John  Portman, 
with  date  1624.  The  garden  of  Wadham, 
though  not  so  extensive  as  the  pleasaunces 
of  many  other  colleges,  is  very  prettily 
designed  and  laid  out,  and  contains 
numerous  fine  trees,  among  which  the 
cedars  are  prominent. 

Worcester  College,  facing  the  end 
of  Beaumont-street,  was  founded  in  1714 
by  Sir  Thomas  Cookes,  on  the  site  of 
Gloucester  Hall,  a  Benedictine  establish- 
ment dating  from  1283.  The  principal 
attraction  to  visitors  at  Worcester  will 
undoubtedly  be  the  gardens,  which  are  of 
considerable  size,  and  contain  a  fine  sheet 
of  water  apparently  well  stocked  with  fish, 
including,  according  to  local  tradition, 
pike  of  that  abnormal  size  only  obtained 
in  waters  where  fishing  is  prohibited. 
Here  during  Commemoration  is  held  the 
Flower  Show.  The  hall  is  a  fine  room, 
and  is  surrounded  by  oak  panelling  with 
the  armorial  bearings  and  names  of 
members  who  subscribed  towards  its 
erection.  The  mantelpiece  is  of  an 
elaborate  character.  The  chapel  is  gor- 
geously decorated  with  mediaeval  groups 
on  dead-gold  ground,  and  the  roof  is 
richly  ornamented  in  similar  style,  the 
whole  after  a  design  by  Mr.  Burges.  The 
fine  tesselated  marble  pavement  contains 
portraits  of  King  Alfred,  Bede,  and  many 
saints,  including  St.  Oswald,  St.  Boniface, 
St.  Gregory,  &c.  In  the  language  of  an 
ecclesiological  critic,  Worcester  Chapel  is 
one  of  the  richest  interiors  in  the  Uni- 
versity, and  one  of  the  finest  examples  of 
the  Renaissance  in  England. 

Pangbourne,  Berkshire,  on  the  right 
bank.  A  station  on  the  Great  Western 
Railway  41 J  miles  from  Pad  ding  ton  ;  fast 
trains  take  about  85  minutes.  The 
station  is  three  minutes'  walk  from  the 
river  at  the  Swan  Hotel ;  from  London 
8of  miles,  from  Oxford  30!  miles.  Popu- 
lation, 757.  Soil,  gravel  and  chalk. 
Pangbourne  is  a  small  village  not  par- 
ticularly noticeable  in  itself  but  charmingly 
situated,  and  one  of  the  most  favourite 
angling  resorts  on  the  river.  The  view 
from  the  path  below  the  "Swan"  along 
the  weir  is  very  characteristic,  vying  even 
with  the  peculiarly  Thames-like  scenery  at 
Streatley,  and  the  reaches  both  above  and 
below  are  full  of  tranquil  beauty.  A  long 
wooden  bridge  of  much  the  same  character 
as    that    which    connects    Goring    and 


Streatley  crosses  the  river  just  below 
Pangbourne  to  Whitchurch,  and  hence 
again  the  pleasant  up-river  scenery  is 
seen  at  its  best.  Pangbourne  has  some- 
thing of  a  history  of  its  own,  although 
there  is  now  little  in  the  way  of  antiqui- 
ties as  evidence  of  it.  It  is  mentioned  in 
Domesday  Book  as  having  been  held  by 
one  Miles  Crispin,  and  the  manor  and 
church  subsequently  came  into  the  pos- 
session of  the  Abbey  of  Reading.  After 
passing  through  several  hands  it  was 
granted  by  Queen  Elizabeth  to  the  cof- 
ferer of  her  household.  Bere  Court,  the 
manor-house  of  Pangbourne,  is  men- 
tioned by  Leland  as  "a.  fair  manor 
place "  that  had  belonged  to  the  abbots 
of  Reading.  It  is  now  the  property  of 
the  Breedon  family,  many  of  whose  monu- 
ments are  to  be  seen  in  the  parish  church, 
which  is  dedicated  to  St.  James  the  Less. 
In  1865  the  old  church  was  in  so  sad  a 
state  of  dilapidation  that  it  was  taken 
down,  and  the  present  church  erected  on 
its  site.  The  red  brick  tower,  of  date 
1718,  which  contains  six  first-rate  bells, 
was  left  standing.  The  present  building 
is  of  some  architectural  pretensions,  and 
is  remarkable  for  a  fine  arch,  springing 
from  clustered  columns  which  divides  the 
nave  and  chancel,  and  for  an  extremely 
good  oak  pulpit  carved  in  arabesques, 
and  said  to  be  of  the  time  of  Elizabeth. 
In  the  south  aisle  is  a  mural  monument, 
date  1658,  to  three  sisters,  the  daughters 
of  Sir  John  Suckling,  controller  to  the 
household  of  Charles  I.  The  finest  monu- 
ment in  the  church  will  be  found  near  the 
organ,  and  is  that  of  Sir  John  Davis,  at 
one  time  the  occupant  of  Bere  Court, 
who  was  knighted  at  the  taking  of  Cales, 
in  Spain,  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
and  who  died  in  1625.  The  monument 
is  of  considerable  size,  and  exhibits  the 
full-length  recumbent  figure  of  the  knight 
with  his  two  wives  beneath  an  elaborate 
canopy  surmounted  by  a  skull.  In  niches 
below  are  too  odd  little  kneeling  figures. 
The  effigies  of  Sir  John  and  the  two 
ladies  are  in  good  preservation,  but  the 
rest  of  the  monument,  which  is  of  chalk, 
is,  unfortunately,  in  a  somewhat  cracked 
and  chippy  state.  The  registers  date 
from  the  middle  of  the  16th  century,  and 
in  the  tower  room  hangs  a  decaying 
parchment,  apparently  a  will  of  one  of 
the  early  benefactors  of  the  parish. 
In    1685,  John   Breedon    bequeathed 


193  PAN— PAR 

"for  the  encouragement  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  parish  Pangbourne  aforesaid, 
especially  those  of  a  poorer  sort  of  them 
to  bring  up  and  educate  their  children  in 
good  learning,"  half  an  acre  of  land  and 
a  building  ' '  100  feet  in  length  and  15 
feet  in  breadth  "  for  a  school-house  and 
habitation  for  schoolmaster.  A  sum  of 
^40  per  annum  was  also  left  as  an  en- 
dowment, of  which  ^25  per  annum  were 
to  be  paid  "for  the  livelihood  and  support 
of  a  good  schoolmaster  to  live  and  in- 
habit in  the  said  house  ....  which 
schoolmaster  shall,  from  time  to  time  be 
obliged  diligently  to  teach  and  instruct 
freely  and  without  charge  the  youth, 
male  children  or  boys  of  the  parish  of 
Pangbourne,  especially  of  the  poorer  sort 
of  them,  not  exceeding  12  in  number  at 
one  time."  The  remaining  ^"15  per 
annum  were  ordered  to  be  employed  to- 
wards apprenticing  "once  in  every  two  or 
three  years  such  and  so  many  of  the  said 
youth  or  boys  so  taught  as  aforesaid." 

The  pools  at  Pangbourne  used  to  be 
famous  for  their  trout,  supposed  to  be 
bred  in  the  little  river  Pang  close  by ;  but 
this  is  of  the  past.  There  are  shoals  of 
other  freshwater  fish. 

Hotels. — "  Elephant  and  Castle"  and 
"  George,"  both  in  village;  "Swan,"  by 
the  river. 

Places  of  Worship.— St.  James  the 
Great,  and  a  Congregational  Church. 

Postal  Arrangements. — Post  Office 
in  village,  six  minutes  from  river  (money 
order,  savings  bank,  telegraph,  and 
insurance).  Mails  from  London,  7  a.m.., 
12  noon,  5.10  p.m.  ;  Sunday,  7  a.m. 
Mails  for  London,  9.50  a. m.,  3  and  7 
p.m.  :  Sunday,  7  p.m. 

Nearest  Bridges,  Whitchurch  ;  up, 
Streatley  4  miles  ;  down,  Caversham  6J 
miles.  Locks,  Whitchurch  ;  up,  Goring 
about  4  miles  ;  down,  Mapledurham  2J 
miles.  Ferry t  Basildon.  Railway  Sta- 
tion, Pangbourne.     G.W.R.   Parly.  3/5 J. 

Fares  to  Paddington  :  1st,  7/4,  13/-; 
2nd,  5/6,  9/6 ;  3rd,  3/5J. 

Parliamentary  Constituencies. 

Counties. 

Berks     8,601 

Col.  Loyd-Lindsay,  V.C.,  C, 
P.  Wroughton,  C. 
J.  Walter,  /.. 


c. 


PAR— PER 

Bucks     

Sir  R.  B.  Harvey,  C. 
Hon.  R.  Carington,  L. 
Hon.  T.  Fremantle,  C. 

Essex,  South  ... 
T.  C.  Baring,  C. 
W,  T.  Makins,  C. 

Gloucestershire,  East 
Rt.  Hon.  Sir  M.  Hicks-Beach, 
J.  R.  Yorke,  C. 

Kent,  East      

A.  Douglas,  C. 

E.  L.  Pemberton,  C, 

Kent,  Mid       

Sir  W.  Hart  Dyke,  C. 
Hon.  J.  S.  G.-Hardy, 

Kent,  West    ... 
Sir  C.  H.  Mills,  C. 
Viscount  Lewisham. 

Middlesex       

Rt.  Hon.  Lord  G.  Hamilton,  C 
O.  E.  Coope,  C. 

Oxfordshire 

Lieut. -Col.  J.  S.  North,  C. 
W.  C.  Cartwright,  Z. 
Col.  E.  W.  Harcourt,  C. 

Surrey,  Mid 

Sir  T.  Lawrence,  C. 
Sir  J.  W.  Ellis,  Bart.,  C. 

Surrey,  West 

Right  Hon.  G.  Cubit t,  C. 
Hon.  W.  S.  F.  Brodrick,  C. 

Oxford  University 

Rt.  Hon.  J.  R.  Mowbray,  C. 
J.  G.  Talbot,  C. 

Wilts,  North  ... 
W.  H.  Long,  C. 
G.  T.  S.  Estcourt,  C. 


194 


8,114 


n,95o 


8,579 


C. 


C. 


I3»l69 


8,763 


14.873 


30,707 


7,495 


20,433 


7.779 


5.033 


... 


... 


... 


Boroughs 
Abingdon        

J.  C.  Clarke,  Z 
Chelsea...    xol 

Sir  C.  Dilke,  Z 

J.  B.  Firth,  L 

Cricklade 
N.  S.  Maskelyne,  Z 
Sir  Daniel  Gooch,  C. 


7.249 


890 


30,951 


7.473 


Gravesend       ...         

Sir  S.  H.  Waterlow,  Z 
Greenwich      

T.  W.  Boord,  C. 

Baron  de  Worms,  C. 

Lambeth  

Aid.  Sir  J.  C.  Lawrence,  Bt.,  L. 
Aid.  W.  M'Arthur,  L. 

London,  City 

Aid.  Cotton,  C. 

R.  N.  Fowler,  C. 

Rt.  Hon.  J.  G.  Hubbard,  C. 

Aid.  W.  Lawrence,  L. 

Marlow 

Col.  O.  Williams,  C. 

Oxford  City       

(Vacant.) 

Reading 

Rt.  Hon.  G.  J.  Shaw  Lefevre,  Z 
G.  Palmer,  L. 

SOUTHWARK  

Arthur  Cohen,  Q.C.,  L. 
Professor  Thorold  Rogers,  L. 

Tower  Hamlets 

Professor  Bryce,  L. 
C.  T.  Ritchie,  C. 

Wallingford     

P.  Ralli,  L. 
Westminster      

Rt.  Hon.  W.  H.  Smith,  C. 

Lord  Algernon  Percy,  C. 

Windsor,  New 

R.  Richardson-Gardner,  C. 


3.256 


22,161 


50,541 


20,042 


941 


6,193 


5.107 


23.472 


41,042 


1,226 


21,081 


...     2,122 


Perch. — The  perch,  which  \s  par  excel- 
lence a  "breakfast  fi